Publication statistics

Pub. period:1967-2009
Pub. count:49
Number of co-authors:53



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Scott E. Hudson:6
Martin R. Frank:5
Piyawadee Sukaviriya:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

James D. Foley's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Brad A. Myers:154
Gavriel Salvendy:149
Scott E. Hudson:113
 
 
 

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James D. Foley

Has also published under the name of:
"James Foley" and "Jim Foley"

Personal Homepage:
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Publications by James D. Foley (bibliography)

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2009
 
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Clarkson, Edward C., Navathe, Shamkant B. and Foley, James D. (2009): Generalized formal models for faceted user interfaces. In: JCDL09 Proceedings of the 2009 Joint International Conference on Digital Libraries 2009. pp. 125-134.

Faceted metadata and navigation have become major topics in library science, information retrieval and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). This work surveys a range of extant approaches in this design space, classifying systems along several relevant dimensions. We use that survey to analyze the organization of data and its querying within faceted browsing systems. We contribute formal entity-relationship (ER) and relational data models that explain that organization and relational query models that explain systems' browsing functionality. We use these types of models since they are widely used to conceptualize data and to model back-end data stores. Their structured nature also suggests ways in which both the models and faceted systems might be extended.

© All rights reserved Clarkson et al. and/or their publisher

2005
 
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Foley, James D., Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Grudin, Jonathan, Hollan, James D., Hudson, Scott E., Olson, Judy and Verplank, Bill (2005): Graduate education in human-computer interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2113-2114.

HCI, course outlines, curricula, degree programs, digital library, graduate education, teaching materials

© All rights reserved Foley et al. and/or ACM Press

2000
 
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Foley, James D. (2000): Getting There: The Ten Top Problems Left. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 20 (1) pp. 66-68.

1997
 
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Jacob, Robert J. K., Feiner, Steven K., Foley, James D., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Olsen Jr, Dan R. (1997): UIST'007: Where Will We Be Ten Years From Now?. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 115-118.

The conference this year is the tenth anniversary of UIST. The keynote talk discusses the history of UIST over the last ten years; this panel looks into the future of the field over the next ten. Each of the panelists will describe a scenario for what life will be like when we meet for UIST'07, ten years from now. They will also have a chance to challenge or question each others' scenarios and to participate in open discussion with the audience.

© All rights reserved Jacob et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Foley, James D. (1997): Technology Transfer from University to Industry. In: Moore, Johanna D., Edmonds, Ernest and Puerta, Angel R. (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 1997 January 6-9, 1997, Orlando, Florida, USA. pp. 3-4.

KEY QUESTIONS 1. How should we define successful technology transfer? By the extent to which the research affects the success of a project in the marketplace. This is a very pragmatic answer based on the belief that the most important measure of success is impact. 2. What should researchers, developers, and management do to make success more likely? Start with developing people relationships. Then, * Facilitate bottom-up initiation of projects; * Develop the prototype using the sponsor's hardware and software; * Help industry R&D staff understand the values, motivations, and structure of university R&D; * Help university researchers understand the tech transfer process and the entire product development cycle; * Provide the rewards and financial resources to encourage industry managers and staff to take the extra risk of establishing a research collaboration. 3. What are some of the danger signals that suggest a research collaboration is in trouble? * Industry sponsor is too busy to come see you; * Professor is too busy to visit company; * Undefined tech transfer process; * Funding for "feel good" reasons; * A high-level manager directing that external funding be directed to a particular project or person or university.

© All rights reserved Foley and/or ACM Press

1996
 
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Foley, James D. (1996): Technology Transfer from University to Industry. In Communications of the ACM, 39 (9) pp. 30-31.

1995
 
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Foley, James D., van Dam, Andries, Feiner, Steven K. and Hughes, John F. (1995): Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice (2nd edition in C). Addison-Wesley Publishing

 
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Mukherjea, Sougata, Foley, James D. and Hudson, Scott E. (1995): Visualizing Complex Hypermedia Networks through Multiple Hierarchical Views. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 331-337.

