It's really hard to design products by focus groups. A lot of times, people don't know what they want until you show it to them.
-- Steve Jobs, 1998
Read the fascinating history of Wearable Computing, told by its father, Steve Mann
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Publications by James Taylor (bibliography)
Taylor, James, Robertson, Michelle M., Helmreich, Robert L., Kanki, Barbara, Diehl, Alan and Sherman, Paul J. (1992): New Directions of Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) Training. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. pp. 895-896.
Training in cockpit resource management training (now known generically as crew resource management training) for airline flight crews was introduced in the late 1970's. It has spread through many air carriers in the U.S. commercial aviation industry, to several foreign carriers and to various sectors of U.S. and Canadian military aviation. This training has also been extended from the cockpit to cabin crews to maintenance and to air traffic control. Although specific programs differ from one organization to another, CRM as used here typically involves training in several interpersonal and team-related concepts: (e.g., communication skills, team decision-making) as well as skills for individual decision making such as self-knowledge, situational awareness, and assertiveness skills. The effect of CRM training in airline flight operations has been widely studied during the 1980s. Numerous reports document CRM's positive impact on the attitudes and performance of flight crews (cf., Helmreich, Foushee, Benson,&Russini, 1986; Helmreich, Predmore, Irwin, Butler, Taggart, Willhelm, Clothier, 1991). Taken together the evidence shows that team coordination among aviation "mangers" and between them and subordinates, improves system effectiveness and safety. Teamwork in aviation has recently become a topic of importance and interest. For example, as a result of recent work researching team concepts in aviation maintenance, further investigations have been recommended by both industry and government groups as a national priority (Federal Aviation Administration "The National Plan for Aviation Human Factors," Washington, DC: 1991). CRM training has subsequently been introduced to maintenance and in Air Traffic Control as well. The intention of this panel is to discuss the underlying concepts of teamwork training, its historical perspective, and current research activities and state of the art of CRM training and its varied application in the aviation field. The first panelist will present a brief historical background and philosophy of CRM and how the foundation of CRM training was established. Building on this, the second panelist will discuss CRM research activities as it relates to flight crews in the commercial aviation area. The third panelist will present the implementation of CRM in the military setting and what effects it has had on flight crew safety and effectiveness. The application of CRM to maintenance operations will be the focus of the fourth paper which describes implementing a CRM-type training in maintenance and its effects on maintenance performance. Lastly, the fifth panelist will present the initial stages of assessing air traffic controller's attitudes towards management CRM-related concepts. Concluding the panel discussions will be the panel chair who will summarize and highlight the major points.
© All rights reserved Taylor et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Majchrzak, Ann, Cotter, John, Karasek, Robert, Taylor, James and Eveland, Leslie (1988): The Application of Sociotechnical Systems Design to Computer Integrated Manufacturing. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. pp. 749-750.
Sociotechnical Systems (STS) theory rests on two premises. The first is that, in any purposeful organization in which humans are required to perform activities, the desired output is achieved through the actions of a social as well as a technical system. These systems are interlocked such that the achievement of the output becomes a function of their joint operation. The second premise is that every sociotechnical system is embedded in an environment that is influenced by a culture, its values, and a set of generally acceptable practices. Thus, any organization operates as an open system, in which the boundaries between the environment and the individual systems are highly permeable (see Davis and Taylor, Design of Jobs, 1979 for a fuller discussion of the basic tenets of STS theory.)
© All rights reserved Majchrzak et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Dray, Susan M., Hopelain, David, Imada, Andrew, Kling, Rob, Mallott, Betty, Robertson, Michelle and Taylor, James (1988): Putting It in Perspective: Different Disciplines' Approaches to Managing Technologically-Stimulated Change. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. p. 765.
Sociotechnical systems (STS), Macroergonomics, Behavioral Science, Participatory Ergonomics, Computer Science, Organizational Development (OD), Sociotechnical systems (STS). These are several of the disciplines which are participating in today's business and information systems environment to manage the organizational changes that the design and implementation of new technology brings with it. Five years ago, the major issue was "How do we get managers to be aware that technology brings with it organizational changes which need to be proactively planned for and managed?" But today, as more and more managers are aware of this, the major issue has shifted to "How do we actually plan and manage these changes?" The purpose of this panel is to discuss how different disciplines answer this question. The panelists each represent a different approach and will discuss briefly the philosophical roots of their discipline, and then discuss more fully the typical approaches and tools which they would use to help managers address these issues. We will then discuss differences and similarities, drawing from the audience's experiences where possible, in an attempt to understand ways we can learn from each other.
© All rights reserved Dray et al. and/or Human Factors Society
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