Publication statistics

Pub. period:1981-2011
Pub. count:30
Number of co-authors:29


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Albert S. Dexter:4
Zhenhui Jiang:3
Weiquan Wang:3



Productive colleagues

Izak Benbasat's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Yair Wand:11
Karine Barzilai-Na..:9
Ji-Ye Mao:8

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Izak Benbasat

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Publications by Izak Benbasat (bibliography)

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Yi, Cheng, Jiang, Zhenhui and Benbasat, Izak (2011): Enticing consumers via incomplete product experience: an investigation of online product interactivity designs. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2679-2688. Available online

This paper reports on two studies that investigate the design of online product interactivity. The first study compares three different presentation formats: a video presentation and two Virtual Product Experience (VPE) presentations, namely, triggered interaction and full interaction. The findings suggest that triggered interaction VPE is more effective in enticing users to attend to and further explore the featured products than both the non-interactive video presentation and the full interaction VPE. The second study builds upon the first and focuses on two specific VPE design factors. In particular, it investigates interaction constraint (high versus low constraint) in addition to the activation mode of interaction (process-based interaction versus event-based interaction). The results reveal interesting interaction patterns between the two design factors, i.e., providing less constrained interaction performs better when process-based interaction design is adopted, but performs worse when event-based interaction is employed.

© All rights reserved Yi et al. and/or their publisher

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Qiu, Lingyun and Benbasat, Izak (2010): A study of demographic embodiments of product recommendation agents in electronic commerce. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68 (10) pp. 669-688. Available online

Product Recommendation Agents (PRAs) and other web-based decision aids are deployed extensively to provide online shoppers with virtual advising services. While the design of PRA's functional features has received a high degree of attention in academic studies, the social aspects of human-PRA interactions are comparatively less explored. This paper investigates the potential of enhancing users' social experiences of interacting with an anthropomorphic PRA (i.e., an agent with human-like characteristics, such as facial expressions, body gestures, or speech output) by manipulating its demographic embodiments. The two demographic variables assessed are ethnicity and gender. As suggested by similarity-attraction theory and social identity theory, the results of our laboratory experiment reveal that PRAs that match the ethnicity, though not the gender, of their users are perceived as more sociable, more enjoyable, and more useful to interact with than the mismatched ones. More interestingly, the "matching-up" effects of ethnicity are more significant among female users than males. Implications for practitioners on how to use an anthropomorphic agent's demographic characteristics to enhance users' interaction experience are also discussed.

© All rights reserved Qiu and Benbasat and/or Academic Press

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Lee, Young Eun and Benbasat, Izak (2010): Interaction design for mobile product recommendation agents: Supporting users' decisions in retail stores. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 17 (4) p. 17. Available online

Mobile product recommendation agents (RAs) are software systems that operate on mobile handheld devices, using wireless Internet to support users' decisions en route, such as consumers' product choices in retail stores. As the demand for ubiquitous access to the web grows, potential benefits of mobile RAs have been recognized, albeit with little supporting empirical evidence. We investigate whether and how mobile RAs enhance users' decisions in retail stores by reducing the effort to make purchase decisions while augmenting the accuracy of the decisions. In addition, to identify potential design principles for mobile RAs, we compare and evaluate two interaction styles of mobile RAs: alternative-driven (RA-AL) versus attribute-driven (RA-AT) interactions. The results of a laboratory experiment conducted in a simulated store indicate that mobile RAs reduced users' perceived effort and increased accuracy of their decisions. Furthermore, RA-AL users made more accurate decisions than RA-AT users due to the RA-AL's interaction style, which was compatible with the way in which users processed information and made decisions in the store. These empirical results support the notion that mobile RAs should be designed to fit the user's task undertaken in the particular context.

© All rights reserved Lee and Benbasat and/or ACM Press

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Barzilai-Nahon, Karine, Benbasat, Izak and Lou, Nancy (2008): Factors Influencing Users' Intentions to Make the Web Accessible to People with Disabilities. In: HICSS 2008 - 41st Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 7-10 January, 2008, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. p. 126. Available online

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Tan, Chee Wee, Benbasat, Izak and Cenfetelli, Ronald T. (2008): Building Citizen Trust towards E-Government Services: Do High Quality Websites Matter?. In: HICSS 2008 - 41st Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 7-10 January, 2008, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. p. 217. Available online

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Jiang, Zhenhui and Benbasat, Izak (2007): The Effects of Presentation Formats and Task Complexity on Online Consumers' Product Understanding. In MIS Quarterly, 31 (3) pp. 475-500. Available online

