Publication statistics

Pub. period:1986-2014
Pub. count:43
Number of co-authors:41



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Stuart K. Card:23
George G. Robertson:15
Polle T. Zellweger:5

 

 

Productive colleagues

Jock D. Mackinlay's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Ben Shneiderman:225
Jakob Nielsen:109
Steven K. Feiner:76
 
 
 

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Jock D. Mackinlay

Picture of Jock D. Mackinlay.
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Has also published under the name of:
"Jock Mackinlay"

Jock D. Mackinlay is an American information visualization expert and Director of Visual Analysis at Tableau Software. With Stuart K. Card, George G. Robertson and others he invented a number of Information Visualization techniques.

 

Publications by Jock D. Mackinlay (bibliography)

 what's this?
2014

The Perspective Wall (54 seconds) (2014)

2004
 
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Card, Stuart K., Hong, Lichan, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Chi, Ed H. (2004): 3Book: a 3D electronic smart book. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (ed.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 303-307. Available online

2002
 
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Olston, Chris and Mackinlay, Jock D. (2002): Visualizing Data with Bounded Uncertainty. In: InfoVis 2002 - 2002 IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 27 October - 1 November, 2002, Boston, MA, USA. pp. 37-. Available online

 
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Bouvin, Niels Olof, Zellweger, Polle T., Groenbaek, Kaj and Mackinlay, Jock D. (2002): Fluid annotations through open hypermedia: using and extending emerging web standards. In: Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2002. pp. 160-171. Available online

The Fluid Documents project has developed various research prototypes that show that powerful annotation techniques based on animated typographical changes can help readers utilize annotations more effectively. Our recently-developed Fluid Open Hypermedia prototype supports the authoring and browsing of fluid annotations on third-party Web pages. This prototype is an extension of the Arakne Environment, an open hypermedia application that can augment Web pages with externally stored hypermedia structures. This paper describes how various Web standards, including DOM, CSS, XLink, XPointer, and RDF, can be used and extended to support fluid annotations.

© All rights reserved Bouvin et al. and/or ACM Press

2001
 
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Zellweger, Polle T., Bouvin, Niels Olof, Jehoj, Henning and Mackinlay, Jock D. (2001): Fluid annotations in an open world. In: Hypertext'01 - Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia August 14-18, 2001, Aarhus, Denmark. pp. 9-18. Available online

Fluid Documents use animated typographical changes to provide a novel and appealing user experience for hypertext browsing and for viewing document annotations in context. This paper describes an effort to broaden the utility of Fluid Documents by using the open hypermedia Arakne Environment to layer fluid annotations and links on top of arbitrary HTML pages on the World Wide Web. Changes to both Fluid Documents and Arakne are required.

© All rights reserved Zellweger et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kirkeby, Anders, Zacho, Rasmus, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Zellweger, Polle (2001): TrekTrack: A Round Wristwatch Interface for SMS Authoring. In: Abowd, Gregory D., Brumitt, Barry and Shafer, Steven A. (eds.) Ubicomp 2001 Ubiquitous Computing - Third International Conference September 30 - October 2, 2001, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 292-298. Available online

2000
 
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Zellweger, Polle T., Regli, Susan Harkness, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Chang, Bay-Wei (2000): The Impact of Fluid Documents on Reading and Browsing: An Observational Study. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 249-256. Available online

Fluid Documents incorporate additional information into a page by adjusting typography using interactive animation. One application is to support hypertext browsing by providing glosses for link anchors. This paper describes an observational study of the impact of Fluid Documents on reading and browsing. The study involved six conditions that differ along several dimensions, including the degree of typographic adjustment and the distance glosses are placed from anchors. Six subjects read and answered questions about two hypertext corpora while being monitored by an eyetracker. The eyetracking data revealed no substantial differences in eye behavior between conditions. Gloss placement was significant: subjects required less time to use nearby glosses. Finally, the reaction to the conditions was highly varied, with several conditions receiving both a best and worst rating on the subjective questionnaires. These results suggest implications for the design of dynamic reading environments.

