Publication statistics

Pub. period:1997-2011
Pub. count:45
Number of co-authors:67



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Scott E. Hudson:13
Scott Carter:8
Amy Hurst:6

 

 

Productive colleagues

Jennifer Mankoff's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Gregory D. Abowd:116
Scott E. Hudson:113
James A. Landay:91
 
 
 

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Jennifer Mankoff

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Has also published under the name of:
"J. Mankoff"

Personal Homepage:
http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~jmankoff

Current place of employment:
HCI Institute, Carnegie Mellon University

Dr. Jennifer Mankoff is an Assistant Professor in the Human Computer Interaction Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. She earned her B.A. at Oberlin College and her Ph.D. in Computer Science at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Her research focuses on tools and techniques for rapid, iterative prototyping of ubiquitous computing applications and accessible technology. Her research interests also include mediation of ambiguous, recognition-based interfaces. Application areas of her work include assistive technology for people with special needs and health and safety.

 

Publications by Jennifer Mankoff (bibliography)

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2011
 
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Mankoff, Jennifer, Kuksenok, Kateryna, Kiesler, Sara, Rode, Jennifer A. and Waldman, Kelly (2011): Competing online viewpoints and models of chronic illness. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 589-598. Available online

People with chronic health problems use online resources to understand and manage their condition, but many such resources can present competing and confusing viewpoints. We surveyed and interviewed with people experiencing prolonged symptoms after a Lyme disease diagnosis. We explore how competing viewpoints in online content affect participants' understanding of their disease. Our results illustrate how chronically ill people search for information and support, and work to help others over time. Participant identity and beliefs about their illness evolved, and this led many to take on new roles, creating content and advising others who were sick. What we learned about online content creation suggests a need for designs that support this journey and engage with complex issues surrounding online health resources.

© All rights reserved Mankoff et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Schwarz, Julia, Mankoff, Jennifer and Hudson, Scott E. (2011): Monte Carlo methods for managing interactive state, action and feedback under uncertainty. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 235-244. Available online

Current input handling systems provide effective techniques for modeling, tracking, interpreting, and acting on user input. However, new interaction technologies violate the standard assumption that input is certain. Touch, speech recognition, gestural input, and sensors for context often produce uncertain estimates of user inputs. Current systems tend to remove uncertainty early on. However, information available in the user interface and application can help to resolve uncertainty more appropriately for the end user. This paper presents a set of techniques for tracking the state of interactive objects in the presence of uncertain inputs. These techniques use a Monte Carlo approach to maintain a probabilistically accurate description of the user interface that can be used to make informed choices about actions. Samples are used to approximate the distribution of possible inputs, possible interactor states that result from inputs, and possible actions (callbacks and feedback) interactors may execute. Because each sample is certain, the developer can specify most of the behavior of interactors in a familiar, non-probabilistic fashion. This approach retains all the advantages of maintaining information about uncertainty while minimizing the need for the developer to work in probabilistic terms. We present a working implementation of our framework and illustrate the power of these techniques within a paint program that includes three different kinds of uncertain input.

© All rights reserved Schwarz et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Dillahunt, Tawanna, Mankoff, Jennifer and Paulos, Eric (2010): Understanding conflict between landlords and tenants: implications for energy sensing and feedback. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2010. pp. 149-158. Available online

Energy use in the home is a topic of increasing interest and concern, and one on which technology can have a significant impact. However, existing work typically focuses on moderately affluent homeowners who have relative autonomy with respect to their home, or does not address socio-economic status, class, and other related issues. For the 30% of the U.S. population who rent their homes, many key decisions regarding energy use must be negotiated with a landlord. Because energy use impacts the bottom line of both landlords and tenants, this can be a source of conflict in the landlord/tenant relationship. Ubicomp technologies for reducing energy use in rental units must engage with landlord/tenant conflicts to be successful. Unfortunately, little detailed knowledge is available about the impact of landlord/tenant conflicts on energy use. We present an analysis of a series of qualitative studies with landlords and tenants. We argue that a consideration of multiple stakeholders, and the power imbalances among them, will drive important new research questions and lead to more widely applicable solutions. The main contribution of our work is a set of open research questions and design recommendations for technologies that may affect and be affected by the conflict between stakeholders around energy use.