Our work concerns visualizing the information space of hypermedia systems using multiple hierarchical views. Although overview diagrams are useful for helping the user to navigate in a hypermedia system, for any real-world system they become too complicated and large to be really useful. This is because these diagrams represent complex network structures which are very difficult to visualize and comprehend. On the other hand, effective visualizations of hierarchies have been developed. Our strategy is to provide the user with different hierarchies, each giving a different perspective to the underlying information space to help the user better comprehend the information. We propose an algorithm based on content and structural analysis to form hierarchies from hypermedia networks. The algorithm is automatic but can be guided by the user. The multiple hierarchies can be visualized in various ways. We give examples of the implementation of the algorithm on two hypermedia systems.

© All rights reserved Mukherjea et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Frank, Martin R. and Foley, James D. (1995): Inference Bear: Designing Interactive Interfaces through Before and After Snapshots. In: Proceedings of DIS95: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1995. pp. 167-175.

We present Inference Bear ("An Inference Creature based on Before and After Snapshots") which lets users build functional graphical user interfaces by demonstration. Inference Bear is unique in its use of a domain-independent reasoning engine. This approach has several advantages over systems that are closely tied to their domains. Most notably, Inference Bear reasons about a class of relationships that is defined by their computational complexity while rule-based systems are limited to reasoning about the class of relationships that the designer foresaw when building the system. However, it is also more difficult to design domain-independent demonstrational systems that are as easy to use as their domain-specific counterparts. The paper addresses this issue, and other issues relating to domain-independence.

© All rights reserved Frank and and/or ACM Press

1994
 
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Byrne, Michael D., Wood, Scott D., Sukaviriya, Piyawadee, Foley, James D. and Kieras, David E. (1994): Automating Interface Evaluation. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 232-237.

One method for user interface analysis that has proven successful is formal analysis, such as GOMS-based analysis. Such methods are often criticized for being difficult to learn, or at the very least an additional burden for the system designer. However, if the process of constructing and using formal models could be automated as part of the interface design environment, such models could be of even greater value. This paper describes an early version of such a system, called USAGE (the UIDE System for semi-Automated GOMS Evaluation). Given the application model necessary to drive the UIDE system, USAGE generates an NGOMSL model of the interface which can be "run" on a typical set of user tasks and provide execution and learning time estimates.

© All rights reserved Byrne et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Frank, Martin R. and Foley, James D. (1994): A Pure Reasoning Engine for Programming by Demonstration. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. pp. 95-101.

We present an inference engine that can be used for creating Programming By Demonstration systems. The class of systems addressed are those which infer a state change description from examples of state [9,11]. The engine can easily be incorporated into an existing design environment that provides an interactive object editor. The main design goals of the inference engine are responsiveness and generality. All demonstrational systems must respond quickly because of their interactive use. They should also be general -- they should be able to make inferences for any attribute that the user may want to define by demonstration, and they should be able to treat any other attributes as parameters of this definition. The first goal, responsiveness, is best accommodated by limiting the number of attributes that the inference engine takes into consideration. This, however, is in obvious conflict with the second goal, generality. This conflict is intrinsic to the class of demonstrational system described above. The challenge is to find an algorithm which responds quickly but does not heuristically limit the number of attributes it looks at. We present such an algorithm in this paper. A companion paper describes Inference Bear [4], an actual demonstrational system that we have built using this inference engine and an existing user interface builder [5].

© All rights reserved Frank and Foley and/or ACM Press

 
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Sukaviriya, Noi, Kovacevic, Srdjan, Foley, James D., Myers, Brad A., Olsen Jr, Dan R. and Schneider-Hufschmidt, Matthias (1994): Model-Based User Interfaces: What are They and Why Should We Care?. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. pp. 133-135.

 
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Mukherjea, Sougata, Foley, James D. and Hudson, Scott E. (1994): Interactive Clustering for Navigating in Hypermedia Systems. In: Proceedings of ECHT 94 the ACM European Conference on Hypermedia Technology Sept 18-23, 1994, Edinburgh, UK. pp. 136-145.

