Number of co-authors:48
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Gaelle Calvary:12Laurence Nigay:7Alexandre Demeure:7
JoŽlle Coutaz's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Jean M. Vanderdonc..:93Ann Blandford:85Laurence Nigay:62
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Publications by JoŽlle Coutaz (bibliography)
Scoditti, Adriano, Vincent, Thomas, Coutaz, JoŽlle, Blanch, Renaud and Mandran, Nadine (2011): TouchOver: decoupling positioning from selection on touch-based handheld devices. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2011. p. 6. Available online
When compared to conventional desktop mouse input, touch input on handheld devices suffers from the lack of a main feature: that of a mouseover state that can provide users with dynamic pro-active information. In addition, with touch screens, selection precision is limited by undesired extra finger tracking during finger press and lift movements. We propose TouchOver, a multi-modal input technique for touch-screen accelerometers-enabled handheld devices where positioning is performed with a finger on the touch surface, while selection is triggered by a gentle "tilt forward" of the device. By doing so, TouchOver adds a mouseover-like state and improves selection precision while remaining compatible with existing interaction techniques such as Shift  devised to improve precision. Our formal user study shows a significant precision improvement over two other selection techniques as well as a good tradeoff between speed and accuracy.
© All rights reserved Scoditti et al. and/or ACM Press
Coutaz, JoŽlle, Fontaine, Emeric, Mandran, Nadine and Demeure, Alexandre (2010): DisQo: a user needs analysis method for smart home. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2010. pp. 615-618. Available online
How can people identify the services that they might expect from their smart home when they have little to no knowledge about novel technologies? This paper reports on a user needs analysis method designed to answer this question: DisQo. We have recruited 17 families and used a combination of interviews and playful cultural probes. Results show that families are willing to couple smart objects to improve their lives.
© All rights reserved Coutaz et al. and/or their publisher
Coutaz, JoŽlle, Fontaine, Emeric, Mandran, Nadine and Demeure, Alexandre (2010): About composing our own smart home. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2010. pp. 405-406. Available online
This paper reports on an empirical study performed to validate a theoretical model about the composition of smart artifacts by end-users. We have solicited 17 families and used a combination of interviews and a playful cultural probe. Results show that families are willing to couple smart objects to improve their lives, and that the theoretical questions raised by our model are sound. New services are more easily envisioned when coupling involves a "communicating" object or a "programmable" object. Being a communicating object has more impact than being programmable. Services envisioned by families included: Service substitution (e.g., replacing the user interface of the alarm clock with that of the time setting available on mobile phones); Service improvement (e.g., extending appliances such as the washing machine, by coupling them with the interaction resources of the TV set); Service chaining as ready for use "packages" to improve well-being for routine activities; along with Service "starters" as a means to control packages. Other findings are related to the playful cultural probe. Based on pictures of objects taken by the family members, our probe served as an ice-breaker; family members "revealed their house" naturally and the use of images of intimate objects increased interest and imagination.
© All rights reserved Coutaz et al. and/or their publisher
Barralon, Nicolas, Coutaz, JoŽlle and Lachenal, Christophe (2007): Coupling Interaction Resources and Technical Support. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Ambient Interaction, 4th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, UAHCI 2007 Held as Part of HCI International 2007 Beijing, China, July 22-27, 2007 Proceedings, Part II July 22-27, 2007, Beijing, China. pp. 13-22. Available online
Coutaz, JoŽlle, Balme, Lionel, Alvaro, X., Calvary, Gaelle, Demeure, Alexandre and Sottet, Jean-Sebastien (2007): An MDE-SOA Approach to Support Plastic User Interfaces in Ambient Spaces. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Ambient Interaction, 4th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, UAHCI 2007 Held as Part of HCI International 2007 Beijing, China, July 22-27, 2007 Proceedings, Part II July 22-27, 2007, Beijing, China. pp. 63-72. Available online
Sottet, Jean-Sebastien, Calvary, Gaelle, Favre, Jean-Marie and Coutaz, JoŽlle (2007): A Model-Driven Engineering Approach for the Usability of User Interfaces. In: Guilksen, Jan (ed.) Proceedings of the Conference on Engineering Interactive System March 22-24, 2007, Salamanca, Spain. pp. 240-157.