© All rights reserved Dillahunt et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Schwarz, Julia, Harrison, Chris, Hudson, Scott E. and Mankoff, Jennifer (2010): Cord input: an intuitive, high-accuracy, multi-degree-of-freedom input method for mobile devices. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1657-1660. Available online

A cord, although simple in form, has many interesting physical affordances that make it powerful as an input device. Not only can a length of cord be grasped in different locations, but also pulled, twisted and bent -- four distinct and expressive dimensions that could potentially act in concert. Such an input mechanism could be readily integrated into headphones, backpacks, and clothing. Once grasped in the hand, a cord can be used in an eyes-free manner to control mobile devices, which often feature small screens and cramped buttons. In this note, we describe a proof-of-concept cord-based sensor, which senses three of the four input dimensions we propose. In addition to a discussion of potential uses, we also present results from our preliminary user study. The latter sought to compare the targeting performance and selection accuracy of different cord-based input modalities. We conclude with brief set of design recommendations drawn upon results from our study.

© All rights reserved Schwarz et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Hurst, Amy, Hudson, Scott E. and Mankoff, Jennifer (2010): Automatically identifying targets users interact with during real world tasks. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2010. pp. 11-20. Available online

Information about the location and size of the targets that users interact with in real world settings can enable new innovations in human performance assessment and soft-ware usability analysis. Accessibility APIs provide some information about the size and location of targets. How-ever this information is incomplete because it does not sup-port all targets found in modern interfaces and the reported sizes can be inaccurate. These accessibility APIs access the size and location of targets through low-level hooks to the operating system or an application. We have developed an alternative solution for target identification that leverages visual affordances in the interface, and the visual cues produced as users interact with targets. We have used our novel target identification technique in a hybrid solution that combines machine learning, computer vision, and accessibility API data to find the size and location of targets users select with 89% accuracy. Our hybrid approach is superior to the performance of the accessibility API alone: in our dataset of 1355 targets covering 8 popular applications, only 74% of the targets were correctly identified by the API alone.

© All rights reserved Hurst et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Schwarz, Julia, Hudson, Scott E., Mankoff, Jennifer and Wilson, Andrew D. (2010): A framework for robust and flexible handling of inputs with uncertainty. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2010. pp. 47-56. Available online

New input technologies (such as touch), recognition based input (such as pen gestures) and next-generation interactions (such as inexact interaction) all hold the promise of more natural user interfaces. However, these techniques all create inputs with some uncertainty. Unfortunately, conventional infrastructure lacks a method for easily handling uncertainty, and as a result input produced by these technologies is often converted to conventional events as quickly as possible, leading to a stunted interactive experience. We present a framework for handling input with uncertainty in a systematic, extensible, and easy to manipulate fashion. To illustrate this framework, we present several traditional interactors which have been extended to provide feedback about uncertain inputs and to allow for the possibility that in the end that input will be judged wrong (or end up going to a different interactor). Our six demonstrations include tiny buttons that are manipulable using touch input, a text box that can handle multiple interpretations of spoken input, a scrollbar that can respond to inexactly placed input, and buttons which are easier to click for people with motor impairments. Our framework supports all of these interactions by carrying uncertainty forward all the way through selection of possible target interactors, interpretation by interactors, generation of (uncertain) candidate actions to take, and a mediation process that decides (in a lazy fashion) which actions should become final.

© All rights reserved Schwarz et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Mankoff, Jennifer, Hayes, Gillian R. and Kasnitz, Devva (2010): Disability studies as a source of critical inquiry for the field of assistive technology. In: Twelfth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2010. pp. 3-10. Available online

Disability studies and assistive technology are two related fields that have long shared common goals -- understanding the experience of disability and identifying and addressing relevant issues. Despite these common goals, there are some important differences in what professionals in these fields consider problems, perhaps related to the lack of connection between the fields. To help bridge this gap, we review some of the key literature in disability studies. We present case studies of two research projects in assistive technology and discuss how the field of disability studies influenced that work, led us to identify new or different problems relevant to the field of assistive technology, and helped us to think in new ways about the research process and its impact on the experiences of individuals who live with disability. We also discuss how the field of disability studies has influenced our teaching and highlight some of the key publications and publication venues from which our community may want to draw more deeply in the future.

© All rights reserved Mankoff et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Froehlich, Jon, Dillahunt, Tawanna, Klasnja, Predrag, Mankoff, Jennifer, Consolvo, Sunny, Harrison, Beverly and Landay, James A. (2009): UbiGreen: investigating a mobile tool for tracking and supporting green transportation habits. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1043-1052. Available online

The greatest contributor of CO2 emissions in the average American household is personal transportation. Because transportation is inherently a mobile activity, mobile devices are well suited to sense and provide feedback about these activities. In this paper, we explore the use of personal ambient displays on mobile phones to give users feedback about sensed and self-reported transportation behaviors. We first present results from a set of formative studies exploring our respondents' existing transportation routines, willingness to engage in and maintain green transportation behavior, and reactions to early mobile phone "green" application design concepts. We then describe the results of a 3-week field study (N=13) of the UbiGreen Transportation Display prototype, a mobile phone application that semi-automatically senses and reveals information about transportation behavior. Our contributions include a working system for semi-automatically tracking transit activity, a visual design capable of engaging users in the goal of increasing green transportation, and the results of our studies, which have implications for the design of future green applications.

