Number of co-authors:39
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Inseong Lee:4Boreum Choi:3Minhee Chae:3
Jinwoo Kim's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Herbert A. Simon:25In-Kwon Lee:16Yong Gu Ji:15
Visual appearance is one of the most effective variables for quickly differentiating one application from another
-- Bob Baxley, 2003
Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess
User Experience and Experience Design !
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Personal Homepage: mba.yonsei.ac.kr/eng/faculty/profile/index.html?sn=76&do=view&cat=5
Professor at Yonsei University, Korea, and and director of the HCI Lab at Yonsei. PhD from Carnegie Mellon University.
Publications by Jinwoo Kim (bibliography)
Ji, Yong Gu, Choi, Junho, Lee, Jee Yeon, Han, Kwang Hee, Kim, Jinwoo and Lee, In-Kwon (2010): Older Adults in an Aging Society and Social Computing: A Research Agenda. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 26 (11) pp. 1122-1146.
The expansion of the social computing environment as a new basis for socioeconomic activities could enhance the quality of life of older adults, but also it could make the problem of digital divide more serious. In this study, the research directions and agenda of social computing for an aging society are presented, which have two major directions: basic study and applied study. Regarding human aspects in social computing mainly dealt with in the basic study, existing research and related theories on cognitive characteristics, information usage patterns, and social network site use of older adults were examined. In the applied study, a study about the most effective contents application and interfaces through user needs analysis, usage context analysis, prototype design, and so on, was conducted. Those studies are discussed to develop applications on a PC platform, mobile platform, and IPTV platform targeting the older adults population.
© All rights reserved Ji et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Lee, Inseong, Choi, Gi Woong, Kim, Jinwoo, Kim, Solyung, Lee, Kiho, Kim, Daniel, Han, Myunghee and Park, Seung Yong (2008): Cultural Dimensions for User Experience: Cross-Country and Cross-Product Analysis of Users' Cultural Characteristics. In: Proceedings of the HCI08 Conference on People and Computers XXII 2008. pp. 3-12.
The quality of user experience is intricately related to the users' cultural characteristics. However, not many studies have dealt with important cultural characteristics which are closely related to user experience. The main goals of this study are to identify important cultural dimensions that are closely related to the user experience of consumer electronic products and to measure them in different countries with different products. Contextual inquiries and online surveys were conducted in four different countries: the United States, Germany, Russia, and Korea. The study was participated by users of four different consumer electronic products: cellular phones, MP3 players, LCD-TVs, and refrigerators. The study identified ten cultural dimensions that were important to the user experience of consumer electronics. The cultural dimensions were also found to vary across the four different countries and four different products. This paper concludes with a discussion of the study's implications and its limitations.
© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or their publisher
Choi, Boreum, Lee, Inseong, Lee, Kiho, Jung, Seungki, Park, Sunju and Kim, Jinwoo (2007): The Effects of Users' Motivation on their Perception to Trading Systems of Digital Content Accessories: Focusing on Trading Items in Online Games. In: HICSS 2007 - 40th Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 3-6 January, 2007, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. p. 161.
Kim, Jinwoo, Kim, Hyunho and Park, Kyungwook (2006): Towards optimal navigation through video content on interactive TV. In Interacting with Computers, 18 (4) pp. 723-746.
A wide variety of video content -- news programs, documentaries, sports shows, movies, and the like -- is broadcast today in digital format to interactive TVs. Unlike a conventional TV, an interactive TV allows the viewer to navigate back and forth in time through the available content. Surprisingly, few studies have addressed the problems that arise when navigation along the time dimension becomes possible. The aim of this study was to develop navigation aids for interactive TVs that are theoretically grounded and empirically verified. Toward this end, we first designed two new navigation aids based on episodic indexing theory (EIT): a recency-frame and a short-reminder. Second, we built an interactive TV simulator (ITS) to test the new navigation aids in a controlled experiment. Finally, we devised several measures appropriate for evaluating navigation aids for interactive TV in addition to traditional usability measures. Subsequently, employing the interactive TV simulator and the newly devised measures, we conducted an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of the two proposed navigation aids. We found that both navigation aids enhanced the quality of the viewer's experience. The paper concludes with a discussion of the study's limitations and implications.
© All rights reserved Kim et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Choi, Boreum, Lee, Inseong and Kim, Jinwoo (2006): Culturability in Mobile Data Services: A Qualitative Study of the Relationship Between Cultural Characteristics and User-Experience Attributes. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 20 (3) pp. 171-203.