© All rights reserved Zellweger et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mackinlay, Jock D. (2000): Presentation, Visualization, What's Next?. In: InfoVis 2000 2000. pp. 1-. Available online

 
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Mackinlay, Jock D. (2000): Opportunities for Information Visualization. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 20 (1) pp. 22-23. Available online

1999
 
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Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Shneiderman, Ben (eds.) (1999): Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think. Academic Press

 Cited in the following chapters:

Data Visualization for Human Perception: [/encyclopedia/data_visualization_for_human_perception.html]

Aesthetic Computing: [/encyclopedia/aesthetic_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Data Visualization for Human Perception: [/encyclopedia/data_visualization_for_human_perception.html]

Aesthetic Computing: [/encyclopedia/aesthetic_computing.html]


 
 
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Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Shneiderman, Ben (1999): Information Visualization. In: Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Shneiderman, Ben (eds.). "Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think". Academic Presspp. 1-35

 
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Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Shneiderman, Ben (1999): Applications and Implications. In: Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Shneiderman, Ben (eds.). "Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think". Academic Presspp. 625-640

1998
 
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Chi, Ed H., Pitkow, James, Mackinlay, Jock D., Pirolli, Peter, Gossweiler, Rich and Card, Stuart K. (1998): Visualizing the Evolution of Web Ecologies. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Jolle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 400-407. Available online

Several visualizations have emerged which attempt to visualize all or part of the World Wide Web. Those visualizations, however, fail to present the dynamically changing ecology of users and documents on the Web. We present new techniques for Web Ecology and Evolution Visualization (WEEV). Disk Trees represent a discrete time slice of the Web ecology. A collection of Disk Trees forms a Time Tube, representing the evolution of the Web over longer periods of time. These visualizations are intended to aid authors and webmasters with the production and organization of content, assist Web surfers making sense of information, and help researchers understand the Web.

© All rights reserved Chi et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Chang, Bay-Wei, Mackinlay, Jock D., Zellweger, Polle T. and Igarashi, Takeo (1998): A Negotiation Architecture for Fluid Documents. In: Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 01 - 04, 1998, San Francisco, California, United States. pp. 123-132. Available online

The information presented in a document often consists of primary content as well as supporting material such as explanatory notes, detailed derivations, illustrations, and the like. We introduce a class of user interface techniques for fluid documents that supports the reader's shift to supporting material while maintaining the context of the primary material. Our approach initially minimizes the intrusion of supporting material by presenting it as a small visual cue near the annotated primary material. When the user expresses interest in the annotation, it expands smoothly to a readable size. At the same time, the primary material makes space for the expanded annotation. The expanded supporting material must be given space to occupy, and it must be made salient with respect to the surrounding primary material. These two aspects, space and salience, are subject to a negotiation between the primary and supporting material. This paper presents the components of our fluid document techniques and describes the negotiation architecture for ensuring that the presentations of both primary and supporting material are honored.

© All rights reserved Chang et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Zellweger, Polle T., Chang, Bay-Wei and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1998): Fluid Links for Informed and Incremental Link Transitions. In: Hypertext 98 - Proceedings of the Ninth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia June 20-24, 1998, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pp. 50-57. Available online

We have developed a novel user interface technique for hypertext, called fluid links, that has several advantages over current methods. Fluid links provide additional information at a link source to support readers in choosing among links and understanding the structure of a hypertext. Fluid links present this information in a convenient location that does not obscure the content or layout of the source material. The technique uses perceptually-based animation to provide a natural and lightweight feeling to readers. In their richer forms, fluid links can provide a novel hypertext navigation paradigm that blurs the boundaries of hypertext nodes and can allow readers to fluidly control the focus on the material to support their current reading goals.

© All rights reserved Zellweger et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Shneiderman, Ben (eds.) (1998): Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

 
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Igarashi, Takeo, Mackinlay, Jock D., Chang, Bay-Wei and Zellweger, Polle (1998): Fluid Visualization for Spreadsheet Structures. In: VL 1998 1998. pp. 118-125.

1997
 
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Jacob, Robert J. K., Feiner, Steven K., Foley, James D., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Olsen Jr, Dan R. (1997): UIST'007: Where Will We Be Ten Years From Now?. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 115-118. Available online

The conference this year is the tenth anniversary of UIST. The keynote talk discusses the history of UIST over the last ten years; this panel looks into the future of the field over the next ten. Each of the panelists will describe a scenario for what life will be like when we meet for UIST'07, ten years from now. They will also have a chance to challenge or question each others' scenarios and to participate in open discussion with the audience.

© All rights reserved Jacob et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Card, Stuart K. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1997): The structure of the information visualization design space. In: InfoVis 1997 - IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization October 18-25, 1997, Phoenix, AZ, USA. pp. 92-99. Available online

1996
 
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Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada.