© All rights reserved Froehlich et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Schwarz, Julia, Mankoff, Jennifer and Matthews, H. Scott (2009): Reflections of everyday activities in spending data. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1737-1740. Available online

In this paper we show that financial information can be used to sense many aspects of human activity. This simple technique gives people information about their daily lives, is easily accessible to many at no extra cost, requires little setup, and does not require the manufacture of any external devices. We will focus on how financial data can be used to show users where they spend their time, when they accomplish certain habits, and what the impact of their activities is on the environment. We validate our idea by implementing three demonstration applications intended for personal use. Finally, this paper discusses limitations of sensing using financial data and possible solutions.

© All rights reserved Schwarz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Huang, Elaine M., Blevis, Eli, Mankoff, Jennifer, Nathan, Lisa P. and Tomlinson, Bill (2009): Defining the role of HCI in the challenges of sustainability. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4827-4830. Available online

Sustainability is an increasingly prominent and critical theme in the field of HCI. More needs to be known about how to critique and assess design from the perspective of sustainability, and how to integrate sustainability into the practice of HCI. This workshop focuses on achieving this integration, identifying challenges, and defining directions for Sustainable Interaction Design (SID).

© All rights reserved Huang et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kuksenok, Kateryna and Mankoff, Jennifer (2009): End-user moderation of cognitive accessibility in online communities: case study of brain fog in the lyme community. In: Eleventh Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2009. pp. 233-234. Available online

With the advent of Web 2.0 technologies, more and more online content is being generated by users. Even trained web developers often fail to take accessibility issues into consideration, so it is no surprise that users may fail to do so as well. In this paper, we examine two self-moderating communities of individuals with Lyme disease who are affected by ""brain fog"". Through qualitative analysis of over 100 discussion threads that deal with issues of accessibility, we explore how the individuals in these communities fail and succeed to establish and enforce, through moderation, the creation of cognitively accessible content.

© All rights reserved Kuksenok and Mankoff and/or their publisher

 
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Woodruff, Allison and Mankoff, Jennifer (2009): Environmental Sustainability. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 8 (1) pp. 18-21. Available online

2008
 
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Hurst, Amy, Mankoff, Jennifer and Hudson, Scott E. (2008): Understanding pointing problems in real world computing environments. In: Tenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2008. pp. 43-50. Available online

Understanding how pointing performance varies in real world computer use and over time can provide valuable insight about how systems should accommodate changes in pointing behavior. Unfortunately, pointing data from individuals with pointing problems is rarely studied during real world use. Instead, it is most frequently evaluated in a laboratory where it is easier to collect and evaluate data. We developed a technique to collect and analyze real world pointing performance which we used to investigate the variance in performance of six individuals with a range of pointing abilities. Features of pointing performance we analyzed include metrics such as movement trajectories, clicking, and double clicking. These individuals exhibited high variance during both supervised and unsupervised (or real world) computer use across multiple login sessions. The high variance found within each participant highlights the potential inaccuracy of judging performance based on a single laboratory session.

© All rights reserved Hurst et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hurst, Amy, Hudson, Scott E., Mankoff, Jennifer and Trewin, Shari (2008): Automatically detecting pointing performance. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2008. pp. 11-19. Available online

Since not all persons interact with computer systems in the same way, computer systems should not interact with all individuals in the same way. This paper presents a significant step in automatically detecting characteristics of persons with a wide range of abilities based on observing their user input events. Three datasets are used to build learned statistical models on pointing data collected in a laboratory setting from individuals with varying ability to use computer pointing devices. The first dataset is used to distinguish between pointing behaviors from individuals with pointing problems vs. individuals without with 92.7% accuracy. The second is used to distinguish between pointing data from Young Adults and Adults vs. Older Adults vs. individuals with Parkinson's Disease with 91.6% accuracy. The final data set is used to predict the need for a specific adaptation based on a user's performance with 94.4% accuracy. These results suggest that it may be feasible to use such models to automatically identify computer users who would benefit from accessibility tools, and to even make specific tool recommendations.