As the use of mobile data services has spread across the globe, the effect of cultural differences on user requirements has become an important issue. To date, however, little research has been conducted on the role cultural factors play in the design of mobile data services. This article proposes a set of critical design attributes for mobile data services that takes cross-cultural differences into account. To determine these attributes, a qualitative method was devised and in-depth interviews in Korea, Japan, and Finland were conducted. Twenty-one critical user-experience attributes that showed a clear correlation with characteristics of the user's culture were found. The article ends with a discussion of limitations and of implications for developers of mobile data services.
© All rights reserved Choi et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Hong, Se-Joon, Tam, Kar Yan and Kim, Jinwoo (2006): Mobile data service fuels the desire for uniqueness. In Communications of the ACM, 49 (9) pp. 89-94.
Choi, Boreum, Lee, Inseong, Kim, Jinwoo and Jeon, Yunsuk (2005): A qualitative cross-national study of cultural influences on mobile data service design. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 661-670.
As the use of mobile data services has spread across the globe, the effect of cultural differences on user requirements has become important issue. To date, however, little research has been conducted on the role cultural factors play in the design of mobile data services. This paper proposes a set of critical design attributes for mobile data services that takes cross-cultural differences into account. To determine these attributes, we devised a qualitative method and conducted in-depth long interviews in Korea, Japan, and Finland. We found 52 attributes considered important by mobile data service users, and 11 critical attributes that showed a clear correlation with characteristics of the user's culture. The paper concludes with a discussion of limitations and of implications for developers of mobile data services.
© All rights reserved Choi et al. and/or ACM Press
Park, Su-e, Choi, Dongsung and Kim, Jinwoo (2005): Visualizing E-Brand Personality: Exploratory Studies on Visual Attributes and E-Brand Personalities in Korea. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 19 (1) pp. 7-34.
The brand personality of an online product and service, usually represented by a Web site, is known as its e-brand personality. In the competitive conditions of online markets, e-brand personality is agreed to be an important factor in securing distinctive identity; however, few studies have suggested how to establish e-brand personality through the visual design of Web sites. This study explores the feasibility of constructing target e-brand personalities for online services by using visual attributes. It consists of 3 consecutive studies. The 1st study identified four major dimensions of e-brand personality on diverse Web sites. The 2nd study used 52 experimental home pages to identify key visual attributes associated with those 4 personality dimensions. The 3rd study explored whether those findings from the 2nd study can be applied in constructing Web sites for online services. The results showed that 2 visual attributes-simplicity and cohesion-are closely related to a bold personality. Three attributes-contrast, density, and regularity-can be used to create a Web site that has an analytical personality. Contrast, cohesion, density, and regularity are closely related to a Web site that is perceived to have a friendly personality. Regularity and balance were expected to be related to the sophisticated personality dimension, but no such relation was identified in the 3rd study. The article concludes with a discussion of implications, limitations, and future research directions.
© All rights reserved Park et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Chae, Minhee and Kim, Jinwoo (2004): Do size and structure matter to mobile users? An empirical study of the effects of screen size, information structure, and task complexity on user activities with standard web phones. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 23 (3) pp. 165-181.
The small screens of mobile Internet devices, combined with the increasing complexity of mobile tasks, create a serious obstacle to usability in the mobile Internet. One way to circumvent the obstacle is to organize an information structure with efficient depth/breadth trade-offs. A controlled lab experiment was conducted to investigate how screen size and information structure affect user behaviours and perceptions. The moderating effects of task complexity on the relationship between screen size/information structure and user navigation/perceptions were also investigated. Study results indicate that both information structure and screen size significantly affect the navigation behaviour and perceptions of mobile Internet users. Task complexity was also found to heighten the influence of information structure on user behaviour and perceptions. The paper ends with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications, among them a key implication for mobile Internet businesses: for corporate intranet systems as well as m-commerce transaction systems, the horizontal depth of information structures should be adapted to task complexity and anticipated screen size.
© All rights reserved Chae and Kim and/or Taylor and Francis
Hong, Seoyoung and Kim, Jinwoo (2004): Architectural criteria for website evaluation-conceptual framework and empirical validation. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 23 (5) pp. 337-357.
