Number of co-authors:16
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Eileen Kupstas:2Susan Gauch:2Stephen F. Weiss:2
John B. Smith's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Gary M. Olson:45Thomas W. Malone:34Mark Bernstein:30
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-- Popular computer one-liner
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John B. Smith
Publications by John B. Smith (bibliography)
Olson, Gary M., Malone, Thomas W. and Smith, John B. (eds.) (2001): Coordination Theory and Collaboration Technology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Smith, John B. (1997): The King is Dead; Long Live the King. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. p. 240.
This tenth anniversary of Hypertext conferences finds the field at an important crossroads. In this talk, I will look back briefly at the first Hypertext conference (Hypertext'87) and at the ten years of research and experience with the technology that have followed. However, most of the talk will be concerned with issues raised by the World Wide Web for this community. Many members view the Web as an intrusive, unwelcome guest who insists on making his or her point of view prevail. Ignoring the hard-won knowledge of this community, the WWW has simplified the data model, ignored problems of large-scale navigation, and declared that link integrity is irrelevant. Consequently, many wish that it would go away so that they could continue their studies along familiar paths. Since it hasn't, they have begun to adapt their work to it, but often grudgingly and with the least accommodation possible. I will suggest a different perspective. The WWW, along with Java and the Internet, are not just new elements in the computing infrastructure. They are the infrastructure. Most computing and communication activities in the future will take place in this context. If the Hypertext community wants to continue and to create value for its knowledge, it must embrace the WWW, not just tolerate it. What an exciting challenge! Consider how much richer and better the Web (or its successor) would be if it could incorporate features found in smaller, experimental system (such as integrated authorship, global write access, and reliable hyperlinks). But to do so at the scale implied by the Web will require substantial new work. The Hypertext community is uniquely positioned to contribute to that work, if it elects to move in that direction. To encourage this, I will outline some of the opportunities as well as challenges posed by the Web, and suggest several issues that might be included in a future research agenda for the Hypertext community.
© All rights reserved Smith and/or ACM Press
Bernstein, Mark, Landow, George P., Mylonas, Elli and Smith, John B. (1996): The Process of Discovery: Hypertext and Scholarship. In: Hypertext 96 - Proceedings of the Seventh ACM Conference on Hypertext March 16-20, 1996, Washington, DC. p. 258.
We have all seen hypertext applied to teaching and publication, and certainly as an object of research in itself. What is far more rare are examples of hypertext systems and documents integrated into the research process in other fields. Where are the scholars who are taking notes and organizing their thoughts and data using a hypertext system? Why do so many hypertext researchers still work with conventional word processors? Is This lack due to intrinsic problems with the systems? Or is it a problem of the scholars and researchers? Will this change in a generation? The participants will discuss these questions based on their own experience both positive and negative, with an especial focus on the use (or non-use) of hypertext(s) as laboratory, or "sandbox" for scholarship and scientific work.
© All rights reserved Bernstein et al. and/or ACM Press
Shackelford, Douglas E., Smith, John B. and Smith, F. Don (1993): The Architecture and Implementation of a Distributed Hypermedia Storage System. In: Stotts, P. David and Furuta, Richard (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 93 Conference November 14-18, 1993, Seattle, Washington. pp. 1-13.
Our project is studying the process by which groups of individuals work together to build large, complex structures of ideas and is developing a distributed hypermedia collaboration environment (called ABC) to support that process. This paper focuses on the architecture and implementation of the Distributed Graph Storage (DGS) component of ABC. The DGS supports a graph-based data model, conservatively extended to meet hypermedia requirements. Some important issues addressed in the system include scale, performance, concurrency semantics, access protection, location independence, and replication (for fault tolerance).
© All rights reserved Shackelford et al. and/or ACM Press
Smith, John B., Smith, Dana K. and Kupstas, Eileen (1993): Automated Protocol Analysis. In Human-Computer Interaction, 8 (2) pp. 101-145.