© All rights reserved Hurst et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Carter, Scott, Mankoff, Jennifer, Klemmer, Scott R. and Matthews, Tara (2008): Exiting the Cleanroom: On Ecological Validity and Ubiquitous Computing. In Human-Computer Interaction, 23 (1) pp. 47-99. Available online

Over the past decade and a half, corporations and academies have invested considerable time and money in the realization of ubiquitous computing. Yet design approaches that yield ecologically valid understandings of ubiquitous computing systems, which can help designers make design decisions based on how systems perform in the context of actual experience, remain rare. The central question underlying this article is, What barriers stand in the way of real-world, ecologically valid design for ubicomp? Using a literature survey and interviews with 28 developers, we illustrate how issues of sensing and scale cause ubicomp systems to resist iteration, prototype creation, and ecologically valid evaluation. In particular, we found that developers have difficulty creating prototypes that are both robust enough for realistic use and able to handle ambiguity and error and that they struggle to gather useful data from evaluations because critical events occur infrequently, because the level of use necessary to evaluate the system is difficult to maintain, or because the evaluation itself interferes with use of the system. We outline pitfalls for developers to avoid as well as practical solutions, and we draw on our results to outline research challenges for the future. Crucially, we do not argue for particular processes, sets of metrics, or intended outcomes, but rather we focus on prototyping tools and evaluation methods that support realistic use in realistic settings that can be selected according to the needs and goals of a particular developer or researcher.

© All rights reserved Carter et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

2007
 
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Carter, Scott, Mankoff, Jennifer and Heer, Jeffrey (2007): Momento: support for situated ubicomp experimentation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 125-134. Available online

We present the iterative design of Momento, a tool that provides integrated support for situated evaluation of ubiquitous computing applications. We derived requirements for Momento from a user-centered design process that included interviews, observations and field studies of early versions of the tool. Motivated by our findings, Momento supports remote testing of ubicomp applications, helps with participant adoption and retention by minimizing the need for new hardware, and supports mid-to-long term studies to address infrequently occurring data. Also, Momento can gather logdata, experience sampling, diary, and other qualitative data.

© All rights reserved Carter et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hurst, Amy, Hudson, Scott E. and Mankoff, Jennifer (2007): Dynamic detection of novice vs. skilled use without a task model. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 271-280. Available online

If applications were able to detect a user's expertise, then software could automatically adapt to better match expertise. Detecting expertise is difficult because a user's skill changes as the user interacts with an application and differs across applications. This means that expertise must be sensed dynamically, continuously, and unobtrusively so as not to burden the user. We present an approach to this problem that can operate without a task model based on low-level mouse and menu data which can typically be sensed across applications at the operating systems level. We have implemented and trained a classifier that can detect "novice" or "skilled" use of an image editing program, the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP), at 91% accuracy, and tested it against real use. In particular, we developed and tested a prototype application that gives the user dynamic application information that differs depending on her performance.

© All rights reserved Hurst et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hurst, Amy, Mankoff, Jennifer, Dey, Anind K. and Hudson, Scott E. (2007): Dirty desktops: using a patina of magnetic mouse dust to make common interactor targets easier to select. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 7-10, 2007, Newport, Rhode Island, USA. pp. 183-186. Available online

A common task in graphical user interfaces is controlling onscreen elements using a pointer. Current adaptive pointing techniques require applications to be built using accessibility libraries that reveal information about interactive targets, and most do not handle path/menu navigation. We present a pseudo-haptic technique that is OS and application independent, and can handle both dragging and clicking. We do this by associating a small force with each past click or drag. When a user frequently clicks in the same general area (e.g., on a button), the patina of past clicks naturally creates a pseudo-haptic magnetic field with an effect similar to that ofsnapping or sticky icons. Our contribution is a bottom-up approach to make targets easier to select without requiring prior knowledge of them.

© All rights reserved Hurst et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mankoff, Jennifer, Matthews, Deanna, Fussell, Susan R. and Johnson, Michael (2007): Leveraging Social Networks To Motivate Individuals to Reduce their Ecological Footprints. In: HICSS 2007 - 40th Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 3-6 January, 2007, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. p. 87. Available online

2006
 
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Carter, Scott, Hurst, Amy, Mankoff, Jennifer and Li, Jack (2006): Dynamically adapting GUIs to diverse input devices. In: Eighth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2006. pp. 63-70. Available online

Many of today's desktop applications are designed for use with a pointing device and keyboard. Someone with a disability, or in a unique environment, may not be able to use one or both of these devices. We have developed an approach for automatically modifying desktop applications to accommodate a variety of input alternatives as well as a demonstration implementation, the Input Adapter Tool (IAT). Our work is differentiated from past work by our focus on input adaptation (such as adapting a paint program to work without a pointing device) rather than output adaptation (such as adapting web pages to work on a cellphone). We present an analysis showing how different common interactive elements and navigation techniques can be adapted to specific input modalities. We also describe IAT, which supports a subset of these adaptations, and illustrate how it adapts different inputs to two applications, a paint program and a form entry program.