With the rapid development of the Internet, many types of websites have been developed. This variety of websites makes it necessary to adopt systemized evaluation criteria with a strong theoretical basis. This study proposes a set of evaluation criteria derived from an architectural perspective which has been used for over a 1000 years in the evaluation of buildings. The six evaluation criteria are internal reliability and external security for structural robustness, useful content and usable navigation for functional utility, and system interface and communication interface for aesthetic appeal. The impacts of the six criteria on user satisfaction and loyalty have been investigated through a large-scale survey. The study results indicate that the six criteria have different impacts on user satisfaction for different types of websites, which can be classified along two dimensions: users' goals and users' activity levels.
© All rights reserved Hong and Kim and/or Taylor and Francis
Park, Su-e, Choi, Dongsung and Kim, Jinwoo (2004): Critical factors for the aesthetic fidelity of web pages: empirical studies with professional web designers and users. In Interacting with Computers, 16 (2) pp. 351-376.
Recent advances of the broadband Internet and multimedia contents let web users demand from web pages not only cognitive usability but also appropriate feelings. At the same time, web designers also want to use web pages not just for conveying information but also for affecting users' impressions. However, despite users' needs and designers' desires, users do not always experience the same kinds of impressions that designers intended to convey through their web pages. The main goal of this paper is to identify critical factors that are closely related to the aesthetic fidelity of web pages, which is defined as the degree to which users feel the target impressions intended by designers. In order to achieve our goal, we have conducted three consecutive studies: an exploratory study with web users, a longitudinal experiment with professional web designers, and finally an online survey with web users. The results from the three studies indicated that the variability of user perception and appropriateness of visual elements were closely related to the aesthetic fidelity of web pages, whereas reliability of aesthetic dimensions was not. This paper ends with the limitations and implications of the study results.
© All rights reserved Park et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Kim, Jinwoo, Lee, Jooeun and Choi, Dongseong (2003): Designing emotionally evocative homepages: an empirical study of the quantitative relations between design factors and emotional dimensions. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 59 (6) pp. 899-940.
Emotional aspects of homepages are becoming more important as people spend
more time in cyberspace. This research aims to identify quantitative
relationships between key design factors and generic dimensions of secondary
emotions so that we may develop homepages which target emotions more
effectively. In order to achieve this goal, we conducted three related studies.
In the first study, we identified 13 generic dimensions of secondary emotions
that people usually feel when viewing diverse homepages. In the second study,
we identified key design factors that professional designers frequently use in
their attempts to develop emotionally evocative homepages. Finally, in the
third study, we identified quantitative relationships between the key design
factors and the 13 emotional dimensions. This paper describes these three
studies and concludes with the implications and limitations of the study
© All rights reserved Kim et al. and/or Academic Press
Chae, Minhee and Kim, Jinwoo (2003): What's so different about the mobile Internet?. In Communications of the ACM, 46 (12) pp. 240-247.
Kim, Jinwoo and Lee, Jungwon (2002): Critical design factors for successful e-commerce systems. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 21 (3) pp. 185-199.
The primary goal of this paper is to identify critical design factors that have substantial effects on the performance of e-commerce systems. This paper presents a theoretical model that examines the relationships among detailed design factors, perceived quality level and final performance of e-commerce systems. Two consecutive empirical studies were conducted to verify the theoretical model. Results from these studies reveal that the information phase among four transaction phases was the most influential in the final performance of e-commerce systems. Among the myriad design factors related to the information phase, product-related information, depth and variety of the system structure, variety of list view for products, consistency of product and background presentation, and variety of presentation for product information were all found to be closely related to the perceived quality level. This paper ends with the theoretical and practical implications of the study results.
© All rights reserved Kim and Lee and/or Taylor and Francis
Kim, Hoyoung, Kim, Jinwoo, Lee, Yeonsoo, Chae, Minhee and Choi, Youngwan (2002): An Empirical Study of the Use Contexts and Usability Problems in Mobile Internet. In: HICSS 2002 2002. p. 132.
Kim, Jinwoo, Lee, Jungwon, Han, Kwanghee and Lee, Moonkyu (2002): Businesses as Buildings: Metrics for the Architectural Quality of Internet Businesses. In Information Systems Research, 13 (3) pp. 239-254.