This paper talks about clustering related nodes of an overview diagram to reduce its complexity and size. This is because although overview diagrams are useful for helping the user to navigate in a hypermedia system, for any real-world system these become too complicated and large to be really useful. Both structure-based and content-based clustering are used. Since the nodes can be related to each other in different ways, depending on the situation different clustered views will be useful. Hence, it should be possible to interactively specify the clustering conditions and examine the resulting views. We present efficient clustering algorithms which can cluster the information space in real-time. We talk about the Navigational View Builder, a tool that allows the interactive development of overview diagrams. Finally, we propose a 3-dimensional approach for visualizing these abstracted views.

© All rights reserved Mukherjea et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Foley, James D. (1994): Integrating Computer Technology, People Technology and Application Technology: Strategies and Case Studies from Georgia Tech's Graphics, Visualization and Usability Center. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 1994 1994. pp. 34-43.

 
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Foley, James D. and Sukaviriya, Piyawadee Noi (1994): History, Results, and Bibliography of the User Interface Design Environment (UIDE), an Early Model-based System for User Interface Design and Implementation. In: Paterno, Fabio (ed.) DSV-IS 1994 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems94, Proceedings of the First International Eurographics Workshop June 8-10, 1994, Bocca di Magra, Italy. pp. 3-14.

 
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Sukaviriya, Piyawadee Noi, Muthukumarasamy, Jeyakumar, Frank, Martin R. and Foley, James D. (1994): A Model-based User Interface Architecture: Enhancing a Runtime Environment with Declarative Knowledge. In: Paterno, Fabio (ed.) DSV-IS 1994 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems94, Proceedings of the First International Eurographics Workshop June 8-10, 1994, Bocca di Magra, Italy. pp. 181-197.

1993
 
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Hudson, Scott E., Pausch, Randy, Zanden, Brad Vander and Foley, James D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology 1993, Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

 
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Frank, Martin R. and Foley, James D. (1993): Model-Based User Interface Design by Example and by Interview. In: Hudson, Scott E., Pausch, Randy, Zanden, Brad Vander and Foley, James D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology 1993, Atlanta, Georgia, United States. pp. 129-137.

Model-based user interface design is centered around a description of application objects and operations at a level of abstraction higher than that of code. A good model can be used to support multiple interfaces, help separate interface and application, describe input sequencing in a simple way, check consistency and completeness of the interface, evaluate the interface's speed-of-use, generate context-specific help and assist in designing the interface. However, designers rarely use computer-supported application modelling today and prefer less formal approaches such as story boards of user interface prototypes. One reason is that available tools often use cryptic languages for the model specification. Another reason is that these tools force the designers to specify the application model before they can start working on the visual interface, which is their main area of expertise. We present the Interactive User Interface Design Environment (Interactive UIDE), a novel framework for concurrent development of the application model and the user interface which combines story-boarding and model-based interface design. We also present Albert, an intelligent component within this framework, which is able to infer an application model from a user interface and from an interview process with the designer.

© All rights reserved Frank and Foley and/or ACM Press

 
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Olsen Jr, Dan R., Foley, James D., Hudson, Scott E., Miller, James R. and Myers, Brad A. (1993): Research Directions for User Interface Software Tools. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 12 (2) pp. 80-97.

 
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Neches, Robert, Foley, James D., Szekely, Pedro, Sukaviriya, Piyawadee, Luo, Ping, Kovacevic, Srdjan and Hudson, Scott E. (1993): Knowledgeable Development Environments Using Shared Design Models. In: Gray, Wayne D., Hefley, William and Murray, Dianne (eds.) International Workshop on Intelligent User Interfaces 1993 January 4-7, 1993, Orlando, Florida, USA. pp. 63-70.

We describe MASTERMIND, a step toward our vision of a knowledge-based design-time and run-time environment in which human-computer interfaces development is centered around an all-encompassing design model. The MASTERMIND approach is intended to provide integration and continuity across the entire life cycle of the user interface. In addition, it facilitates higher quality work within each phase of the life cycle. MASTERMIND is an open framework, in which the design knowledge base allows multiple tools to come into play and makes knowledge created by each tool accessible to the others.