Plastic User Interfaces (UI) are able to adapt to their context of use while preserving usability. Research efforts have focused so far, on the functional aspect of UI adaptation, while neglecting the usability dimension. This paper investigates how the notion of mapping as promoted by Model Driven Engineering (MDE), can be exploited to control UI adaptation according to explicit usability criteria. In our approach, a run-time UI is a graph of models related by mappings. Each model (e.g., the task model, the Abstract UI, the Concrete UI, and the final UI) describes the UI from a specific perspective from high-level design decisions (conveyed by the task model) to low-level executable code (i.e. the final UI). A mapping between source and target models specifies the usability properties that are preserved when transforming source models into target models. This article presents a meta-model for the notion of mapping and shows how it is applied to plastic UIs.
© All rights reserved Sottet et al. and/or their publisher
Sottet, Jean-Sebastien, Ganneau, Vincent, Calvary, Gaelle, Coutaz, JoŽlle, Demeure, Alexandre, Favre, Jean-Marie and Demumieux, Rachel (2007): Model-Driven Adaptation for Plastic User Interfaces. In: Baranauskas, Maria CecŪlia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 397-410. Available online
Calvary, Gaelle, Coutaz, JoŽlle, Da‚ssi, Olfa, Balme, Lionel and Demeure, Alexandre (2005): Towards a New Generation of Widgets for Supporting Software Plasticity: The "Comet. In: Bastide, Remi, Palanque, Philippe A. and Roth, Jorg (eds.) Engineering Human Computer Interaction and Interactive Systems, Joint Working Conferences EHCI-DSVIS 2004 July 11-13, 2005, Hamburg, Germany. pp. 306-324. Available online
Coutaz, JoŽlle, Crowley, James L., Dobson, Simon and Garlan, David (2005): Context is key. In Communications of the ACM, 48 (3) pp. 49-53. Available online
Balme, Lionel, Demeure, Alexandre, Barralon, Nicolas, Coutaz, JoŽlle and Calvary, Gaelle (2004): CAMELEON-RT: A Software Architecture Reference Model for Distributed, Migratable, and Plastic User Interfaces. In: Markopoulos, Panos, Eggen, Berry, Aarts, Emile H. L. and Crowley, James L. (eds.) EUSAI 2004 - Ambient Intelligence - Second European Symposium November 8-11, 2004, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. pp. 291-302. Available online
Rey, GaŽtan and Coutaz, JoŽlle (2004): Contextor: capture and dynamic distribution of contextual information. In: Proceedings of the 2004 French-speaking conference on Mobility and ubiquity computing 2004. pp. 131-138. Available online
Without the support of adequate software infrastructures, the implementation of context sensitive interactive systems is hard to achieve in a sound way. In this article, we propose the notion of contextor, a software abstraction that supports the operational deployment of interaction contexts. We show how contextors are organized into levels of abstraction, and how these levels fit within the Arch architecture reference model for interactive systems. Based on the P2P paradigm, the contextor infrastructure is intended to support both mobility and ubiquity. Similar in spirit to the Context Toolkit, we make the differences explicit.
© All rights reserved Rey and Coutaz and/or ACM Press
Calvary, Gaelle, Coutaz, JoŽlle, Thevenin, David, Limbourg, Quentin, Bouillon, Laurent and Vanderdonckt, Jean M. (2003): A Unifying Reference Framework for multi-target user interfaces. In Interacting with Computers, 15 (3) pp. 289-308.