Over the past 8 years, The TextLab Research Group within the Department of Computer Science at the University of North Carolina has developed a collection of tools and techniques for recording users' interactions with graphics-based direct manipulation computer systems in machine-readable form and for automatically analyzing and displaying those data. This article describes these tools, discusses their methodological context, and considers their implications for software design and studies of human-computer interaction. Tools discussed include the following: tracking users' behaviors and producing a machine-recorded protocol at the level of users' actions, replaying users' sessions from the protocol data, modeling users' strategies using formal cognitive grammars, analyzing user sessions by parsing them with the grammars, and displaying results in visual form -- both static and animated -- to facilitate interpretation and understanding by researchers. These tools are placed in a methodological context by reviewing issues associated with concurrent think-aloud, keystroke, X-Windows, and video protocols; other support systems for working with these forms of protocol data are also reviewed. The discussion concludes with our reflections on the methodology and its application to computer systems and research objectives different from our own.
© All rights reserved Smith et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Gauch, Susan and Smith, John B. (1993): An Expert System for Automatic Query Reformation. In JASIST - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 44 (3) pp. 124-136.
Smith, John B. and Lansman, Marcy (1992): Designing Theory-Based Systems: A Case Study. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 479-488.
In this paper, we discuss principles for designing and testing computer systems intended to support users' thinking as they perform open-ended or ill-defined tasks. We argue that such systems inherently and inevitably implement a model of users' cognitive behaviors. Making that model explicit can provide system developers with guidance in making design decisions. However, both model and system must be tested and refined. We discuss these principles in relation to a case study in which our group developed a hypertext-based writing environment and then tested that system in a series of experimental studies of writers' strategies.
© All rights reserved Smith and Lansman and/or ACM Press
Smith, John B., Smith, Dana Kay and Kupstas, Eileen (1992): Machine-Recorded Protocols: Tools and Techniques. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. pp. 369-373.
The UNC Textlab/Collaboratory Project has developed a set of tools and techniques for recording and analyzing machine-recorded protocols of users while they work with an application system developed by our project -- in the case described here, a hypertext-based writing environment, called WE. A tracking facility automatically records users' actions. Replay allows a researcher to recreate and view a user session in time proportional to the original, in uniform time, and in manually controlled steps. Our grammar incorporates a cognitive model of the users' mental behaviors for the task of expository writing and parses protocols to produce parse trees that show users' strategies for working sessions. Finally, our display tools work with these data to produce static and animated representations from which researches can infer user strategies and patterns of behavior. In this paper, we discuss the tools we have developed and issues they raise. While this methodology is described with respect to a particular task and system, it is quite general and could be used for other systems and purposes. A brief conclusion outlines our current and future work, including our plans for a comprehensive protocol analysis environment that can be used by other researchers as well as our group and our plans to extend our tools and method to record, analyze, and display multiple protocol streams for groups of individuals working collaboratively.
© All rights reserved Smith et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Smith, John B. and Smith, F. Don (1991): ABC: A Hypermedia System for Artifact-Based Collaboration. In: Walker, Jan (ed.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 91 Conference December 15-18, 1991, San Antonio, Texas. pp. 179-192.
Our project is studying the process by which groups of individuals work together to build large, complex structures of ideas, and we are developing a distributed hypermedia system to support that process. This description includes a brief overview of the system, but emphasizes three components: a hypermedia data management system or graph server, a set of browsers for working with graph objets, and a set of applications for working with data contents of graph nodes. A number of research issues are raised and discussed in context, including: composite objets; anchored links; scaling up for large applications; partitioning the hypermedia graph; consistency and completeness across subgraphs; and an open, extensible architecture for applications.
© All rights reserved Smith and Smith and/or ACM Press
Gauch, Susan and Smith, John B. (1991): Search Improvement via Automatic Query Reformulation. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 9 (3) pp. 249-280.