© All rights reserved Neches et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sukaviriya, Piyawadee and Foley, James D. (1993): Supporting Adaptive Interfaces in a Knowledge-Based User Interface Environment. In: Gray, Wayne D., Hefley, William and Murray, Dianne (eds.) International Workshop on Intelligent User Interfaces 1993 January 4-7, 1993, Orlando, Florida, USA. pp. 107-113.

Developing an adaptive interface requires a user interface that can be adapted, a user model, and an adaptation strategy. Research on adaptive interfaces in the past suffered from a lack of supporting tools which allow an interface to be easily created and modified. Also, adding adaptivity to a user interface so far has not been supported by any user interface systems or environments. In this paper, we present an overview of a knowledge base model of the User Interface Design Environment (UIDE). UIDE uses the knowledge of an application to support the run-time execution of the application's interface and provides various kinds of automatic help. We present how the knowledge model can be used as a basic construct of a user model. Finally, we present adaptive interface and adaptive help behaviors that can be extended to the current UIDE architecture utilizing the user model. These behaviors are options from which an application designer can choose for an application interface.

© All rights reserved Sukaviriya and and/or ACM Press

1992
 
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Foley, James D., Mitchell, Christine M. and Walker, Neff (1992): Human-Computer Interaction Research at Georgia Institute of Technology. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 61-62.

 
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Gieskens, Daniel F. and Foley, James D. (1992): Controlling User Interface Objects Through Pre- and Postconditions. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 189-194.

We have augmented user interface objects (i.e. windows, menus, buttons, sliders, etc.) with preconditions that determine their visibility and their enabled/disabled status and postconditions that are asserted when certain actions are performed on the object. Postconditions are associated with each functionally different action on the object. Attaching pre- and postconditions to interface objects provides several useful features, such as selective enabling of controls, rapid prototyping, and automatic generation of explanations and help text.

© All rights reserved Gieskens and Foley and/or ACM Press

 
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de Baar, Dennis J. M. J., Foley, James D. and Mullet, Kevin (1992): Coupling Application Design and User Interface Design. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 259-266.

Building an interactive application involves the design of both a data model and a graphical user interface (GUI) to present that model to the user. These two design activities are typically approached as separate tasks and are frequently undertaken by different individuals or groups. Our approach eliminates redundant specification work by generating an interface directly from the data model itself. An inference engine using style rules for selecting and placing GUI controls (i.e., widgets) is integrated with an interface design tool to generate a user interface definition. This approach allows a single data model to be mapped onto multiple GUI's by substituting the appropriate rule set and thus represents a step toward a GUI-independent run-time layout facility.

© All rights reserved de Baar et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Frank, Martin R., Graaff, J. J., Gieskens, Daniel F. and Foley, James D. (1992): Building User Interfaces Interactively Using Pre- and Postconditions. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 641-642.

A tool is presented which allows graphic layout of a user interface integrated with specification of behavior using pre- and postconditions.

© All rights reserved Frank et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Foley, James D. (1992): The Purpose of TOG. In ACM Transactions on Graphics, 11 (4) pp. 297-298.

1991
 
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Foley, James D. (1991): Future Directions in User-Computer Interface Software. In: Jong, Peter de (ed.) Proceedings of the Conference on Organizational Computing Systems 1991 November 6-8, 1991, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 289-297.

Developing high-quality user interfaces is becoming the critical step in bringing many different computer applications to end users. Ease of learning and speed of use typically must be combined in an attractively-designed interface which appeals to application (not computer) oriented end users. This is a complex undertaking, requiring skills of computer scientists, application specialists, graphic designers, human factors experts, and psychologists. User interface software is the foundation upon which the interface is built. The quality of the building blocks provided by the software establishes the framework within which an interface designer works. The tools should allow the designer to quickly experiment with different design approaches, and should be accessible to the non-programmer designer. In this paper we discuss important directions in software tools for building user interfaces: * Unified representation serving multiple purposes; * Integration with software engineering tools; * Interactive programming and by-example creation of interfaces and interface components. Most of our focus in on the first two areas.

© All rights reserved Foley and/or ACM Press

 
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Foley, James D. (1991): Editorial: Looking Back, Looking Ahead. In ACM Transactions on Graphics, 10 (4) pp. 321-322.