© All rights reserved Carter et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Matthews, Tara, Fong, Janette, Ho-Ching, F. Wai-ling and Mankoff, Jennifer (2006): Evaluating non-speech sound visualizations for the deaf. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 25 (4) pp. 333-351. Available online

Sounds such as co-workers chatting nearby or a dripping faucet help us maintain awareness of and respond to our surroundings. Without a tool that communicates ambient sounds in a non-auditory manner, maintaining this awareness is difficult for people who are deaf. We present an iterative investigation of peripheral, visual displays of ambient sounds. Our major contributions are: (1) a rich understanding of what ambient sounds are useful to people who are deaf, (2) a set of visual and functional requirements for a peripheral sound display, based on feedback from people who are deaf, (3) lab-based evaluations investigating the characteristics of four prototypes, and (4) a set of design guidelines for successful ambient audio displays, based on a comparison of four implemented prototypes and user feedback. Our work provides valuable information about the sound awareness needs of the deaf and can help to inform further design of such applications.

© All rights reserved Matthews et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Hudson, Scott E. and Mankoff, Jennifer (2006): Rapid construction of functioning physical interfaces from cardboard, thumbtacks, tin foil and masking tape. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2006. pp. 289-298. Available online

Rapid, early, but rough system prototypes are becoming a standard and valued part of the user interface design process. Pen, paper, and tools like Flash and Director are well suited to creating such prototypes. However, in the case of physical forms with embedded technology, there is a lack of tools for developing rapid, early prototypes. Instead, the process tends to be fragmented into prototypes exploring forms that look like the intended product or explorations of functioning interactions that work like the intended product - bringing these aspects together into full design concepts only later in the design process. To help alleviate this problem, we present a simple tool for very rapidly creating functioning, rough physical prototypes early in the design process - supporting what amounts to interactive physical sketching. Our tool allows a designer to combine exploration of form and interactive function, using objects constructed from materials such as thumbtacks, foil, cardboard and masking tape, enhanced with a small electronic sensor board. By means of a simple and fluid tool for delivering events to "screen clippings," these physical sketches can then be easily connected to any existing (or new) program running on a PC to provide real or Wizard of Oz supported functionality.

© All rights reserved Hudson and Mankoff and/or ACM Press

 
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Matthews, Tara, Carter, Scott, Pai, Carol, Fong, Janette and Mankoff, Jennifer (2006): Scribe4Me: Evaluating a Mobile Sound Transcription Tool for the Deaf. In: Dourish, Paul and Friday, Adrian (eds.) UbiComp 2006 Ubiquitous Computing - 8th International Conference September 17-21, 2006, Orange County, CA, USA. pp. 159-176. Available online

2005
 
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Mankoff, Demi, Dey, Anind K., Mankoff, Jennifer and Mankoff, Ken (2005): Supporting interspecies social awareness: using peripheral displays for distributed pack awareness. In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2005. pp. 253-258. Available online

In interspecies households, it is common for the non homo sapien members to be isolated and ignored for many hours each day when humans are out of the house or working. For pack animals, such as canines, information about a pack member\'s extended pack interactions (outside of the nuclear household) could help to mitigate this social isolation. We have developed a Pack Activity Watch System: Allowing Broad Interspecies Love In Telecommunication with Internet-Enabled Sociability (PAWSABILITIES) for helping to support remote awareness of social activities. Our work focuses on canine companions, and includes, pawticipatory design, labradory tests, and canid camera monitoring.

© All rights reserved Mankoff et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Matthews, Tara, Fong, Janette and Mankoff, Jennifer (2005): Visualizing non-speech sounds for the deaf. In: Seventh Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2005. pp. 52-59. Available online

Sounds constantly occur around us, keeping us aware of our surroundings. People who are deaf have difficulty maintaining an awareness of these ambient sounds. We present an investigation of peripheral, visual displays to help people who are deaf maintain an awareness of sounds in the environment. Our contribution is twofold. First, we present a set of visual design preferences and functional requirements for peripheral visualizations of non-speech audio that will help improve future applications. Visual design preferences include ease of interpretation, glance-ability, and appropriate distractions. Functional requirements include the ability to identify what sound occurred, view a history of displayed sounds, customize the information that is shown, and determine the accuracy of displayed information. Second, we designed, implemented, and evaluated two fully functioning prototypes that embody these preferences and requirements, serving as examples for future designers and furthering progress toward understanding how to best provide peripheral audio awareness for the deaf.