This study assesses and compares four product presentation formats currently used online: static pictures, videos without narration, videos with narration, and virtual product experience (VPE), where consumers are able to virtually feel, touch, and try products. The effects of the four presentation formats on consumers' product understanding as well as the moderating role of the complexity of product understanding tasks were examined in a laboratory experiment. Two constructs used to measure product understanding performance are actual product knowledge and perceived website diagnosticity (i.e., the extent to which consumers believe a website is helpful for them to understand products). The experimental results show that (1) both videos and VPE lead to higher perceived website diagnosticity than static pictures; (2) under a moderate task complexity condition, VPE and videos lead to the same level of actual product knowledge, but all are more effective than static pictures; (3) under a high task complexity condition, all four presentation formats are equally effective in terms of actual product knowledge. Moreover, the results also indicate that it is perceived website diagnosticity, not actual product knowledge, that affects the perceived usefulness of websites, which further influences consumers' intentions to revisit the websites.

© All rights reserved Jiang and Benbasat and/or their publisher

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Nakatsu, Robbie T. and Benbasat, Izak (2006): Designing Intelligent Systems to Handle System Failures: Enhancing Explanatory Power With Less Restrictive User Interfaces and Deep Explanations. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 21 (1) pp. 55-72. Available online

This research empirically investigates the design choices that can be made to facilitate problem solving when intelligent systems fail. One way is to provide deep explanations, which are explanations that justify system actions. Another way is to manipulate system restrictiveness of the user interface. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of deep explanation support, as well as manipulations of system restrictiveness. Results suggest that the less restrictive system was more effective for problem-solving situations where system failure occurred. In addition, deep explanations were found to be somewhat helpful in system understanding, and this, in turn, led to improved problem-solving performance.

© All rights reserved Nakatsu and Benbasat and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

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Kim, Dongmin and Benbasat, Izak (2006): The Effects of Trust-Assuring Arguments on Consumer Trust in Internet Stores: Application of Toulmin's Model of Argumentation. In Information Systems Research, 17 (3) pp. 286-300. Available online

A trust-assuring argument refers to a claim and its supporting statements used in an Internet store to address trust-related issues. Although trust-assuring arguments often appear in Internet stores, little research has been conducted to understand their effects on consumer trust in an Internet store. The goals of this study are (1) to investigate whether or not the provision of trust-assuring arguments on the website of an Internet store increase consumer trust in that Internet store and (2) to identify the most effective form of trust-assuring arguments to provide guidelines for their implementation. Toulmin's (1958) model of argumentation is proposed as a basis to identify the elements of an argument and to strengthen the effects of trust-assuring arguments on consumer trust in an Internet store. Based on Toulmin's (1958) model of argumentation, three elements of arguments that commonly appear in daily communication; namely, claim, data, and backing, are identified. Data refers to the grounds for a claim, while backing is used for providing reasons for why the data should be accepted. By combining these three elements, three forms of trust-assuring arguments (claim only, claim plus data, and claim plus data and backing) are developed. The effects of these three forms of trust-assuring arguments on consumer trust in an Internet store are tested by comparing them to a no trust-assuring argument condition in a laboratory experiment with 112 participants. The results indicate (1) providing trust-assuring arguments that consist of claim plus data or claim plus data and backing increases consumers' trusting belief but displaying arguments that contain claim only does not and (2) trust-assuring arguments that include claim plus data and backing lead to the highest level of trusting belief among the three forms of arguments examined in this study. Based on the results, we argue that Toulmin's (1958) model of argumentation is an effective basis for website designers to develop convincing trust-assuring arguments and to improve existing trust-assuring arguments in Internet stores.

© All rights reserved Kim and Benbasat and/or their publisher

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Komiak, Sherrie Y. X. and Benbasat, Izak (2006): The Effects of Personalization and Familiarity on Trust and Adoption of Recommendation Agents. In MIS Quarterly, 30 (4) pp. 941-960. Available online

In the context of personalization technologies, such as Web-based product-brokering recommendation agents (RAs) in electronic commerce, existing technology acceptance theories need to be expanded to take into account not only the cognitive beliefs leading to adoption behavior, but also the affect elicited by the personalized nature of the technology. This study takes a trust-centered, cognitive and emotional balanced perspective to study RA adoption. Grounded on the theory of reasoned action, the IT adoption literature, and the trust literature, this study theoretically articulates and empirically examines the effects of perceived personalization and familiarity on cognitive trust and emotional trust in an RA, and the impact of cognitive trust and emotional trust on the intention to adopt the RA either as a decision aid or as a delegated agent. An experiment was conducted using two commercial RAs. PLS analysis results provide empirical support for the proposed theoretical perspective. Perceived personalization significantly increases customers' intention to adopt by increasing cognitive trust and emotional trust. Emotional trust plays an important role beyond cognitive trust in determining customers' intention to adopt. Emotional trust fully mediates the impact of cognitive trust on the intention to adopt the RA as a delegated agent, while it only partially mediates the impact of cognitive trust on the intention to adopt the RA as a decision aid. Familiarity increases the intention to adopt through cognitive trust and emotional trust.