 
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Maleknasri, Sia and Foley, James D. (1991): Design and Experimental Evaluation of a New Graphical Multi-Process Debugger. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1991. pp. 566-571.

Most program development tools do not provide for testing of multi-process programs. We have developed the Concurrent Process Environment Monitor (CPEM), which facilitates debugging of UNIX/C concurrent programs. CPEM monitors programs comprised of many concurrent processes, and informs the user of the status and interactions of the processes. CPEM presents information either graphically or in a more traditional textual form. A controlled experiment was conducted to assess the relative effectiveness of the two CPEM presentations. The graphical CPEM was found to be superior to the textual CPEM in helping programmers debug two different concurrent programs. Furthermore, programmers overwhelmingly preferred the graphical presentation to the equivalent textual interface.

© All rights reserved Maleknasri and Foley and/or Elsevier Science

1990
 
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Kim, Won Chul and Foley, James D. (1990): DON: User Interface Presentation Design Assistant. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 10-20.

We describe a design tool, DON, which assists user interface designers in generating menu and dialog box presentations. An integrated knowledge base model serves as the foundation for developing the set of design rules to automate various activities of the design process. Useful and reusable knowledge about the organization of menus and dialog boxes is identified and encapsulated in the form of design rules. The basic approach we take is embedding a top-down design methodology in a tool that assists designers in organizing the information, selecting appropriate interface object classes and their attributes, and placing selected interface objects in a dialog box or a menu in a meaningful, logical, and consistent manner. We let the designer specify the conceptual design of an application, maintain high-level style preference profiles, customize the appearances of interface object classes which make up an interface presentation, and control the priority of organization rules. The tool then automatically generates the user interface presentation.

© All rights reserved Kim and Foley and/or ACM Press

 
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Sukaviriya, Piyawadee and Foley, James D. (1990): Coupling a UI Framework with Automatic Generation of Context-Sensitive Animated Help. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 152-166.

Animated help can assist users in understanding how to use computer application interfaces. An animated help facility integrated into a runtime user interface support tool requires information pertaining to user interfaces, the applications being supported, the relationships between interface and application and precise detailed information sufficient for accurate illustrations of interface components. This paper presents a knowledge model developed to support such an animated help facility. Continuing our research efforts towards automatic generation of user interfaces from specifications, a framework has been developed to utilize one knowledge model to automatically generate animated help at runtime and to assist the management of user interfaces. Cartoonist is a system implemented based on the framework. Without the help facility, Cartoonist functions as a knowledge-driven user interface. With the help facility added to Cartoonist's user interface architecture, we demonstrate how animation of user's actions can be simulated by superimposing animation on the actual interface. The animation sequences imitate user actions and Cartoonist's user interface dialogue controller responds to animation "inputs" exactly as if they were from a user. The user interface runtime information managed by Cartoonist is shared with the help facility to furnish animation scenarios and to vary scenarios to suit the current user context. The Animator and the UI controller are modeled so that the Animator incorporates what is essential to the animation task and the UI controller assumes responsibility of the rest of the interaction -- an approach which maintains consistency between help animation and the actual user interface.

© All rights reserved Sukaviriya and and/or ACM Press

 
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Nielsen, Jakob, Dray, Susan M., Foley, James D., Walsh, Paul and Wright, Peter C. (1990): Usability Engineering on a Budget. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 1067-1070.

This panel will discuss how to get the "most bang for the buck" in usability engineering. What should one do when the budget is restricted and it is impossible to do everything by the book? How can one introduce usability methods in companies that currently have no systematic usability efforts?

© All rights reserved Nielsen et al. and/or North-Holland

 
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Foley, James D., van Dam, Andries, Feiner, Steven K. and Hughes, John F. (1990): Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice. Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley Publishing

1989
 
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Barfield, Woodrow, Salvendy, Gavriel and Foley, James D. (1989): An Analogue and Propositional Hybrid Model for the Perception of Computer Generated Graphical Images. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 8 (4) pp. 257-272.