Metrics for the architectural quality of Internet businesses are essential in gauging the success and failure of e-commerce. This study proposes six dimensions of architectural metrics for Internet businesses: internal stability, external security, information gathering, order processing, system interface, and communication interface. The metrics are based on the three constructs that have been used to evaluate buildings in the real world. The structural construct indicates that Internet businesses need to be stable internally and secure externally. The functional construct implies that Internet businesses should provide convenient functions in the information-gathering and order-processing phases. Finally, the representational construct indicates that they need to provide a pleasant interface both to the system and to those using it. For each of the six metrics, we have constructed questionnaires to measure the perceived level of architectural quality and identified feature lists that may be closely related to the perceived quality level. Large-scale empirical studies were conducted both to validate the proposed metrics and to explore their relevance across four Internet business domains. The validity of the metrics has been obtained in three ways. First, the content validity of the metrics was assured by pretests and pilot survey. Second, the results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the metrics had high convergent and discriminant validities. Finally, the reliability coefficients were found to be high enough to establish the reliability of the proposed metrics. The relevance of the metrics has been explored in two ways. Structural equation models were used to test the causal relations between the three constructs and user satisfaction, as well as customer loyalty, in four domains. Correlation analyses were used to explore the relations between the perceived architectural quality and objective design features in four domains. This paper ends with the implications and limitations of the study results
© All rights reserved Kim et al. and/or their publisher
Park, Joonah and Kim, Jinwoo (2000): Effects of Contextual Navigation Aids on Browsing Diverse Web Systems. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 257-264.
In spite of the radical enhancement of web technologies, many users still continue to experience severe difficulties in navigating web systems. One way to reduce the navigation difficulties is to provide context information that explains the current situation of users in the web systems. In this study, we empirically examined the effects of two types of context information, namely, structural and temporal context. In the experiment, we evaluated the effectiveness of the contextual navigation aids in two different types of web systems: an electronic commerce system and a content dissemination system. In our experiment, subjects performed several browsing tasks and answered a set of post-questionnaires. The results of the experiment reveal that the two types of contextual navigation aids significantly improved the performance of browsing tasks regardless of different web systems. Moreover, context information changed the users' navigation patterns, and increased their subjective ease of navigation. This study concludes with implications for understanding the users' browsing patterns and for developing effective navigation systems.
© All rights reserved Park and Kim and/or ACM Press
Lee, Jungwon, Kim, Jinwoo and Moon, Jae Yun (2000): What Makes Internet Users Visit Cyber Stores Again? Key Design Factors for Customer Loyalty. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 305-312.
Retaining customer loyalty is crucial in electronic commerce because the value of an Internet store is largely determined by the number of its loyal customers. This paper proposes a multi-phased model of customer loyalty for Internet shopping, which fully takes the characteristics of the Internet and cyber shopping into consideration. In order to validate the model, we conducted a web-based survey of the customers of various Internet stores, and the data was processed using structural equation analysis. The results indicate that several factors can effectively increase customer loyalty towards an Internet store and that the relative importance of the identified factors varies according to the level of involvement with the product purchased through the store. We suggest several managerial implications in developing Internet stores for higher customer loyalty based on these results.
© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or ACM Press
Kim, Jinwoo and Yoo, Byunggon (2000): Toward the Optimal Link Structure of the Cyber Shopping Mall. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 52 (3) pp. 531-551.
This study aims at identifying the optimal link structure, which is an essential requirement for convenient and pleasant cyber shopping. To achieve the goal, this paper presents a research framework in which different types of links are hypothesized to cause different patterns of customer navigation, which in turn is expected to influence cognitive convenience and emotional pleasure of cyber shopping. Based on two dimensions of links, link direction and link target, various links are classified into five types; NBR (Neighbourhood), PAR (Parent), TOP, NEP (Nephew), and IND (Index). Two consecutive experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the cognitive and emotional usability of various combinations of the five link types. Experimental results clearly indicated that different combinations of link types influenced customers' navigation patterns, which in turn had effects on the convenience and pleasure of shopping. It was found that the combination of NBR, TOP and IND generated the optimal link structure, whereas PAR and NEP rather decreased the degree of shopping pleasure and convenience. This paper concludes with its limitations and implications on the construction of effective cyber shopping malls.
© All rights reserved Kim and Yoo and/or Academic Press
Park, Joonah and Kim, Jinwoo (2000): Contextual Navigation Aids for Two World Wide Web Systems. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 12 (2) pp. 193-217.