1995
 
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Mackinlay, Jock D., Rao, Ramana and Card, Stuart K. (1995): An Organic User Interface for Searching Citation Links. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 67-73. Available online

This paper describes Butterfly, an Information Visualizer application for accessing DIALOG's Science Citation databases across the Internet. Network information often involves slow access that conflicts with the use of highly-interactive information visualization. Butterfly addresses this problem, integrating search, browsing, and access management via four techniques: 1) visualization supports the assimilation of retrieved information and integrates search and browsing activity, 2) automatically-created "link-generating" queries assemble bibliographic records that contain reference information into citation graphs, 3) asynchronous query processes explore the resulting graphs for the user, and 4) process controllers allow the user to manage these processes. We use our positive experience with the Butterfly implementation to propose a general information access approach, called Organic User Interfaces for Information Access, in which a virtual landscape grows under user control as information is accessed automatically.

© All rights reserved Mackinlay et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rao, Ramana, Pedersen, Jan O., Hearst, Marti A., Mackinlay, Jock D., Card, Stuart K., Masinter, Larry, Halvorsen, Per-Kristian and Robertson, George G. (1995): Rich Interaction in the Digital Library. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (4) pp. 29-39.

1994
 
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Card, Stuart K., Pirolli, Peter and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1994): The Cost-of-Knowledge Characteristic Function: Display Evaluation for Direct-Walk Dynamic Information Visualizations. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 238-244. Available online

In this paper we present a method, the Cost-of-Knowledge Characteristic Function, for characterizing information access from dynamic displays. The paper works out this method for a simple, but important, class of dynamic displays called direct-walk interactive information visualizations, in which information is accessed through a sequence of mouse selections and key selections. The method is used to characterize a simple calendar task for an application of the Information Visualizer, to compute the changes in characterization as the result of possible program variants, and to conduct empirical comparison between different systems with the same function.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. and DeLine, Robert (1994): Developing Calendar Visualizers for the Information Visualizer. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. pp. 109-118. Available online

The increasing mass of information confronting a business or an individual have created a demand for information management applications. Time-based information, in particular, is an important part of many information access tasks. This paper explores how to use 3D graphics and interactive animation to design and implement visualizers that improve access to large masses of time-based information. Two new visualizers have been developed for the Information Visualizer: 1) the Spiral Calendar was designed for rapid access to an individual's daily schedule, and 2) the Time Lattice was designed for analyzing the time relationships among the schedules of groups of people. The Spiral Calendar embodies a new 3D graphics technique for integrating detail and context by placing objects in a 3D spiral. It demonstrates that advanced graphics techniques can enhance routine office information tasks. The Time Lattice is formed by aligning a collection of 2D calendars. 2D translucent shadows provide views and interactive access to the resulting complex 3D object. The paper focuses on how these visualizations were developed. The Spiral Calendar, in particular, has gone through an entire cycle of development, including design, implementation, evaluation, revision and reuse. Our experience should prove useful to others developing user interfaces based on advanced graphics.

© All rights reserved Mackinlay et al. and/or ACM Press

1993
 
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Rao, Ramana, Russell, Daniel M. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1993): System Components for Embedded Information Retrieval from Multiple Disparate Information Sources. In: Hudson, Scott E., Pausch, Randy, Zanden, Brad Vander and Foley, James D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology 1993, Atlanta, Georgia, United States. pp. 23-33. Available online

Current information retrieval interfaces only address a small part of the reality of rich interactions amongst user, task, and information sources. We view information gathering as an interactive, iterative activity involving multiple disparate information sources and embedded in the context of broader processes of information use. We have developed two key system components that enable information workspaces that adhere to this reformulation of information retrieval. The first is a design for a user/system interaction model for retrieval from multiple, disparate information sources. The second is a repository modeling system, called Repo, that represents meta-information about different information repositories in a manner that supports system operation as well as provides a direct information resource to the user. To test these ideas, we have utilized Repo and embodied the interaction model in the user interface of a system called Labrador.

© All rights reserved Rao et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Robertson, George G. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1993): The Document Lens. In: Hudson, Scott E., Pausch, Randy, Zanden, Brad Vander and Foley, James D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology 1993, Atlanta, Georgia, United States. pp. 101-108. Available online

This paper describes a general visualization technique based on a common strategy for understanding paper documents when their structure is not known, which is to lay the pages of a document in a rectangular array on a large table where the overall structure and distinguishing features can be seen. Given such a presentation, the user wants to quickly view parts of the presentation in detail while remaining in context. A fisheye view or a magnifying lens might be used for this, but they fail to adequately show the global context. The Document Lens is a 3D visualization for large rectangular presentations that allows the user to quickly focus on a part of a presentation while continuously remaining in context. The user grabs a rectangular lens and pulls it around to focus on the desired area at the desired magnification. The presentation outside the lens is stretched to provide a continuous display of the global context. This stretching is efficiently implemented with affine transformations, allowing text documents to be viewed as a whole with an interactive visualization.