This paper describes a framework that serves as a reference for classifying user interfaces supporting multiple targets, or multiple contexts of use in the field of context-aware computing. In this framework, a context of use is decomposed into three facets: the end users of the interactive system, the hardware and software computing platform with which the users have to carry out their interactive tasks and the physical environment where they are working. Therefore, a context-sensitive user interface is a user interface that exhibits some capability to be aware of the context (context awareness) and to react to changes of this context. This paper attempts to provide a unified understanding of context-sensitive user interfaces rather than a prescription of various ways or methods of tackling different steps of development. Rather, the framework structures the development life cycle into four levels of abstraction: task and concepts, abstract user interface, concrete user interface and final user interface. These levels are structured with a relationship of reification going from an abstract level to a concrete one and a relationship of abstraction going from a concrete level to an abstract one. Most methods and tools can be more clearly understood and compared relative to each other against the levels of this framework. In addition, the framework expresses when, where and how a change of context is considered and supported in the context-sensitive user interface thanks to a relationship of translation. In the field of multi-target user interfaces is also introduced, defined, and exemplified the notion of plastic user interfaces. These user interfaces support some adaptation to changes of the context of use while preserving a predefined set of usability properties.
© All rights reserved Calvary et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Lachenal, C. and Coutaz, JoŽlle (2003): A Reference Framework for Multi-Surface Interaction. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 424-428.
Coutaz, JoŽlle, Lachenal, Christophe and Dupuy-Chessa, Sophie (2003): Ontology for Multi-surface Interaction. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 447.
Da‚ssi, Olfa, Calvary, Gaelle, Coutaz, JoŽlle and Demeure, Alexandre (2003): Comet: a new generation of widget for supporting user interface plasticity. In: Proceedings of the 2003 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2003. pp. 64-71. Available online
Adaptation of User Interfaces (UI) to context of use is becoming a major issue in HCI. By context of use, we mean the (user, platform, environment) triplet. Plasticity refers to the ability of UIs to withstand variations of context of use while preserving usability. Based on a reference framework that provides designers with a powerful tool for reasoning about plasticity, this paper addresses plasticity at the level of interactors. Comets (COntext sensitive Multi-target widgETS) are a new kind of widget that support adaptation at any level of abstraction: concepts and tasks, abstract, concrete and final UIs. This paper proposes a model as well as run-time software mechanisms that support the design of comets as well as run-time adaptation. Run-time is ruled according to a set of strategies and politics.
© All rights reserved Da‚ssi et al. and/or ACM Press
Lachenal, Christophe and Coutaz, JoŽlle (2003): IntrosPAC: a tool to teach and understand PAC-Amodeus. In: Proceedings of the 2003 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2003. pp. 212-215. Available online
This article presents IntrosPAC, a software tool based on aspect oriented programming, which, from a PAC-Amodeus compliant source code, generates a graphic representation of the corresponding conceptual architecture. The graphic animation supports developers for understanding the structure of their code as well as for detecting violation of the principles of the reference architecture model. IntrosPAC has been successful in teaching software architecture modeling for interactive systems and in improving students understanding.
© All rights reserved Lachenal and Coutaz and/or ACM Press
Rey, GaŽtan and Coutaz, JoŽlle (2002): Le contexteur: une abstraction logicielle pour la réalisation de systŤmes interactifs sensibles au contexte. In: Proceedings of the 2002 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2002. pp. 105-112. Available online
Important information about interaction context is developed during the design process. In this article, we propose a formalism to encode and preserve this information during system implementation. We begin by proposing a definition of interaction context. We then present the "Contextor", a software concept that provides developers with a tool for modeling context. We show how contextors can be composed into layers of abstraction and how contextors fit within the Arch software architecture model. We present an implementation architecture based on the Peer to Peer computing.
© All rights reserved Rey and Coutaz and/or ACM Press
Thevenin, David and Coutaz, JoŽlle (2002): Adaptation des IHM: taxonomies et archi. logicielle. In: Proceedings of the 2002 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2002. pp. 207-210. Available online
Most of taxonomies about IHM adaptation are made for reasoning on adaptation to the user. They do not cover the adaptation to several targets (platform, environment). Recently, some talk about adaptation to multi-target but without clarifying the nature of software components influenced by the adaptation process. Here, we present a complementary axis based on the functional decomposition of Arch model, which ll this gap.