This research investigated two alternative models, analogue and propositional, which describe how three-dimensional (3-D) graphical images are represented and stored in human memory. In order to differentiate between the two models, three separate experiments were performed using a variation of the Shepard-Metzler mental rotation paradigm (Shepard and Metzler 1971). For each experiment, the effects of three independent variables on the performance of a 'mental rotation' task were examined: (a) three levels of figure complexity, (b) three axes of rotation and (c) four angles of rotation. The subjects' task was to compare specific angle, axis or depth versus picture plane rotations for pairs (rotated and non-rotated versions) of 3-D graphic figures displayed on a CRT. The results indicated that response times varied depending on level of figure complexity, axis or angle of rotation. A new hybrid model integrating components of both the analogue and propositional positions is proposed to explain the reaction time data. In this model, analogue processes occur when processing requirements for cognitive tasks are low, whereas propositional processes occur when processing requirements are high. Implications of the results for the internal representation of 3-D images in human memory and for the design of graphic work stations are discussed.

© All rights reserved Barfield et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

1988
 
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Foley, James D., Gibbs, Christina, Kim, Won Chul and Kovacevic, Srdjan (1988): A Knowledge-Based User Interface Management System. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 67-72.

A knowledge base which defines a user-computer interface is described. The knowledge base serves as input to a user interface management system, which implements the user interface. However, the knowledge base represents user interface design knowledge at a level of abstraction higher than is typical of user interface management systems. In particular, it represents objects, actions, attributes of objects, an object class hierarchy, and pre-and post-conditions on the actions. The knowledge base can be algorithmically transformed into a number of functionally equivalent interfaces, each of which is slightly different from the original interface. The transformed interface definition can be input to the UIMS, providing a way to quickly experiment with a family of related interfaces.

© All rights reserved Foley et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Barfield, Woodrow, Sandford, James and Foley, James D. (1988): The Mental Rotation and Perceived Realism of Computer-Generated Three-Dimensional Images. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 29 (6) pp. 669-684.

Two experiments were performed, one to investigate the effects of computer-generated realism cues (hidden surfaces removed, multiple light sources, surface shading) on the speed and accuracy with which subjects performed a standard cognitive task (mental rotation), the other to study the subjective perceived realism of computer-generated images. In the mental rotation experiment, four angles of rotation, two levels of object complexity, and five combinations of realism cues were varied as subjects performed "same-different" discriminations of pairs of rotated three-dimensional images. Results indicated that mean reaction times were faster for shaded images than for hidden-edge-removed images. In terms of speed of response and response accuracy, significant effects for object complexity and angle of rotation were shown. In the second experiment, subjective ratings of image realism revealed that wireframe images were viewed as less realistic than shaded images and that number of light sources was more important in conveying realism than type of surface shading. Implications of the results for analogue and propositional models on memory organization and integral and non-integral characteristics of realism cues are discussed.

© All rights reserved Barfield et al. and/or Academic Press

1987
 
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Foley, James D., Kim, Won Chul and Gibbs, Christina (1987): Algorithms to Transform the Formal Specification of a User-Computer Interface. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 1001-1006.

 
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Sandford, James, Barfield, Woodrow and Foley, James D. (1987): Empirical Studies of Interactive Computer Graphics: Perceptual and Cognitive Issues. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 31st Annual Meeting 1987. pp. 519-523.

Two experiments were performed to test the effects of varying computer graphics realism cues (wireframe vs. solid figures, flat vs. smooth shading for solid figures, and one or two light sources for solid figures) on the performance of a standard cognitive task (mental rotation) and on the subjective perceived realism of the computer-generated images. In the mental rotation experiment, mean reaction times were slower for wireframe than for smooth and flat shaded images and significant effects for figure complexity and angle of rotation were shown. In the second experiment, subjective ratings of image realism indicated that wireframe images were viewed as less realistic than solid model images and that number of light sources was more important in conveying image realism to users than was the type of shading.

© All rights reserved Sandford et al. and/or Human Factors Society

1986
 
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Foley, James D., Boies, Stephen J., Wood, William and Zimmer, William (1986): Managing the Design of User-Computer Interfaces. In: Mantei, Marilyn and Orbeton, Peter (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 86 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 13-17, 1986, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 340-342.

 
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Foley, James D. (1986): Guest Editor's Introduction: Special Issue on User Interface Software. In ACM Transactions on Graphics, 5 (2) pp. 75-78.