© All rights reserved Robertson and Mackinlay and/or ACM Press

 
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Robertson, George G., Card, Stuart K. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1993): Information Visualization Using 3D Interactive Animation. In Communications of the ACM, 36 (4) pp. 56-71.

1992
 
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Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States.

 
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Rao, Ramana, Card, Stuart K., Jellinek, Herbert, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Robertson, George G. (1992): The Information Grid: A Framework for Information Retrieval and Retrieval-Centered Applications. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 23-32. Available online

The Information Grid (InfoGrid) is a framework for building information access applications that provides a user interface design and an interaction model. It focuses on retrieval of application objects as its top level mechanism for accessing user information, documents, or services. We have embodied the InfoGrid design in an object-oriented application framework that supports rapid construction of applications. This application framework has been used to build a number of applications, some that are classically characterized as information retrieval applications, other that are more typically viewed as personal work tools.

© All rights reserved Rao et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Clanton, Chuck, Mackinlay, Jock D., Ungar, David and Young, Emilie (1992): Animation of User Interfaces. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. p. iii.

 
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Mackinlay, Jock D. and Rhyne, James R. (1992): User Interface Software and Technology. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 10 (4) pp. 317-319.

 
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Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. and Card, Stuart K. (1992): The Information Visualizer: A 3D User Interface for Information Retrieval. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 1992 1992. pp. 173-179.

1991
 
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Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): The Perspective Wall: Detail and Context Smoothly Integrated. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 173-179. Available online

Tasks that involve large information spaces overwhelm workspaces that do not support efficient use of space and time. For example, case studies indicate that information often contains linear components, which can result in 2D layouts with wide, inefficient aspect ratios. This paper describes a technique called the Perspective Wall for visualizing linear information by smoothly integrating detailed and contextual views. It uses hardware support for 3D interactive animation to fold wide 2D layouts into intuitive 3D visualizations that have a center panel for detail and two perspective panels for context. The resulting visualization supports efficient use of space and time.

© All rights reserved Mackinlay et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
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Card, Stuart K., Robertson, George G. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1991): The Information Visualizer, An Information Workspace. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 181-188. Available online

This paper proposes a concept for the user interface of information retrieval systems called an information workspace. The concept goes beyond the usual notion of an information retrieval system to encompass the cost structure of information from secondary storage to immediate use. As an implementation of the concept, the paper describes an experimental system, called the Information Visualizer, and its rationale. The system is based on (1) the use of 3D/Rooms for increasing the capacity of immediate storage available to the user, (2) the Cognitive Co-processor scheduler-based user interface interaction architecture for coupling the user to information agents, and (3) the use of information visualization for interacting with information structure.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Robertson, George G., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): Cone Trees: Animated 3D Visualizations of Hierarchical Information. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 189-194. Available online

The task of managing and accessing large information spaces is a problem in large scale cognition. Emerging technologies for 3D visualization and interactive animation offer potential solutions to this problem, especially when the structure of the information can be visualized. We describe one of these Information Visualization techniques, called the Cone Tree, which is used for visualizing hierarchical information structures. The hierarchy is presented in 3D to maximize effective use of available screen space and enable visualization of the whole structure. Interactive animation is used to shift some of the user's cognitive load to the human perceptual system.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): Rapid Controlled Movement through Virtual 3D Workspaces. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 455-456. Available online

 
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Robertson, George G., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): Information Visualization Using 3D Interactive Animation. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 461-462. Available online

 
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Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Robertson, George G. (1991): A Morphological Analysis of the Design Space of Input Devices. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 9 (2) pp. 99-122. Available online

The market now contains a bewildering variety of input devices for communication from humans to computers. This paper discusses a means to systematize these devices through morphological design space analysis, in which different input device designs are taken as points in a parametrically described design space. The design space is characterized by finding methods to generate and test design points. In a previous paper, we discussed a method for generating the space of input device designs using primitive and compositional movement operators. This allowed us to propose a taxonomy of input devices. In this paper, we summarize the generation method and explore the use of device footprint and Fitts's law as a test. We then use calculations to reason about the design space. Calculations are used to show why the mouse is a more effective device than the headmouse and where in the design space there is likely to be a more effective device than the mouse.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

1990
 
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Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Robertson, George G. (1990): The Design Space of Input Devices. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCHI April, 1990. pp. 117-124.