In spite of the radical enhancement of Web technologies, many users still continue to experience severe difficulties in navigating Web systems. One way to reduce the navigation difficulties is to provide context information that explains the current situation of Web users. In this study, we empirically examined the effects of 2 types of context information, structural and temporal context. In the experiment, we evaluated the effectiveness of the contextual navigation aids in 2 different types of Web systems, an electronic commerce system that has a well-defined structure and a content dissemination system that has an ill-defined structure. In our experiment, participants answered a set of postquestionnaires after performing several searching and browsing tasks. The results of the experiment reveal that the 2 types of contextual navigation aids significantly improved the performance of the given tasks regardless of different Web systems and different task types. Moreover, context information changed the users' navigation patterns and increased their subjective convenience of navigation. This study concludes with implications for understanding the users' searching and browsing patterns and for developing effective navigation systems.
© All rights reserved Park and Kim and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Yoo, Byunggon and Kim, Jinwoo (2000): Experiment on the Effectiveness of Link Structure for Convenient Cybershopping. In Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 10 (4) pp. 241-256.
Designing an effective link structure for customer interfaces is critical for the success of cybermalls. The link structure comprises various types of links that connect a hypertext page with other pages. Links can be classified as either basic links based on the structure of the malls or add-on links to provide additional paths. Providing appropriate add-on links is essential for the convenience of navigation in a mall. In this study, we focus on the relation between the links and mental model, and maintain that combinations of add-on links according to the mental model of customers will increase the convenience and pleasure of cybershopping. For the study, add-on links were classified into next-to-peer links, up-to-parent links, and up-to-top links, and 8 different versions of experimental malls were constructed according to the combination of 3 add-on links. A total of 174 participants were involved in the experiment, they performed 9 shopping tasks, and were measured in terms of the rate of add-on links recalled and the convenience of navigation. The result of the experiment shows that the rate of recalled links has a significant relation to the convenience of navigation, although the convenience of navigation does not increase linearly with the number of add-on links in a cybermall. To construct the optimal add-on navigation structure, it is essential to construct links that fit customers' mental models.
© All rights reserved Yoo and Kim and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Kim, Jinwoo (1999): An Empirical Study of Navigation Aids in Customer Interfaces. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 18 (3) pp. 213-224.
Designing effective navigation aids for customer interfaces is critical for the success of cyber shopping malls. Navigation aids can be classified into either basic ones which are based on the structure of the malls or add-ons which are not. Add-on navigation aids provide various short-cuts to promote efficient traversal of the cyber shopping malls, but too many of them would increase the complexity of the customer interface. Metaphors have been used widely for the design of add-on navigation aids, but little research evaluates their impact on the processes and outcomes of customers' behavior in cyber shopping malls. This paper presents an empirical study that investigates the navigation process of customers and the subjective evaluation of their shopping experience. This research implemented two versions of a test-bed cyber shopping mall according to different metaphors used; one based on a spatial metaphor, and the other based on a non spatial metaphor. The results of the experiment indicate that navigation aids based on the spatial metaphor were used more frequently, which resulted in better understanding about the entire structure of the cyber shopping malls, which in turn led to an increased ease of finding target items and also a more pleasant shopping experience. The benefits of navigation aids based on the spatial metaphor became more evident when customers were looking for ad hoc category items rather than common items. This paper presents plausible explanations for the results and implications for the design of navigation aids for cyber shopping malls.
© All rights reserved Kim and/or Taylor and Francis
Hahn, Jungpil and Kim, Jinwoo (1999): Why are Some Diagrams Easier to Work With? Effects of Diagrammatic Representation on the Cognitive Intergration Process of Systems Analysis and Design. In ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 6 (3) pp. 181-213.
Various diagrams have been used heavily in systems analysis and design without proper verification of their usability. However, different diagrammatic representations of the same information may vary in the computational efficiency of working with these diagrams. The objective of this research was to explore the effects of diagrammatic representations on the task of integrating multiple diagrams. The domain of systems analysis and design was used to generate examples and test the theory. A cognitive model of diagram integration was proposed, and an experimental study was conducted, both to explore the effects of representational features of diagrams on the cognitive process of diagram integration. Results of the experiment show that the representational features of the diagrams acted as the criteria for selecting among various methods for analyzing and designing the integrated diagram. In addition, the difference in the selected methods resulted in different task performances in terms of analysis and design errors. This article concludes with the implications of the results for the development of cognitively compelling diagrams.
© All rights reserved Hahn and Kim and/or ACM Press
Kim, Jinwoo, Choi, Dongseong and Kim, Hoyoung (1999): Toward the Construction of Fun Computer Games: Differences in the views of developers and players. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 3 (3) .
Kim, Jinwoo and Moon, Jae Yun (1998): Designing Towards Emotional Usability in Customer Interfaces -- Trustworthiness of Cyber-Banking System Interfaces. In Interacting with Computers, 10 (1) pp. 1-29.