© All rights reserved Komiak and Benbasat and/or their publisher

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Qiu, Lingyun and Benbasat, Izak (2005): Online Consumer Trust and Live Help Interfaces: The Effects of Text-to-Speech Voice and Three-Dimensional Avatars. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 19 (1) pp. 75-94.

With the increasing prevalence of online shopping, many companies have begun to provide "live help" functions, through instant messaging or text chatting, on their Web sites to facilitate interactions between online consumers and customer service representatives (CSRs). The continuing reliance of these functions on text-based communication limits nonverbal communication with consumers and the social contexts for the information conveyed. However, with the help of emerging multimedia technologies, companies can now use computer-generated voice and humanoid avatars to embody CSRs, thus enriching the interactive experiences of their customers. In this study, a laboratory experiment was conducted to empirically test the effects of text-to-speech (TTS) voice and 3-dimensional (3D) avatars on consumer trust toward CSRs. TTS voice was implemented to deliver answers aloud. A 3D avatar served as the humanoid representation of a CSR. The results demonstrated that the presence of TTS voice significantly increases consumers' cognitive and emotional trust toward the CSR. These findings offer practitioners guidelines to improve the interface design of real-time human-to-human communications for e-commerce Web sites.

© All rights reserved Qiu and Benbasat and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

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Komiak, Sherrie, Wang, Weiquan and Benbasat, Izak (2005): Comparing Customer Trust in Virtual Salespersons With Customer Trust in Human Salespersons. In: HICSS 2005 - 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3-6 January, 2005, Big Island, HI, USA. . Available online

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Jiang, Zhenhui, Wang, Weiquan and Benbasat, Izak (2005): Multimedia-based interactive advising technology for online consumer decision support. In Communications of the ACM, 48 (9) pp. 92-98. Available online

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Al-Natour, Sameh, Benbasat, Izak and Cenfetelli, Ronald T. (2005): The role of similarity in e-commerce interactions: The case of online shopping assistants. In: Proceedings of the 4th Annual Workshop on HCI Research in MIS December 10, 2005, Las Vegas, USA. pp. 70-74. Available online

This research proposes that technological artifacts are perceived as social actors, and that users can make personality and behavioral attributions towards them. These formed perceptions interact with the user's own characteristics in the form of an evaluation of similarity. Using an automated shopping assistant, the study investigates the effects of two types of perceived similarity on a number of dependent variables. The results show that both, perceived personality similarity, as well as perceived behavioral similarity, between the user and the decision aid positively affect users' evaluations of the technological artifact. Furthermore, the study investigates the role of design characteristics in forming social perceptions about the shopping assistant. The results indicate that design characteristics, namely content, can be used to manifest desired personalities and behaviors, allowing us to compute measures of actual similarity, which were found to predict perceived similarity.

© All rights reserved Al-Natour et al. and/or their publisher

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Benbasat, Izak and Wang, Weiquan (2005): Trust In and Adoption of Online Recommendation Agents. In Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 6 (3) pp. 72-101. Available online

Online product recommendation agents are becoming increasingly prevalent on a wide range of websites. These agents assist customers in reducing information overload, providing advice to find suitable products, and facilitating online decision-making. Consumer trust in recommendation agents is an integral factor influencing their successful adoption. However, the nature of trust in technological artifacts is still an under-investigated and not well understood topic. Online recommendation agents work on behalf of individual users (principals) by reflecting their specific needs and preferences. Trust issues associated with online recommendation agents are complicated. Users may be concerned about the competence of an agent to satisfy their needs as well as its integrity and benevolence in regard to acting on their behalf rather than on behalf of a web merchant or a manufacture. This study extends the interpersonal trust construct to trust in online recommendation agents and examines the nomological validity of trust in agents by testing an integrated Trust-TAM (Technology Acceptance Model). The results from a laboratory experiment confirm the nomological validity of trust in online recommendation agents. Consumers treat online recommendation agents as " social actors" and perceive human characteristics (e.g., benevolence and integrity) in computerized agents. Furthermore, the results confirm the validity of Trust-TAM to explain online recommendation acceptance and reveal the relative importance of consumers' initial trust vis--vis other antecedents addressed by TAM (i.e. perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use). Both the usefulness of the agents as "tools" and consumers' trust in the agents as "virtual assistants" are important in consumers' intentions to adopt online recommendation agents.