Card, Stuard. K., Mackinlay, J. D., Robertson, G. G., , ACM SIGCHI, Apr 1990, pp117-124.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 
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Mackinlay, Jock D., Card, Stuart K. and Robertson, George G. (1990): A Semantic Analysis of the Design Space of Input Devices. In Human-Computer Interaction, 5 (2) pp. 145-190.

A bewildering variety of devices for communication from humans to computers now exists on the market. In this article, we propose a descriptive framework for analyzing the design space of these input devices. We begin with Buxton's (1983) idea that input devices are transducers of physical properties into one, two, or three dimensions. Following Mackinlay's semantic analysis of the design space for graphical presentations, we extend this idea to more comprehensive descriptions of physical properties, space, and transducer mappings. In our reformulation, input devices are transducers of any combination of linear and rotary, absolute and relative, position and force, in any of the six spatial degrees of freedom. Simple input devices are described in terms of semantic mappings from the transducers of physical properties into the parameters of the applications. One of these mappings, the resolution function, allows us to describe the range of possibilities from continuous devices to discrete devices, including possibilities in between. Complex input controls are described in terms of hierarchical families of generic devices and in terms of composition operators on simpler devices. The description that emerges is used to produce a new taxonomy of input devices. The taxonomy is compared with previous taxonomies of Foley, Wallace, and Chan (1984) and of Buxton (1983) by reclassifying the devices previously analyzed by these authors. The descriptive techniques are further applied to the design of complex mouse-based virtual input controls for simulated three-dimensional (3D) egocentric motion. One result is the design of a new virtual egocentric motion control.

© All rights reserved Mackinlay et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

1989
 
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Robertson, George G., Card, Stuart K. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1989): The Cognitive Coprocessor Architecture for Interactive User Interfaces. In: Sibert, John L. (ed.) Proceedings of the 2nd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology November 13 - 15, 1989, Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. pp. 10-18.

The graphics capabilities and speed of current hardware systems allow the exploration of 3D and animation in user interfaces, while improving the degree of interaction as well. In order to fully utilize these capabilities, new software architectures must support multiple, asynchronous, interacting agents (the Multiple Agent Problem), and support smooth interactive animation (the Animation Problem). The Cognitive Coprocessor is a new user interface architecture designed to solve these two problems, while supporting highly interactive user interfaces that have 2D and 3D animations. This architecture includes 3D Rooms, a 3D analogy to the Rooms system with Rooms Buttons extended to Interactive Objects that deal with 3D, animation, and gestures. This research is being tested in the domain of Information Visualization, which uses 2D and 3D animated artifacts to represent the structure of information. A prototype, called the Information Visualizer, has been built.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

1988
 
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Mackinlay, Jock D. (1988): Applying a Theory of Graphical Presentation to the Graphic Design of User Interfaces. In: Green, Mark (ed.) Proceedings of the 1st annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User Interface Software October 17 - 19, 1988, Alberta, Canada. pp. 179-189.

The increasing availability of computers with high-quality graphics and fonts has created an opportunity and an obligation for user interface designers. The opportunity is that designers can use graphical techniques to design more effective user interfaces. The obligation is that they must become experts at the design of graphical user interfaces. Current user interface toolkits provide very little design assistance. This paper describes a theory that supports automatic design of graphical presentations of relational information and shows how to extend it to support theory-driven design of graphical user interfaces. "A picture worth a thousand words must first be a good picture." [Bow68]

© All rights reserved Mackinlay and/or ACM Press

1986
 
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Mackinlay, Jock D. (1986): Automating the Design of Graphical Presentations of Relational Information. In ACM Transactions on Graphics, 5 (2) pp. 110-141.

The goal of the research described in this paper is to develop an application-independent presentation tool that automatically designs effective graphical presentations (such as bar charts, scatter plots, and connected graphs) of relational information. Two problems are raised by this goal: The codification of graphic design criteria in a form that can be used by the presentation tool, and the generation of a wide variety of designs so that the presentation tool can accommodate a wide variety of information. The approach described in this paper is based on the view that graphical presentations are sentences of graphical languages. The graphic design issues are codified as expressiveness and effectiveness criteria for graphical languages. Expressiveness criteria determine whether a graphical language can express the desired information. Effectiveness criteria determine whether a graphical language exploits the capabilities of the output medium and the human visual system. A wide variety of designs can be systematically generated by using a composition algebra that composes a small set of primitive graphical languages. Artificial intelligence techniques are used to implement a prototype presentation tool called APT (A Presentation Tool), which is based on the composition algebra and the graphic design criteria.

© All rights reserved Mackinlay and/or ACM Press

 
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