In this research we investigate the possibility of designing a user interface for electronic commerce systems that will evoke target feelings in the customer. The focus is on the impact of visual design factors on the feeling of trustworthiness because of its significant effect upon the behavior of customers using electronic commerce systems. Four empirical studies were conducted in the domain of cyber-banking systems. The subjects were cyber-banking system developers, bank personnel and potential customers of cyber-banking systems in Korea ranging in age from late teens to early forties. The first study was directed at developing the self-report questionnaire that faithfully reflects the emotional factors related to cyber-banking systems. The resulting questionnaire consisted of the forty bipolar emotive differential scales representative of the emotions most important in interacting with cyber-banking systems, e.g. reliable -- not reliable. The second study focused on determining the important visual design factors from the customer's perspective. Fourteen design factors identified from subjects' descriptions were classified into the four design categories of title, menu, main clipart and color. The third study investigated the correlations between the emotional factors and design factors. The design factors were found to have significant effects upon the extent of feelings related to symmetry, trustworthiness, awkwardness and elegance. In the final study, two interfaces were designed based on the results of the third study to differentiate the extent of trustworthiness evoked. The results indicate that it is possible to manipulate the visual design factors of the customer interface in order to induce a target emotion, such as trustworthiness. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of the empirical results on the design and implementation of customer interfaces to electronic commerce systems in general.
© All rights reserved Kim and Moon and/or Elsevier Science
Kim, Jinwoo, Hahn, Jungpil and Lerch, F. Javier (1997): How is the Designer Different from the User? -- Focusing on a Software Development Methodology. In: Empirical Studies of Programmers - Seventh Workshop October 24-26, 1997, 1997, Alexandria, Virginia. pp. 69-90.
The main objective of this study is to uncover the differences in the programming behavior between methodology designers and methodology users. We conducted an experiment with methodology designers who have invented one of the major object-oriented methodologies and programmers who have used the methodology for their projects. Concurrent verbal protocols were analyzed based on a theoretical framework which views programming as search in four problem spaces: representation, rule, instance, and paradigm. In programming, the main problem spaces are the representation and the rule spaces, while the paradigm and instance spaces are the supporting spaces. The results of the experiment show that differences in the supporting space produced different search behavior in the main problem spaces, which in turn resulted in different final programs and performance.
© All rights reserved Kim et al. and/or ACM Press
Hahn, Hyoungmee, Hahn, Jungpil and Kim, Jinwoo (1997): A Cognitive Engineering Study on the Development of an Object-Oriented Process Modeling Formalism. In: HICSS 1997 1997. pp. 199-209.
Kim, Jinwoo, Lerch, F. Javier and Simon, Herbert A. (1995): Internal Representation and Rule Development in Object-Oriented Design. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 2 (4) pp. 357-390.
This article proposes a cognitive framework describing the software development process in object-oriented design (OOD) as building internal representations and developing rules. Rule development (method construction) is performed in two problem spaces: a rule space and an instance space. Rules are generated, refined, and evaluated in the rule space by using three main cognitive operations: Infer, Derive, and Evoke. Cognitive activities in the instance space are called mental simulations and are used in conjunction with the Infer operation in the rule space. In an empirical study with college students, we induced different representations to the same problem by using problem isomorphs. Initially, subjects built a representation based on the problem description. As rule development proceeded, the initial internal representation and designed objects were refined, or changed if necessary, to correspond to knowledge gained during rule development. Differences in rule development processes among groups created final designs that are radically different in terms of their level of abstraction and potential reusability. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these results for object-oriented design.
© All rights reserved Kim et al. and/or ACM Press
Kim, Jinwoo and Lerch, F. Javier (1992): Towards a Model of Cognitive Process in Logical Design: Comparing Object-Oriented and Traditional Functional Decomposition Software Methodologies. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 489-498.
This study aims at developing and empirically testing hypotheses about professional designers' cognitive activities when using object-oriented methodology (OOD) versus using traditional functional decomposition methodologies (TFD). Our preliminary results indicate that OOD may achieve substantial time savings over TFD in logical design. The verbal protocols from a pilot study show that OOD may achieve these time savings: 1) by simplifying rule induction processes used in functional decomposition; 2) by guiding designers on how to build more effective problem spaces; and 3) by allowing designers to run mental simulation more efficiently and more effectively.
© All rights reserved Kim and Lerch and/or ACM Press
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