© All rights reserved Thevenin and Coutaz and/or ACM Press
Crowley, James L., Coutaz, JoŽlle, Rey, GaŽtan and Reignier, Patrick (2002): Perceptual Components for Context Aware Computing. In: Borriello, Gaetano and Holmquist, Lars Erik (eds.) UbiComp 2002 Ubiquitous Computing - 4th International Conference September 29 - October 1, 2002, GŲteborg, Sweden. pp. 117-134. Available online
Calvary, Gaelle, Coutaz, JoŽlle and Thevenin, D. (2001): Supporting Context Changes for Plastic User Interfaces: A Process and a Mechanism. In: Proceedings of the HCI01 Conference on People and Computers XV 2001. pp. 349-364.
Calvary, Gaelle, Coutaz, JoŽlle and Thevenin, David (2001): A Unifying Reference Framework for the Development of Plastic User Interfaces. In: Little, Murray Reed and Nigay, Laurence (eds.) EHCI 2001 - Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction, 8th IFIP International Conference May 11-13, 2001, Toronto, Canada. pp. 173-192. Available online
Calvary, Gaelle, Coutaz, JoŽlle and Thevenin, David (2000): Embedding Plasticity in the Development Process of Interactive Systems. In: Emiliani, Pier Luigi and Stephanidis, Constantine (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th ERCIM Workshop on User Interfaces for All October 25-26, 2000, Florence, Italy. p. 6. Available online
Coutaz, JoŽlle (2000): Report from the CUU Fellow Workshop. In: Proceedings of the 2000 ACM Conference on Universal Usability 2000. . Available online
Graham, T. C. Nicholas, Watts, Leon A., Calvary, Gaelle, Coutaz, JoŽlle, Dubois, Emmanuel and Nigay, Laurence (2000): A Dimension Space for the Design of Interactive Systems Within their Physical Environments. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2000. pp. 406-416. Available online
This paper introduces a Dimension Space describing the entities making up richly interactive systems. The Dimension Space is intended to help designers understand both the physical and virtual entities from which their systems are built, and the tradeoffs involved in both the design of the entities themselves and of the combination of these entities in a physical space. Entities are described from the point of view of a person carrying out a task at a particular time, in terms of their attention received, role, manifestation, input and output capacity and informational density. The Dimension Space is applied to two new systems developed at Grenoble, exposing design tradeoffs and design rules for richly interactive systems.
© All rights reserved Graham et al. and/or ACM Press
Crowley, James L., Coutaz, JoŽlle and Berard, Francois (2000): Things That See. In Communications of the ACM, 43 (3) pp. 54-64. Available online
Coutaz, JoŽlle, Berard, Francois, Carraux, E. and Crowley, James L. (1999): Early Experience with the Mediaspace CoMedi. In: Chatty, Stephane and Dewan, Prasun (eds.) Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction, IFIP TC2/TC13 WG2.7/WG13.4 Seventh Working Conference on Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction September 14-18, 1999, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. pp. 57-72.
Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, JoŽlle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California.
Calvary, Gaelle, Coutaz, JoŽlle and Nigay, Laurence (1997): From Single-User Architectural Design to PAC*: a Generic Software Architecture Model for CSCW. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 242-249. Available online
This article reports our reflection on software architecture modelling for multi-user systems (or groupware). First, we introduce the notion of software architecture and make explicit the design steps that most software designers in HCI tend to blend in a fuzzy way. Building on general concepts and practice from main stream software engineering, we then present a comparative analysis of the most significant architecture models developed for single-and multi-user systems. We close with the presentation of PAC*, a new architectural framework for modelling and designing the software architecture of multi-user systems. PAC* is a motivated combination of existing architectural models selected for the complementarity of their "good properties". These include operational heuristics such as rules for deriving agents in accordance to the task model or criteria for reasoning about replication, as well as properties such as support for style heterogeneity, portability, and reusability.
© All rights reserved Calvary et al. and/or ACM Press
Coutaz, JoŽlle (1997): PAC-ing the architecture of your user interface. In: Harrison, Michael D. and Torres, Juan Carlos (eds.) DSV-IS 1997 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems97, Proceedings of the Fourth International Eurographics Workshop June 4-6, 1997, Granada, Spain. pp. 13-27.