Designing and implementing high-quality graphic user-computer interfaces has been a challenging, labor-intensive process: consequently, many contemporary interactive graphics systems lack the accoutrements required of easy-to-learn, fast-to-use interfaces. There are several reasons for the relative dearth of high-quality user interfaces. First, the computational resources of memory, processor cycles, and high bandwidth between computer and display that such interfaces require have until recently been too expensive. Furthermore, we are only beginning to understand what constitutes a good user interface and the management processes required to create such interfaces. Finally, and central to this special issue, there has been an insufficient software foundation upon which to build the interfaces. Too many wheels have had to be reinvented, so that the people resources remaining after the wheels were created have sufficed to build only bicycles and wagons, rather than motorcycles and cars. User interface software can eliminate the need to build yet another wheel, by providing higher level user interface abstractions for the applications programmer.

© All rights reserved Foley and/or ACM Press

 
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Foley, James D. (1986): Guest Editor's Introduction: Special Issue on User Interface Software. In ACM Transactions on Graphics, 5 (3) pp. 176-178.

Designing and implementing high-quality graphic user-computer interfaces has been a challenging, labor-intensive process: consequently, many contemporary interactive graphics systems lack the accoutrements required of easy-to-learn, fast-to-use interfaces. There are several reasons for the relative dearth of high-quality user interfaces. First, the computational resources of memory, processor cycles, and high bandwidth between computer and display that such interfaces require have until recently been too expensive. Furthermore, we are only beginning to understand what constitutes a good user interface and the management processes required to create such interfaces. Finally, and central to this special issue, there has been an insufficient software foundation upon which to build the interfaces. Too many wheels have had to be reinvented, so that the people resources remaining after the wheels were created have sufficed to build only bicycles and wagons, rather than motorcycles and cars. User interface software can eliminate the need to build yet another wheel, by providing higher level user interface abstractions for the applications programmer.

© All rights reserved Foley and/or ACM Press

 
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Foley, James D. (1986): Guest Editor's Introduction: Special Issue on User Interface Software. In ACM Transactions on Graphics, 5 (4) pp. 279-282.

Designing and implementing high-quality graphic user-computer interfaces has been a challenging, labor-intensive process: consequently, many contemporary interactive graphics systems lack the accoutrements required of easy-to-learn, fast-to-use interfaces. There are several reasons for the relative dearth of high-quality user interfaces. First, the computational resources of memory, processor cycles, and high bandwidth between computer and display that such interfaces require have until recently been too expensive. Furthermore, we are only beginning to understand what constitutes a good user interface and the management processes required to create such interfaces. Finally, and central to this special issue, there has been an insufficient software foundation upon which to build the interfaces. Too many wheels have had to be reinvented, so that the people resources remaining after the wheels were created have sufficed to build only bicycles and wagons, rather than motorcycles and cars. User interface software can eliminate the need to build yet another wheel, by providing higher level user interface abstractions for the applications programmer.

© All rights reserved Foley and/or ACM Press

1985
 
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Hu, Mei-Cheng and Foley, James D. (1985): Parallel processing approaches to hidden-surface removal in image space. In Computers & Graphics, 9 (3) pp. 303-317.

1982
 
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Foley, James D. and van Dam, Andries (1982): Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics. Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley Publishing

 
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Foley, James D. (1982): Teaching the Design and Evaluation of User-Computer Interfaces. In: Nichols, Jean A. and Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 292-294.

 
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Bleser, Teresa and Foley, James D. (1982): Towards Specifying and Evaluating the Human Factors of User-Computer Interfaces. In: Nichols, Jean A. and Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 309-314.

 
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Foley, James D. (1982): A framework for the design evaluation and implementation of user--computer interfaces. In: Graphics Interface 82 May 17-21, 1982, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. p. 1.

1971
 
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Foley, James D. (1971): An Approach to the Optimum Design of Computer Graphics Systems. In Communications of the ACM, 14 (6) pp. 380-390.

1967
 
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Foley, James D. (1967): A Markovian model of the university of Michigan executive system. In Communications of the ACM, 10 (9) pp. 584-588.

 
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