Number of co-authors:13
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Michael S. Wogalter:4Kenneth R. Laughery:2Stephen L. Young:2
John W. Brelsford's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Michael S. Wogalte..:60Kenneth R. Laugher..:20Stephen L. Young:12
It's really hard to design products by focus groups. A lot of times, people don't know what they want until you show it to them.
-- Steve Jobs, 1998
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John W. Brelsford
Publications by John W. Brelsford (bibliography)
Wogalter, Michael S. and Brelsford, John W. (1994): Incidental Exposure to Rotating Warnings on Alcoholic Beverage Labels. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. pp. 374-378.
No previous research has been published specifically aimed at determining the effectiveness of rotating warnings (as is required in the government-mandated cigarette warnings). This issue has become relevant because decisions may be made with respect to rotating warnings in print and broadcast alcoholic beverage advertisements, and perhaps for labels and ads for other products as well. The present study used 80 participants in a controlled incidental-exposure laboratory experiment. The effect of the current government warning label for alcoholic beverages was compared to a 5-warning and a 10-warning rotating scheme as well as a no-warning control condition. The study was disguised as marketing research where participants were incidentally exposed to the warnings while evaluating a set of alcoholic beverage labels. The dependent measure was performance on a test of alcohol facts and hazards. Findings show that the present single government warning label is inadequate compared to multiple (rotated) warnings. The 10-warning condition produced higher test scores than either the single government warning or no-warning conditions. Overall, the 5-warning condition produced intermediate levels of knowledge. Also, four exposures produced greater specific warning content knowledge than either two or no exposures. The results suggest that rotating multiple warnings are a better means of communicating facts and hazards than a single repeated warning of limited content. Policy implications are discussed.
© All rights reserved Wogalter and Brelsford and/or Human Factors Society
Brelsford, John W., Wogalter, Michael S., Begley, Paul B., Scancorelli, Lori F., Williams, Jay H. and Terry, Stephanie A. (1994): Comprehension and Compliance to Elevator Service Signs. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. p. 974.
This research examined comprehension of and compliance to four different elevator service signs. The purpose of the signs was to dissuade people from tying up the elevator when they are only going up one floor or down two floors. Three of the four signs were described by Chapanis (1964): an original sign and two others that he offered as possibly being better. The fourth sign was an enhanced version that used human factors principals derived from research studies on the topic since the Chapanis (1964) article. The enhancements involved the use of color, signal word, signal icon, pictorials, and concise, clear wording. In Experiment 1, participants rated the understandability of each sign and their willingness to obey the signs' instructions. Both questions showed the same pattern of results. The original sign was rated lowest and the enhanced sign was rated highest; the two other signs received intermediate ratings. In Experiment 2, the signs were placed on each floor of six buildings in conspicuous locations near the elevator call buttons. People's use of the elevators during the posting of each sign as well as during five no-sign (control) periods was measured. The experimenter rode the elevators and counted the total number of passengers using the elevators as well as the number who rode up only one floor or down less than two floors (noncompliers). Results showed that only the new enhanced sign had an effect on compliance compared to the other three signs and the control conditions. These results suggest that the sign principles developed from research in recent years are likely to assist in promoting comprehension and behavioral change.
© All rights reserved Brelsford et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Brelsford, John W. (1993): Physics Education in a Virtual Environment. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting 1993. pp. 1286-1290.
A study is directed at a comparison of Virtual Reality as an educational tool in physics instruction with standard, teacher-organized, or computer-aided learning. Findings generally indicated that virtual reality-based learning is superior to lecture-based control conditions. The dependent variable was a residualized knowledge of physics measure obtained from subjects four weeks following termination of training. As a training method, virtual reality was superior to the control condition at the four-week retention period. Such a finding supports cognitive theorists who argue that the lack of opportunities for hands-on, manipulation of objects in the physical world is one of the reasons children are often poor at intuitive physics. Virtual reality provides them the opportunity to develop manipulational skills they did not previously possess.