Coutaz, JoŽlle (1996): Is usability testing for specialists only?. In: Bass, Leonard J. and Unger, Claus (eds.) Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction, Proceedings of the IFIP TC2/WG2.7 Working Conference on Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction August, 1996, Yellowstone Park, USA. pp. 348-357.
Crowley, James L. and Coutaz, JoŽlle (1996): Vision for man machine interaction. In: Bass, Leonard J. and Unger, Claus (eds.) Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction, Proceedings of the IFIP TC2/WG2.7 Working Conference on Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction August, 1996, Yellowstone Park, USA. pp. 28-45.
Nigay, Laurence and Coutaz, JoŽlle (1995): A Generic Platform for Addressing the Multimodal Challenge. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 98-105. Available online
Multimodal interactive systems support multiple interaction techniques such as the synergistic use of speech and direct manipulation. The flexibility they offer results in an increased complexity that current software tools do not address appropriately. One of the emerging technical problems in multimodal interaction is concerned with the fusion of information produced through distinct interaction techniques. In this article, we present a generic fusion engine that can be embedded in a multi-agent architecture modelling technique. We demonstrate the fruitful symbiosis of our fusion mechanism with PAC-Amodeus, our agent-based conceptual model, and illustrate the applicability of the approach with the implementation of an effective interactive system: MATIS, a Multimodal Airline Travel Information System.
© All rights reserved Nigay and Coutaz and/or ACM Press
Coutaz, JoŽlle, Nigay, Laurence and Salber, Daniel (1995): Multimodality from the User and System Perspectives. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the 1st ERCIM Workshop on User Interfaces for All October 30-31, 1995, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. p. 17. Available online
This article is concerned with the usability and implementation of multimodal user interfaces. We show how the usability of such systems can be characterized in terms of the relations they are able to maintain between the modalities they support. Equivalence, assignment, redundancy, and complementarity of modalities form an interesting set of relations relevant to usability assessment and software design. We use the notion of compatibility between user preferences and system properties to show how the CARE properties interact with user modelling to predict usability during the design of a system. In addition we demonstrate how experimental evaluations can be based on the CARE properties. We then depart from the HCI perspective to consider the implications of such properties on software design and techniques: we present PAC-Amodeus, a software architecture model, in conjunction with a generic fusion mechanism.
© All rights reserved Coutaz et al. and/or The European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics - ERCIM
Nigay, Laurence, Coutaz, JoŽlle, Salber, Daniel, Blandford, Ann, May, Jon and Young, Richard M. (1995): Four Easy Pieces for Assessing the Usability of Multimodal Interaction: the CARE Properties. In: Nordby, Knut (ed.) Proceedings of INTERACT 95 - IFIP TC13 Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 25-29, 1995, Lillehammer, Norway. pp. 115-120. Available online
We propose the CARE properties as a simple way of characterising and
assessing aspects of multimodal interaction: the Complementarity, Assignment,
Redundancy, and Equivalence that may occur between the interaction techniques available
in a multimodal user interface. We provide a formal definition of these properties and use
the notion of compatibility to show how the system CARE properties interact with user
CARE-like properties in the design of a system. The discussion is illustrated with MATIS,
a Multimodal Air Travel Information System.
© All rights reserved Nigay et al. and/or Chapman and Hall
Nigay, Laurence and Coutaz, JoŽlle (1993): A Design Space for Multimodal Systems: Concurrent Processing and Data Fusion. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 172-178. Available online
Multimodal interaction enables the user to employ different modalities such as voice, gesture and typing for communicating with a computer. This paper presents an analysis of the integration of multiple communication modalities within an interactive system. To do so, a software engineering perspective is adopted. First, the notion of "multimodal system" is clarified. We aim at proving that two main features of a multimodal system are the concurrency of processing and the fusion of input/output data. On the basis of these two features, we then propose a design space and a method for classifying multimodal systems. In the last section, we present a software architecture model of multimodal systems which supports these two salient properties: concurrency of processing and data fusion. Two multimodal systems developed in our team, VoicePaint and NoteBook, are used to illustrate the discussion.
