Publication statistics

Pub. period:2001-2012
Pub. count:29
Number of co-authors:53



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Brad A. Myers:14
Tessa Lau:5
Jacob O. Wobbrock:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

Jeffrey Nichols's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Brad A. Myers:154
Jodi Forlizzi:90
Jacob O. Wobbrock:71
 
 
 

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Jeffrey Nichols

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Publications by Jeffrey Nichols (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Bardzell, Jeffrey, Nichols, Jeffrey, Pace, Tyler and Bardzell, Shaowen (2012): Come meet me at Ulduar: progression raiding in World of Warcraft. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 603-612.

In spite of decades of research on virtual worlds, our understanding of one popular form of virtual world behavior -- raiding -- remains limited. Raiding is important because it entails intense, high-risk, and complex collaborative behaviors in computer-mediated environments. This paper contributes to CSCW literature by offering a longitudinal analysis of raiding behavior using system data manually collected from the game world itself, comparing two raiding teams as they worked through the same content. Supplemented with interviews and chat transcripts, this research sheds light on what actually happens during raids across four different temporal scales: seconds, hours, days, and months. It also distinguishes between behaviors that are imposed by the system design and those chosen by players. Finally, it derives two viable raiding styles from the data.

© All rights reserved Bardzell et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Nichols, Jeffrey and Kang, Jeon-Hyung (2012): Asking questions of targeted strangers on social networks. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 999-1002.

When people have questions, they often turn to their social network for answers. If the answer is obscure or time sensitive however, no members of their social networks may know the answer. For example, it may be difficult to find a friend who has experience with a particular feature or model of digital camera or who knows the current wait time for security at the local airport. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of answering questions by asking strangers. In this approach, strangers with potentially useful information are identified by mining the public status updates posted on Twitter, questions are sent to these strangers, and responses are collected. We explore feasibility in two ways: will users respond to questions sent by strangers and, if they do respond, how long must we wait for a response? Our results from asking 1159 questions across two domains suggest that 42% of users will respond to questions from strangers. 44% of these responses arrived within 30 minutes.

© All rights reserved Nichols and Kang and/or ACM Press

 
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Nichols, Jeffrey, Mahmud, Jalal and Drews, Clemens (2012): Summarizing sporting events using twitter. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2012. pp. 189-198.

The status updates posted to social networks, such as Twitter and Facebook, contain a myriad of information about what people are doing and watching. During events, such as sports games, many updates are sent describing and expressing opinions about the event. In this paper, we describe an algorithm that generates a journalistic summary of an event using only status updates from Twitter as a source. Temporal cues, such as spikes in the volume of status updates, are used to identify the important moments within an event, and a sentence ranking method is used to extract relevant sentences from the corpus of status updates describing each important moment within an event. We evaluate our algorithm compared to human-generated summaries and the previous best summarization algorithm, and find that the results of our method are superior to the previous algorithm and approach the readability and grammaticality of the human-generated summaries.

© All rights reserved Nichols et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mahmud, Jalal, Nichols, Jeffrey and Zhou, Michelle (2012): 1st international workshop on user modeling from social media. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2012. pp. 397-400.

Massive amounts of data are being generated on social media sites, such as Twitter and Facebook. People from all walks of life share data about social events, express opinions, discuss their interests, publicize businesses, recommend products, and, explicitly or implicitly, reveal personal information. This workshop will focus on the use of social media data for creating models of individual users from the content that they publish. Deeper understanding of user behavior and associated attributes can benefit a wide range of intelligent applications, such as social recommender systems and expert finders, as well as provide the foundation in support of novel user interfaces (e.g., actively engaging the crowd in mixed-initiative question-answering systems). These applications and interfaces may offer significant benefits to users across a wide variety of domains, such as retail, government, healthcare and education. User modeling from public social media data may also reveal information that users would prefer to keep private. Such concerns are particularly important because individuals do not have complete control over the information they share about themselves. For example, friends of a user may inadvertently divulge private information about that user in their own posts. In this workshop we will also discuss possible mechanisms that users might employ to monitor what information has been revealed about themselves on social media and obfuscate any sensitive information that has been accidentally revealed.