© All rights reserved Brelsford and/or Human Factors Society
Godfrey, Sandra S., Laughery, Kenneth R., Young, Stephen L., Vaubel, Kent P., Brelsford, John W., Laughery, Keith A. and Horn, Elizabeth (1991): The New Alcohol Warning Labels: How Noticeable Are They?. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. pp. 446-450.
Laughery, Kenneth R. and Brelsford, John W. (1991): Receiver Characteristics in Safety Communications. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. pp. 1068-1072.
Young, Stephen L., Brelsford, John W. and Wogalter, Michael S. (1990): Judgments of Hazard, Risk, and Danger: Do They Differ?. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 503-507.
There were three purposes of the present research. The first was to test whether some of the discrepancies found in the hazard and risk perception literature were due to differences between the connotations of the terms hazard and risk. The second purpose was to examine the relationship between willingness to read warnings and generalized cautious intent, as well as other relevant variables suggested by past literature. The third purpose was to examine the relation between objective measures of injury (e.g., frequencies of hospital emergency room admissions) and people's subjective perceptions. The results showed that the expressions of hazardous, risky, dangerous and hazardous-to-use connote the some meaning to lay participants. Strong intercorrelations were found between overall unsafeness (a composite of the four hazard-risk expressions), injury severity, cautious intent, and willingness to read warnings. While injury likelihood played a small part in the prediction of willingness to read warnings, the results indicated that overall unsafeness (and severity of injury) play the foremost role in people's judgments of whether to read warnings and to act cautiously. No relationship was observed between objective measures of injury frequency and people's subjective perceptions of injury likelihood which is taken as a further indication that people do not readily use injury likelihood in their judgments of product safety. The implications are two-fold. First, the results suggest that lay persons do not interpret the term risk in the same way as do experts. These results suggest that other terminology and language may be needed to express probability to lay persons. Second, the results suggest that designers of warnings and educational materials should focus their attention to ways that appropriately communication how badly a person can get hurt, rather than (or to a lesser extent) the likelihood of getting hurt.
© All rights reserved Young et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Donner, Kimberly A. and Brelsford, John W. (1988): Cuing Hazard Information for Consumer Products. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. pp. 532-535.
Rice University undergraduates were given cued and non-cued consumer product questionnaires in order to determine the degree to which product cues would elicit user hazard knowledge, as measured by the number of generated accident scenarios. The difference in the number of scenarios generated by the two groups was not found to be statistically significant. However, there did exist a relatively strong, and significant, relationship between the number of generated accident scenarios and reported hazardousness, degree of precaution that would be taken, and the likelihood of reading the warnings associated with the product. The relationship between the production of known accident information in the form of accident scenarios and these dimensions is thought to have implications for the content of product warnings.
© All rights reserved Donner and Brelsford and/or Human Factors Society
Wogalter, Michael S., Desaulniers, David R. and Brelsford, John W. (1987): Consumer Products: How Are the Hazards Perceived?. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 31st Annual Meeting 1987. pp. 615-619.
Two questionnaire studies were conducted examining potential components of perceptions of consumer product hazardousness. In Study 1 subjects rated 72 consumer products on perceived hazardousness, expected severity of injuries, and perceived likelihood of injury. The results indicate that severity relates more strongly than injury likelihood with perceived hazardousness. Several product knowledge variables were also examined: these results indicate that technological complexity and confidence in knowing the product's hazards add unique variance beyond severity in the prediction of hazard perception. In Study 2 subjects generated accident scenarios for each of 18 consumer products. Subjects rated each scenario according to the severity of the accident and the probability of its occurrence and also provided ratings of overall product hazardousness. Results support the findings of Study 1. The severity of product injury scenarios were strongly and positively correlated with hazardousness. Probability of injury ratings added negligible hazard predictiveness beyond severity. Product hazardousness was highly correlated with the level of precaution subjects would reportedly take when using the product. For high hazard products the first scenario generated was most severe compared to the other two scenarios. For low hazard products, the first scenario was most probable and the least severe of the scenarios generated. Practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed.
© All rights reserved Wogalter et al. and/or Human Factors Society
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