© All rights reserved Nigay and Coutaz and/or ACM Press
Balbo, Sandrine, Coutaz, JoŽlle and Salber, Daniel (1993): Towards Automatic Evaluation of Multimodal User Interfaces. In: Gray, Wayne D., Hefley, William and Murray, Dianne (eds.) International Workshop on Intelligent User Interfaces 1993 January 4-7, 1993, Orlando, Florida, USA. pp. 201-208. Available online
The evaluation of the usability and the learnability of a computer system may be performed with predictive models during the design phase. It may be done on the executable code as well by observing the user in action. In this case, data collected in vivo must be processed. Our goal is to provide a software support for performing this difficult task. This article presents an early analysis and experience towards the automatic evaluation of multimodal user interfaces. With this end in view, a generic Wizard of Oz platform has been designed to allow the observation and the automatic recording of subjects' behavior while interacting with a multimodal interface. We then show how recorded data can be analyzed to detect behavioral patterns, and how deviations of such patterns from a data flow-oriented task model can be exploited by a software usability critic.
© All rights reserved Balbo et al. and/or ACM Press
Coutaz, JoŽlle, Nigay, Laurence and Salber, Daniel (1993): The MSM Framework: A Design Space for Multi-Sensori-Motor Systems. In: East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI93 1993. pp. 220-232.
One of the new design goals in Human Computer Interaction is to extend the sensory-motor capabilities of computer systems to better match the natural communication means of human beings. This article proposes a dimension space that should help reasoning about current and future Multi-Sensori-Motor systems (MSM). To do so, we adopt a system centered perspective although we draw upon the "Interacting Cognitive Subsystems" psychological model. Our problem space is comprised of 6 dimensions. The first two dimensions deal with the notion of communication channel: the number and direction of the channels that a particular MSM system supports. The other four dimensions are used to characterize the degree of built-in cognitive sophistication of the system: levels of abstraction, context, fusion/fission, and granularity of concurrency. We illustrate the discussion with examples of multimedia and multimodal systems, both MSM systems but with distinct degrees of built-in cognitive sophistication.
© All rights reserved Coutaz et al. and/or Intl. Centre for Scientific And Technical Information
Salber, Daniel and Coutaz, JoŽlle (1993): Applying the Wizard of Oz Technique to the Study of Multimodal Systems. In: East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI93 1993. pp. 55-67.
The Wizard of Oz (WOz) technique is an experimental evaluation mechanism. It allows the observation of a user operating an apparently fully functioning system whose missing services are supplemented by a hidden wizard. From our analysis of existing WOz systems, we observe that this technique has primarily been used to study natural language interfaces. With recent advances in interactive media, multimodal user interfaces are becoming popular but our current understanding on how to design such systems is still primitive. In the absence of generalizable theories and models, the WOz technique is an appropriate approach to the identification of sound design solutions. We show how the WOz technique can be extended to the analysis of multimodal interfaces and we formulate a set of requirements for a generic multimodal WOz platform. The Neimo system is presented as an illustration of our early experience in the development of such platforms.
© All rights reserved Salber and Coutaz and/or Intl. Centre for Scientific And Technical Information
Bass, Len, Coutaz, JoŽlle and Unger, Claus (1992): A Reference Model for Interactive System Construction. In: East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI92 1992. pp. 23-30.
IFIP WG2.7 User Interface Engineering is presently working on a report intended for the developers of interactive systems and development environments. The report is mainly concerned with raising issues stemming from the end user's view of an interactive system. These issues are intended to form a kind of 'checklist' for the constructors of interactive systems. They correspond to key decisions in system development and require a response from the system developer, demonstrating that the issue has been considered.
© All rights reserved Bass et al. and/or Intl. Centre for Scientific And Technical Information
Coutaz, JoŽlle (1992): Multimedia and Multimodal User Interfaces: A Taxonomy for Software Engineering Research Issues. In: East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI92 1992. pp. 229-240.