© All rights reserved Mahmud et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Li, Ian, Nichols, Jeffrey, Lau, Tessa, Drews, Clemens and Cypher, Allen (2010): Here's what i did: sharing and reusing web activity with ActionShot. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 723-732.

ActionShot is an integrated web browser tool that creates a fine-grained history of users' browsing activities by continually recording their browsing actions at the level of interactions, such as button clicks and entries into form fields. ActionShot provides interfaces to facilitate browsing and searching through this history, sharing portions of the history through established social networking tools such as Facebook, and creating scripts that can be used to repeat previous interactions at a later time. ActionShot can also create short textual summaries for sequences of interactions. In this paper, we describe the ActionShot and our initial explorations of the tool through field deployments within our organization and a lab study. Overall, we found that ActionShot's history features provide value beyond typical browser history interfaces.

© All rights reserved Li et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Lau, Tessa, Cerruti, Julian, Manzato, Guillermo, Bengualid, Mateo, Bigham, Jeffrey P. and Nichols, Jeffrey (2010): A conversational interface to web automation. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2010. pp. 229-238.

This paper presents CoCo, a system that automates web tasks on a user's behalf through an interactive conversational interface. Given a short command such as "get road conditions for highway 88," CoCo synthesizes a plan to accomplish the task, executes it on the web, extracts an informative response, and returns the result to the user as a snippet of text. A novel aspect of our approach is that we leverage a repository of previously recorded web scripts and the user's personal web browsing history to determine how to complete each requested task. This paper describes the design and implementation of our system, along with the results of a brief user study that evaluates how likely users are to understand what CoCo does for them.

© All rights reserved Lau et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Wiltse, Heather and Nichols, Jeffrey (2009): PlayByPlay: collaborative web browsing for desktop and mobile devices. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1781-1790.

Collaborative web browsing tasks occur frequently, such as one user showing another how to use a web site, several users working together on a search task, or even one user sending an interesting link to another user. Unfortunately, tools for browsing the web are commonly designed for a single user. PlayByPlay is a general purpose web collaboration tool that uses the communication model of instant messaging to support a variety of collaborative browsing tasks. PlayByPlay also supports collaborative browsing between mobile and desktop users, which we believe is useful for on-the-go scenarios. We conducted user studies of the desktop and mobile versions of PlayByPlay and found the system to be usable and effective.

© All rights reserved Wiltse and Nichols and/or ACM Press

 
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Cypher, Allen, Lau, Tessa, Nichols, Jeffrey and Dontcheva, Mira (2009): Workshop on end user programming for the web. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4779-4782.

In the past several years, there has been a resurgence in research activity in end user programming (EUP), all focused on the web. This work is spread across a variety of institutions and has been published in a variety of conference venues, including CHI, UIST, IUI, and WWW. This workshop will bring these researchers together for a common discussion, with the following goals: establish a sense of community amongst researchers in this area; discuss common problems and lessons learned about doing research in EUP for the web; define a standard corpus of tasks that can be used to evaluate current and future EUP systems; and plan the publication of an edited book on the topic of end user programming for the web.

© All rights reserved Cypher et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lin, James, Wong, Jeffrey, Nichols, Jeffrey, Cypher, Allen and Lau, Tessa A. (2009): End-user programming of mashups with vegemite. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2009. pp. 97-106.

Mashups are an increasingly popular way to integrate data from multiple web sites to fit a particular need, but it often requires substantial technical expertise to create them. To lower the barrier for creating mashups, we have extended the CoScripter web automation tool with a spreadsheet-like environment called Vegemite. Our system uses direct-manipulation and programming-by-demonstration techniques to automatically populate tables with information collected from various web sites. A particular strength of our approach is its ability to augment a data set with new values computed by a web site, such as determining the driving distance from a particular location to each of the addresses in a data set. An informal user study suggests that Vegemite may enable a wider class of users to address their information needs.

© All rights reserved Lin et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bigham, Jeffrey P., Lau, Tessa and Nichols, Jeffrey (2009): Trailblazer: enabling blind users to blaze trails through the web. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2009. pp. 177-186.