© All rights reserved Matthews et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mankoff, Jennifer, Fait, Holly and Tran, Tu (2005): Is your web page accessible?: a comparative study of methods for assessing web page accessibility for the blind. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 41-50. Available online

Web access for users with disabilities is an important goal and challenging problem for web content developers and designers. This paper presents a comparison of different methods for finding accessibility problems affecting users who are blind. Our comparison focuses on techniques that might be of use to Web developers without accessibility experience, a large and important group that represents a major source of inaccessible pages. We compare a laboratory study with blind users to an automated tool, expert review by web designers with and without a screen reader, and remote testing by blind users. Multiple developers, using a screen reader, were most consistently successful at finding most classes of problems, and tended to find about 50% of known problems. Surprisingly, a remote study with blind users was one of the least effective methods. All of the techniques, however, had different, complementary strengths and weaknesses.

© All rights reserved Mankoff et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hudson, Scott E., Mankoff, Jennifer and Smith, Ian (2005): Extensible input handling in the subArctic toolkit. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 381-390. Available online

The subArctic user interface toolkit has extensibility as one of its central goals. It seeks not only to supply a powerful library of reusable interactive objects, but also make it easy to create new, unusual, and highly customized interactions tailored to the needs of particular interfaces or task domains. A central part of this extensibility is the input model used by the toolkit. The subArctic input model provides standard reusable components that implement many typical input handling patterns for the programmer, allows inputs to be handled in very flexible ways, and allows the details of how inputs are handled to be modified to meet custom needs. This paper will consider the structure and operation of the subArctic input handling mechanism. It will demonstrate the flexibility of the system through a series of examples, illustrating techniques that it enables - many of which would be very difficult to implement in most toolkits.

© All rights reserved Hudson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Carter, Scott and Mankoff, Jennifer (2005): When participants do the capturing: the role of media in diary studies. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 899-908. Available online

In this paper, we investigate how the choice of media for capture and access affects the diary study method. The diary study is a method of understanding participant behavior and intent in situ that minimizes the effects of observers on participants. We first situate diary studies within a framework of field studies and review related literature. We then report on three diary studies we conducted that involve photographs, audio recordings, location information and tangible artifacts. We then analyze our findings, specifically addressing the following questions: How do context information and episodic memory prompts captured by participants vary with media? In what way do different media "jog" memory? How do different media affect the diary study process? These questions are particularly important for diary studies because they can be especially useful as compared to other methods when a participant intends to do an action but does not or when actions are particularly difficult to sense. We also built and tested a tool based on participant and researcher frustrations with the method. Our contribution includes suggested modifications to traditional diary techniques that enable annotation and review of captured media; a new variation on the diary study appropriate for researchers using digital capture media; and a lightweight tool to support it, motivated by past work and findings from our studies.

© All rights reserved Carter and Mankoff and/or ACM Press

 
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Davidoff, Scott, Bloomberg, Carson, Li, Ian Anthony R., Mankoff, Jennifer and Fussell, Susan R. (2005): The book as user interface: lowering the entry cost to email for elders. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1331-1334. Available online

Substantial stumbling blocks confront computer-illiterate elders. We introduce a novel user interface technology to lower these start up costs: the book as user interface, or BUI. Book pages contain both step-by-step instructions and tangible controls, turning a complex interaction into a walk-up-and-use scenario. The system expands support past the technical artifact to a go-to relationship. ElderMail users designate an internet-savvy trusted friend or relative to help with complex tasks. In this paper, we conduct a preliminary evaluation of a BUI-based email system, and report our findings. While research has augmented paper artifacts to provide alternate access into the digital world, we find that elders use the BUI as a way to circumvent the digital world.

© All rights reserved Davidoff et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Carter, Scott and Mankoff, Jennifer (2005): Prototypes in the wild lessons from three ubicomp systems. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 4 (4) pp. 51-57. Available online

2004
 
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Heer, Jeffrey, Good, Nathaniel, Ramirez, Ana, Davis, Marc and Mankoff, Jennifer (2004): Presiding over accidents: system direction of human action. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 463-470. Available online

As human-computer interaction becomes more closely modeled on human-human interaction, new techniques and strategies for human-computer interaction are required. In response to the inevitable shortcomings of recognition technologies, researchers have studied mediation: interaction techniques by which users can resolve system ambiguity and error. In this paper we approach the human-computer dialogue from the other side, examining system-initiated direction and mediation of human action. We conducted contextual interviews with a variety of experts in fields involving human-human direction, including a film director, photographer, golf instructor, and 911 operator. Informed by these interviews and a review of prior work, we present strategies for directing physical human action and an associated design space for systems that perform such direction. We illustrate these concepts with excerpts from our interviews and with our implemented system for automated media capture or "Active Capture," in which an unaided computer system uses techniques identified in our design space to act as a photographer, film director, and cinematographer.