Users of online retrieval systems experience many difficulties, particularly with search tactics. User studies have indicated that searchers use vocabulary incorrectly and do not take full advantage of iteration to improve their queries. To address these problems, an expert system for online search assistance was developed. This prototype augments the searching capabilities of novice users by providing automatic query reformulation to improve the search results, and automatic ranking of the retrieved passages to speed the identification of relevant information. Users' search performance using the expert system was compared with their search performance on their own, and their search performance using an online thesaurus. The following conclusions were reached: (1) the expert system significantly reduced the number of queries necessary to find relevant passages compared with the user searching alone or with the thesaurus. (2) The expert system produced marginally significant improvements in precision compared with the user searching on their own. There was no significant difference in the recall achieved by the three system configurations. (3) Overall, the expert system ranked relevant passages above irrelevant passages.
© All rights reserved Gauch and Smith and/or ACM Press
Schuler, Wolfgang and Smith, John B. (1990): Author's Argumentation Assistant (AAA): A Hypertext-Based Authoring Tool for Argumentative Texts. In: Rizk, Antoine, Streitz, Norbert A. and Andre, Jacques (eds.) ECHT 90 - European Conference on Hypertext November 27-30, 1990, Versailles, France. pp. 137-151.
We present the conceptualization and implementation of AAA, a prototype authoring tool for creating argumentation-based hyperdocuments. AAA is part of a more comprehensive effort of GMD-IPSI, where the hypertext authoring system SEPIA (Structured Elicitation and Processing of Ideas for Authoring) is developed. AAA will be used for writing and design experiments the results of which will be used in the design of SEPIA. It is designed to support the creation of argumentation patterns in accordance with the IBIS/PHI (Procedural Hierarchical IBIS) model combined with a micro argumentation structure according to Toulmin. For rapid prototyping purposes it has been implemented as a hypertext system using the Writing Environment WE developed at UNC. AAA uses a combination of different independent but cooperating modes of operation dedicated to different cognitive tasks of the argumentative writing process. The entire argumentation structure is represented as a layered network of typed nodes and links in which different layers correspond to different levels of abstraction.
© All rights reserved Schuler and Smith and/or Cambridge University Press
Smith, John B. and Weiss, Stephen F. (1988): Hypertext: Introduction to the Special Issue. In Communications of the ACM, 31 (7) pp. 816-819.
Smith, John B., Weiss, Stephen and Ferguson, Gordon J. (1987): A Hypertext Writing Environment and its Cognitive Basis. In: Weiss, Stephen and Schwartz, Mayer (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 87 Conference November 13-15, 1987, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. pp. 195-214.
WE is a hypertext writing environment that can be used to create both electronic and printed documents. It is intended for professionals who work within a computer network of professional workstations. Since writing is a complex mental activity that uses many different kinds of thinking, WE was designed in accord with an explicit cognitive model for writing. That model raises several important questions for both electronic and printed documents. The paper includes a discussion of the underlying cognitive model, a description of WE as it currently exists and as it will be extended in the near future, as well as a brief outline of experiments being conducted to evaluate both the model and the system. It concludes by re-examining some of the issues raised by the cognitive model in light of WE, especially the role of constraints in hypertext systems.
© All rights reserved Smith et al. and/or ACM Press
Smith, John B., Weiss, Stephen F. and Ferguson, Gordon J. (1987): MICROARRAS: An Advanced Full-Text Retrieval and Analysis System. In: Proceedings of the Tenth Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 1987. pp. 187-195.
MICROARRAS is an advanced full-text retrieval and analysis system. It supports fast, efficient browsing of a document's vocabulary as well as its text, recursive analytic categories, Boolean search with flexible context specifications, evaluation of arithmetic expressions, and graphical display of various numeric distributions. The system is designed to work with large textbases stored on remote mainframes or on a local store for a microcomputer or workstation. The description covers system architecture, design principals, as well as user functions.
© All rights reserved Smith et al. and/or ACM Press
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