For blind web users, completing tasks on the web can be frustrating. Each step can require a time-consuming linear search of the current web page to find the needed interactive element or piece of information. Existing interactive help systems and the playback components of some programming-by-demonstration tools identify the needed elements of a page as they guide the user through predefined tasks, obviating the need for a linear search on each step. We introduce TrailBlazer, a system that provides an accessible, non-visual interface to guide blind users through existing how-to knowledge. A formative study indicated that participants saw the value of TrailBlazer but wanted to use it for tasks and web sites for which no existing script was available. To address this, TrailBlazer offers suggestion-based help created on-the-fly from a short, user-provided task description and an existing repository of how-to knowledge. In an evaluation on 15 tasks, the correct prediction was contained within the top 5 suggestions 75.9% of the time.

© All rights reserved Bigham et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bigham, Jeffrey P., Kaminsky, Ryan S. and Nichols, Jeffrey (2009): Mining web interactions to automatically create mash-ups. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2009. pp. 203-212.

The deep web contains an order of magnitude more information than the surface web, but that information is hidden behind the web forms of a large number of web sites. Metasearch engines can help users explore this information by aggregating results from multiple resources, but previously these could only be created and maintained by programmers. In this paper, we explore the automatic creation of metasearch mash-ups by mining the web interactions of multiple web users to find relations between query forms on different web sites. We also present an implemented system called TX2 that uses those connections to search multiple deep web resources simultaneously and integrate the results in context in a single results page. TX2 illustrates the promise of constructing mash-ups automatically and the potential of mining web interactions to explore deep web resources.

© All rights reserved Bigham et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Nichols, Jeffrey and Myers, Brad A. (2009): Creating a lightweight user interface description language: An overview and analysis of the personal universal controller project. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 16 (4) p. 17.

Over six years, we iterated on the design of a language for describing the functionality of appliances, such as televisions, telephones, VCRs, and copiers. This language has been used to describe more than thirty diverse appliances, and these descriptions have been used to automatically generate both graphical and speech user interfaces on handheld computers, mobile phones, and desktop computers. In this article, we describe the final design of our language and analyze the key design choices that led to this design. Through this analysis, we hope to provide a useful guide for the designers of future user interface description languages.

© All rights reserved Nichols and Myers and/or ACM Press

2008
 
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Nichols, Jeffrey and Lau, Tessa (2008): Mobilization by demonstration: using traces to re-author existing web sites. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2008. pp. 149-158.

Today's web pages provide many useful features, but unfortunately nearly all are designed first and foremost for the desktop form factor. At the same time, the number of mobile devices with different form factors and unique input and output facilities is growing substantially. The Highlight re-authoring environment addresses these problems by allowing users to start with existing sites they already use and create mobile versions that are customized to their tasks and mobile devices. This "re-authoring" is performed through a combination of demonstrating desired interactions with an existing web site and directly specifying content to be included on mobile pages. The system has been tested successfully with a variety of existing sites. A study showed that novice users were able to use the system to create useful mobile applications for sites of their own choosing.

© All rights reserved Nichols and Lau and/or ACM Press

 
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Pierce, Jeffrey S. and Nichols, Jeffrey (2008): An infrastructure for extending applications' user experiences across multiple personal devices. In: Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 101-110.

 
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Nichols, Jeffrey, Hua, Zhigang and Barton, John (2008): Highlight: a system for creating and deploying mobile web applications. In: Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 249-258.

2007
 
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Nichols, Jeffrey, Chau, Duen Horng and Myers, Brad A. (2007): Demonstrating the viability of automatically generated user interfaces. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1283-1292.

We conducted a user study that demonstrates that automatically generated interfaces can support better usability through increased flexibility in two dimensions. First, we show that automatic generation can improve usability by moving interfaces that are constrained by cost and poor interaction primitives to another device with better interactive capabilities: subjects were twice as fast and four times as successful at completing tasks with automatically generated interfaces on a PocketPC device as with the actual appliance interfaces. Second, we show that an automatic generator can improve usability by automatically ensuring that new interfaces are generated to be consistent with users' previous experience: subjects were also twice as fast using interfaces consistent with their experiences as compared to normally generated interfaces. These two results demonstrate that automatic interface generation is now viable and especially desirable where users will benefit from individualized interfaces or where human designers are constrained by cost and other factors.