© All rights reserved Heer et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Matthews, Tara, Dey, Anind K., Mankoff, Jennifer, Carter, Scott and Rattenbury, Tye (2004): A toolkit for managing user attention in peripheral displays. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2004. pp. 247-256. Available online

Traditionally, computer interfaces have been confined to conventional displays and focused activities. However, as displays become embedded throughout our environment and daily lives, increasing numbers of them must operate on the periphery of our attention. Peripheral displays can allow a person to be aware of information while she is attending to some other primary task or activity. We present the Peripheral Displays Toolkit (PTK), a toolkit that provides structured support for managing user attention in the development of peripheral displays. Our goal is to enable designers to explore different approaches to managing user attention. The PTK supports three issues specific to conveying information on the periphery of human attention. These issues are abstraction of raw input, rules for assigning notification levels to input, and transitions for updating a display when input arrives. Our contribution is the investigation of issues specific to attention in peripheral display design and a toolkit that encapsulates support for these issues. We describe our toolkit architecture and present five sample peripheral displays demonstrating our toolkit\'s capabilities.

© All rights reserved Matthews et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Carter, S., Mankoff, Jennifer and Goddi, P. (2004): Building Connections among Loosely Coupled Groups: Hebb's Rule at Work. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 13 (3) pp. 305-327. Available online

Awareness of others interests can lead to fruitful collaborations, friendships and positive social change. Interviews of groups involved in both research and corporate work revealed a lack of awareness of shared interests among workers sharing an organizational affiliation and collocated in the same building or complex but still physically separated (e.g., by walls or floors). Our study showed that loosely coupled groups were less likely to discover shared interests in the way that many tightly collocated groups do, such as by overhearing conversations or noticing paraphernalia. Based on these findings we iteratively developed a system to capture and display shared interests. Our platform includes an e-mail sensor to discover personal interests, a search algorithm to determine shared interests, a public peripheral display and lightweight location-tracking system to convey those interests. We deployed the system to two groups for two months and found that the system did lead to increased awareness of shared interests.

© All rights reserved Carter et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

2003
 
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Ho-Ching, F. Wai-ling, Mankoff, Jennifer and Landay, James A. (2003): Can you see what i hear?: the design and evaluation of a peripheral sound display for the deaf. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 161-168.

 
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Mankoff, Jennifer, Dey, Anind K., Hsieh, Gary, Kientz, Julie, Lederer, Scott and Ames, Morgan (2003): Heuristic evaluation of ambient displays. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 169-176.

 
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Wang, Jingtao and Mankoff, Jennifer (2003): Theoretical and architectural support for input device adaptation. In: Proceedings of the 2003 ACM Conference on Universal Usability 2003. pp. 85-92. Available online

The graphical user interface (GUI) is today's de facto standard for desktop computing. GUIs are designed and optimized for use with a mouse and keyboard. However, modern trends make this reliance on a mouse and keyboard problematic for two reasons. First, people with disabilities may have trouble operating those devices. Second, with the popularization of wireless communication and mobile devices such as personal data assistants, the mouse and keyboard are often replaced by other input devices. Our solution is a tool that can be used to translate a user's input to a form recognizable by any Windows-based application. We argue that a formal model of input is necessary to support arbitrary translations of this sort. We present a model, based on Markov information sources, that extends past work in its ability to handle software-based input such as speech recognition, and to measure relative device bandwidth. We also present our translation tool, which is based on our model, along with four applications built using that tool.

© All rights reserved Wang and Mankoff and/or ACM Press

2002
 
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Dey, Anind K., Mankoff, Jennifer, Abowd, Gregory D. and Carter, Scott (2002): Distributed mediation of ambiguous context in aware environments. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 121-130. Available online

Many context-aware services make the assumption that the context they use is completely accurate. However, in reality, both sensed and interpreted context is often ambiguous. A challenge facing the development of realistic and deployable context-aware services, therefore, is the ability to handle ambiguous context. In this paper, we describe an architecture that supports the building of context-aware services that assume context is ambiguous and allows for mediation of ambiguity by mobile users in aware environments. We illustrate the use of our architecture and evaluate it through three example context-aware services, a word predictor system, an In/Out Board, and a reminder tool.

© All rights reserved Dey et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mankoff, Jennifer, Dey, Anind K., Batra, Udit and Moore, Melody (2002): Web accessibility for low bandwidth input. In: Fifth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2002. pp. 17-24. Available online

One of the first, most common, and most useful applications that today's computer users access is the World Wide Web (web). One population of users for whom the web is especially important is those with motor disabilities, because it may enable them to do things that they might not otherwise be able to do: shopping; getting an education; running a business. This is particularly important for low bandwidth users: users with such limited motor and speech that they can only produce one or two signals when communicating with a computer. We present requirements for low bandwidth web accessibility, and two tools that address these requirements. The first is a modified web browser, the second a proxy that modifies HTML. Both work without requiring web page authors to modify their pages.