This article aims at clarifying the distinction between multimodal and multimedia computer systems. A dimension space is proposed that accounts for a classification of such systems as well as for identifying the implications from the software architecture point of view. The discussion is illustrated with the analysis of current multimedia and multimodal systems and points out some useful areas for future research such as the fusion of modalities at multiple levels of abstraction.
© All rights reserved Coutaz and/or Intl. Centre for Scientific And Technical Information
Bass, Len and Coutaz, JoŽlle (1991): Developing Software for the User Interface. Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley Publishing
Coutaz, JoŽlle and Balbo, Sandrine (1991): Applications: A Dimension Space for User Interface Management Systems. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 27-32. Available online
This article presents an abstract space of dimensions which characterize the behavior of applications (i.e. functional cores) with regard to UIMS components. These dimensions such as responsiveness, accessibility, and instantiability, constitute a conceptual framework which captures the notion of functional core in terms adequate for UIMS designers. The dimension space may also be viewed as a requirements list for designing new UIMSs as well as a set of criteria for evaluating existing UIMSs.
© All rights reserved Coutaz and and/or ACM Press
Hammond, Nick, Barnard, Philip J., Coutaz, JoŽlle, Harrison, Michael, MacLean, Allan and Young, Richard M. (1991): Modelling User, System and Design: Results of a Scenarios Matrix Exercise. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 377-380. Available online
This panel will discuss the results of an exercise aimed at investigating how various modelling approaches from Cognitive Science and Software Engineering can be integrated into HCI design. Each panelist will outline their approach and present their approach's performance on two agreed upon design scenarios.
© All rights reserved Hammond et al. and/or ACM Press
Coutaz, JoŽlle (1989): UIMS: Promises, Failures and Trends. In: Sutcliffe, Alistair G. and Macauley, Linda (eds.) Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers V August 5-8, 1989, University of Nottingham, UK. pp. 71-84.
This paper is a reflection on the promises and failures of UIMS. It shows how the linguistic approach to the design of UIMS has failed in supporting the behaviour of the user as well as direct manipulation user interfaces. The multiagent model, which stresses parallel modular organizations, appears as a promising way for improving the flexibility of UIMS. However, this model needs to be tested against some upcoming technologies: multimedia communication, distribution over networks, and simultaneous access by multiple users. The paper points out one key factor for the next step towards effective user interface development environments: the transfer of knowledge between scientific disciplines. Obviously this transfer requires the integration of techniques from diverse fields in computer science. Equally important, it requires integration of techniques from cognitive psychology with those of computer science.
© All rights reserved Coutaz and/or Cambridge University Press
Coutaz, JoŽlle (1987): PAC, an Object-Oriented Model for Dialog Design. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 431-436.
PAC is an implementation model that attempts to bridge the gap between the abstract sphere of theoretical models and the practical affairs of building user interfaces. It takes as a basis the vertical decomposition of human-computer interaction into semantic, syntactic and pragmatic layers as promoted by some theoretical models. However, PAC stresses the fact that these notions do not form strict monolithic layers but are distributed across related "chunks", called interactive objects. For doing so, PAC recursively structures an interactive application in three parts: the Presentation, the Abstraction and the Control. The Presentation defines the concrete syntax of the application whereas the Abstraction corresponds to the semantics. The Control maintains the mapping and the consistency between the abstract entities and their presentation to the user. The Presentation of an application is in turn decomposed into a set of interactive objects, entities specialized in man-machine communication. As for applications, an interactive object is organized according to the PAC model. PAC has been used for the construction of two interactive applications and is currently applied to the development of a User Interface Management System.
© All rights reserved Coutaz and/or North-Holland
Coutaz, JoŽlle (1987): PAC: An Object Oriented Model for Implementing User Interfaces. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 19 (2) pp. 37-41.
Coutaz, JoŽlle (1985): Abstraction for User Interface Design. In IEEE Computer, 18 (9) pp. 21-34.
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