© All rights reserved Nichols et al. and/or ACM Press

2006
 
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Nichols, Jeffrey, Myers, Brad A. and Rothrock, Brandon (2006): UNIFORM: automatically generating consistent remote control user interfaces. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 611-620.

A problem with many of today's appliance interfaces is that they are inconsistent. For example, the procedure for setting the time on alarm clocks and VCRs differs, even among different models made by the same manufacturer. Finding particular functions can also be a challenge, because appliances often organize their features differently. This paper presents a system, called Uniform, which approaches this problem by automatically generating remote control interfaces that take into account previous interfaces that the user has seen during the generation process. Uniform is able to automatically identify similarities between different devices and users may specify additional similarities. The similarity information allows the interface generator to use the same type of controls for similar functions, place similar functions so that they can be found with the same navigation steps, and create interfaces that have a similar visual appearance.

© All rights reserved Nichols et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Nichols, Jeffrey, Rothrock, Brandon, Chau, Duen Horng and Myers, Brad A. (2006): Huddle: automatically generating interfaces for systems of multiple connected appliances. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2006. pp. 279-288.

Systems of connected appliances, such as home theaters and presentation rooms, are becoming commonplace in our homes and workplaces. These systems are often difficult to use, in part because users must determine how to split the tasks they wish to perform into sub-tasks for each appliance and then find the particular functions of each appliance to complete their sub-tasks. This paper describes Huddle, a new system that automatically generates task-based interfaces for a system of multiple appliances based on models of the content flow within the multi-appliance system.

© All rights reserved Nichols et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Nichols, Jeffrey and Myers, Brad A. (2006): Controlling Home and Office Appliances with Smart Phones. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 5 (3) pp. 60-67.

2004
 
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Nichols, Jeffrey, Myers, Brad A. and Litwack, Kevin (2004): Improving automatic interface generation with smart templates. In: Nunes, Nuno Jardim and Rich, Charles (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2004 January 13-16, 2004, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal. pp. 286-288.

One of the challenges of using mobile devices for ubiquitous remote control is the creation of the user interface. If automatically generated designs are used, then they must be close in quality to hand-designed interfaces. Automatically generated interfaces can be dramatically improved if they use standard conventions to which users are accustomed, such as the arrangement of buttons on a telephone dial-pad or the conventional play, stop, and pause icons on a media player. Unfortunately, it can be difficult for a system to determine where to apply design conventions because each appliance may represent its functionality differently. Smart Templates is a technique that uses parameterized templates in the appliance model to specify when such conventions might be automatically applied in the user interface. Our templates easily adapt to existing appliance models, and interface generators on different platforms can apply appropriate design conventions using templates.

© All rights reserved Nichols et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Myers, Brad A., Nichols, Jeffrey, Wobbrock, Jacob O. and Miller, Robert C. (2004): Taking Handheld Devices to the Next Level. In IEEE Computer, 37 (12) pp. 36-43.

2002
 
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Myers, Brad A., Bhatnagar, Rishi, Nichols, Jeffrey, Peck, Choon Hong, Kong, Dave, Miller, Robert and Long, A. Chris (2002): Interacting at a distance: measuring the performance of laser pointers and other devices. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 33-40.

 
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Nichols, Jeffrey, Myers, Brad A., Higgins, Michael, Hughes, Joseph, Harris, Thomas K., Rosenfeld, Roni and Pignol, Mathilde (2002): Generating remote control interfaces for complex appliances. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 161-170.

The personal universal controller (PUC) is an approach for improving the interfaces to complex appliances by introducing an intermediary graphical or speech interface. A PUC engages in two-way communication with everyday appliances, first downloading a specification of the appliance's functions, and then automatically creating an interface for controlling that appliance. The specification of each appliance includes a high-level description of every function, a hierarchical grouping of those functions, and dependency information, which relates the availability of each function to the appliance's state. Dependency information makes it easier for designers to create specifications and helps the automatic interface generators produce a higher quality result. We describe the architecture that supports the PUC, and the interface generators that use our specification language to build high-quality graphical and speech interfaces.