© All rights reserved Mankoff et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mankoff, Jennifer, Hsieh, Gary, Hung, Ho Chak, Lee, Sharon and Nitao, Elizabeth (2002): Using Low-Cost Sensing to Support Nutritional Awareness. In: Borriello, Gaetano and Holmquist, Lars Erik (eds.) UbiComp 2002 Ubiquitous Computing - 4th International Conference September 29 - October 1, 2002, Gteborg, Sweden. pp. 371-376. Available online

2000
 
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Mankoff, Jennifer, Hudson, Scott E. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2000): Providing Integrated Toolkit-Level Support for Ambiguity in Recognition-Based Interfaces. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 368-375. Available online

Interfaces based on recognition technologies are used extensively in both the commercial and research worlds. But recognizers are still error-prone, and this results in human performance problems, brittle dialogues, and other barriers to acceptance and utility of recognition systems. Interface techniques specialized to recognition systems can help reduce the burden of recognition errors, but building these interfaces depends on knowledge about the ambiguity inherent in recognition. We have extended a user interface toolkit in order to model and to provide structured support for ambiguity at the input event level. This makes it possible to build re-usable interface components for resolving ambiguity and dealing with recognition errors. These interfaces can help to reduce the negative effects of recognition errors. By providing these components at a toolkit level, we make it easier for application writers to provide good support for error handling. Further, with this robust support, we are able to explore new types of interfaces for resolving a more varied range of ambiguity.

© All rights reserved Mankoff et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mankoff, Jennifer, Hudson, Scott E. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2000): Interaction Techniques for Ambiguity Resolution in Recognition-Based Interfaces. In: Ackerman, Mark S. and Edwards, Keith (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 2000, San Diego, California, United States. pp. 11-20. Available online

 
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Mankoff, Jennifer, Abowd, Gregory D. and Hudson, Scott E. (2000): OOPS: a toolkit supporting mediation techniques for resolving ambiguity in recognition-based interfaces. In Computers & Graphics, 24 (6) pp. 819-834. Available online

1998
 
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Mankoff, Jennifer and Abowd, Gregory D. (1998): Cirrin: A Word-Level Unistroke Keyboard for Pen Input. In: Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 01 - 04, 1998, San Francisco, California, United States. pp. 213-214. Available online

We present a new system, called Cirrin, for pen input of ASCII characters using word-level unistrokes. Our system addresses the tradeoff between speed and accuracy of pen-based text entry by substituting precision on the part of the user for ease of recognition on the part of the computer. Cirrin supports ease of recognition by the computer combined with natural, script-like input. This paper discusses the design space of word-level, unistroke input, focusing on the choices made in the circular model of Cirrin that is currently in daily use by the first author.

© All rights reserved Mankoff and Abowd and/or ACM Press

 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Blattner, Douglas, Blattner, Meera M., MacIntyre, Blair and Mankoff, Jennifer (1998): Augmenting Home and Office Environments. In: Third Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 1998. pp. 169-172. Available online

In this panel, we describe different techniques and applications of augmenting home and office environments. One application of augmented environments is to provide additional information associated with the environment via visual and / or auditory cues. Other applications assist users in controlling aspects of their environment. Commercial opportunities in home automation allow people to more easily operate complex systems for temperature control, security, and maintenance. There are numerous research issues in designing augmented environments such as how multimodal input and output can be used effectively. Many of these systems need to assume some knowledge of the user's intent and context. How to capture and interpret information about users in these environments is an open question. We will describe these issues during this panel as well as discuss with the ASSETS community how these efforts can be applied to the realm of assistive technology.

© All rights reserved Mynatt et al. and/or ACM Press

1997
 
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Mankoff, Jennifer and Schilit, Bill N. (1997): Supporting Knowledge Workers Beyond the Desktop with Palplates. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 550-551. Available online

Palplates are a collection of touch-screen terminals placed around the office enabling human-computer interactions at the point of need. Supporting a community of mobile authenticated workers with a small number of stationary devices is an alternative to providing each person with a portable wireless computer. In contrast to the PC's desktop metaphor, Palplates use a place metaphor that reflect the actual rooms, corridors, and buildings that are part of the office place. Users interact graphically with applications supported by a geographic database. The user interface is generated dynamically based on the user's identity, the point-of-access, and the changing collection of physical office equipment, electronic documents and applications present at any given location.

© All rights reserved Mankoff and Schilit and/or ACM Press

 
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