© All rights reserved Nichols et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Myers, Brad A., Wobbrock, Jacob O., Yang, Sunny, Yeung, Brian, Nichols, Jeffrey and Miller, Robert (2002): Using handhelds to help people with motor impairments. In: Fifth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2002. pp. 89-96.

People with Muscular Dystrophy (MD) and certain other muscular and nervous system disorders lose their gross motor control while retaining fine motor control. The result is that they lose the ability to move their wrists and arms, and therefore their ability to operate a mouse and keyboard. However, they can often still use their fingers to control a pencil or stylus, and thus can use a handheld computer such as a Palm. We have developed software that allows the handheld to substitute for the mouse and keyboard of a PC, and tested it with four people (ages 10, 12, 27 and 53) with MD. The 12-year old had lost the ability to use a mouse and keyboard, but with our software, he was able to use the Palm to access email, the web and computer games. The 27-year-old reported that he found the Palm so much better that he was using it full-time instead of a keyboard and mouse. The other two subjects said that our software was much less tiring than using the conventional input devices, and enabled them to use computers for longer periods. We report the results of these case studies, and the adaptations made to our software for people with disabilities.

© All rights reserved Myers et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Nichols, Jeffrey, Wobbrock, Jacob O., Gergle, Darren and Forlizzi, Jodi (2002): Mediator and medium: doors as interruption gateways and aesthetic displays. In: Proceedings of DIS02: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2002. pp. 379-386.

Office doors are more than entrances to rooms, they are entrances to a person's time and attention. People can mediate access to themselves by choosing whether to leave their door open or closed when they are in their office. Doors also serve as a medium for communication, where people can broadcast individual messages to passersby, or accept messages from others who stopped by when the door was closed. These qualities make the door an excellent location for designing solutions that help people better manage their time and attention. In this paper, we present a study of doors, derive design insights from the study, and then realize some of these insights in two cooperating implementations deployed in our workplace.

© All rights reserved Nichols et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Myers, Brad A., Malkin, Robert, Bett, Michael, Waibel, Alex, Bostwick, Ben, Miller, Robert C., Yang, Jie, Denecke, Matthias, Seemann, Edgar, Zhu, Jie, Peck, Choon Hong, Kong, Dave, Nichols, Jeffrey and Scherlis, William L. (2002): Flexi-Modal and Multi-Machine User Interfaces. In: 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2002 14-16 October, 2002, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pp. 343-348.

 
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Nichols, Jeffrey, Myers, Brad A., Harris, Thomas K., Rosenfeld, Roni, Shriver, Stefanie, Higgins, Michael and Hughes, Joseph (2002): Requirements for Automatically Generating Multi-Modal Interfaces for Complex Appliances. In: 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2002 14-16 October, 2002, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pp. 377-382.

 
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Nichols, Jeffrey, Myers, Brad A., Harris, Thomas K., Rosenfeld, Roni, Shriver, Stefanie, Higgins, Michael and Hughes, Joseph (2002): Requirements for Automatically Generating Multi-Modal Interfaces for Complex Appliances. In: Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2002. p. 377.

Several industrial and academic research groups are working to simplify the control of appliances and services by creating a truly universal remote control. Unlike the preprogrammed remote controls available today, these new controllers download a specification from the appliance or service and use it to automatically generate a remote control interface. This promises to be a useful approach because the specification can be made detailed enough to generate both speech and graphical interfaces. Unfortunately, generating good user interfaces can be difficult. Based on user studies and prototype implementations, this paper presents a set of requirements that we have found are needed for automatic interface generation systems to create high-quality user interfaces.

© All rights reserved Nichols et al. and/or their publisher

2001
 
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Myers, Brad A., Peck, Choon Hong, Nichols, Jeffrey, Kong, Dave and Miller, Robert C. (2001): Interacting at a Distance Using Semantic Snarfing. In: Abowd, Gregory D., Brumitt, Barry and Shafer, Steven A. (eds.) Ubicomp 2001 Ubiquitous Computing - Third International Conference September 30 - October 2, 2001, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 305-314.

 
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