© All rights reserved Benbasat and Wang and/or their publisher

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Komiak, Sherrie X. and Benbasat, Izak (2004): Understanding Customer Trust in Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce, Web-Mediated Electronic Commerce, and Traditional Commerce. In Information Technology and Management, 5 (1) pp. 181-207. Available online

Customer trust is important in agent-mediated electronic commerce, web-mediated electronic commerce, and traditional commerce. However, the meaning of customer trust in these contexts has not been clearly defined or fully delineated. This paper proposes a new trust model that differentiates between cognitive trust and emotional trust, defines customer trust in each type of commerce as cognitive trust and emotional trust in the various entities (e.g., website, computer agent) that make up a commerce context, and then compares customer trust across the three types of commerce. We propose that, first, emotional trust merits research, particularly in e-commerce. Second, both awareness of the known and awareness of the unknown will be higher in e-commerce than in traditional commerce; this will lead to lower cognitive trust and emotional trust in e-commerce. Third, the key to increase customer trust in e-commerce is to design and develop technologies to reduce the distance between a customer and each entity, thereby increasing awareness of the known and decreasing awareness of the unknown. Fourth, cognitive trust and emotional trust fall along a continuum with potentially asymmetric effects on customer dependence on entities in e-commerce (e.g., computer agent adoption). Finally, future research on customer trust in e-commerce is outlined.

© All rights reserved Komiak and Benbasat and/or Springer

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Xiao, Sherrie and Benbasat, Izak (2003): The formation of trust and distrust in recommendation agents in repeated interactions: a process-tracing analysis. In: Sadeh, Norman M., Dively, Mary Jo, Kauffman, Robert J., Labrou, Yannis, Shehory, Onn, Telang, Rahul and Cranor, Lorrie Faith (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Electronic Commerce - ICEC 2003 September 30 - October 03, 2003, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. pp. 287-293. Available online

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Kumar, Nanda and Benbasat, Izak (2002): Para-social Presence: A Re-conceptualization of 'Social Presence' to Capture the Relationship between a Web Site and Her Visitors. In: HICSS 2002 2002. p. 13. Available online

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Mao, Ji-Ye and Benbasat, Izak (2001): The effects of contextualized access to knowledge on judgement. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 55 (5) pp. 787-814.

This research conceptualizes contextualized access to knowledge, i.e. the ability to access task domain knowledge within the context of problem-solving and investigates its effects on knowledge dissemination. Two informationally equivalent versions of a financial analysis knowledge-based system (KBS) were compared in a laboratory experiment, one with contextualized access to the underlying task domain knowledge (deep explanations) via hypertext-style links and the other without such access. Results indicate that contextualized access had significant advantages. It afforded a major portion of the requests for deep explanations to occur in the context of problem-solving, as opposed to in the abstract, and led to a significant increase in the number of requests. The increased utilization of deep explanations and contextualized use were associated with a greater degree of congruence between users' judgement and KBS. The conclusion is that availability of knowledge alone is not sufficient; contextualized accessibility is the key for knowledge dissemination and for influencing performance.

© All rights reserved Mao and Benbasat and/or Academic Press

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Lim, Lai-Huat and Benbasat, Izak (1997): The Debiasing Role of Group Support Systems: An Experimental Investigation of the Representativeness Bias. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 47 (3) pp. 453-471.

Past research has demonstrated that individual and group judgments are subject to systematic biases. Although much effort has been devoted to the debiasing of individual judgments, no corresponding work has been found on the debiasing of group judgments. This study examines the usefulness of a group support system (GSS) in addressing an important judgment bias, namely, the representativeness bias, which refers to the bias incurred in posterior-probability estimations by not properly utilizing all information sources, such as the base rates. The formation of a judgment is seen from the perspective of an information integration process. Two orthogonal dimensions of information integration -- interpersonal and intrapersonal -- are involved in group judgments. Interpersonal information integration concerns the aspect of information sharing among group members, and can be supported with the computer-mediated communication channel of GSS. Intrapersonal information integration deals with the information processing capacities and capabilities of individuals, and can be supported using a problem representation tool, as part of GSS. A laboratory experiment with a 2x2 factorial design was conducted. One hundred and twenty subjects, randomly allocated to 40 three-member groups, took part in the experiment. Data pertaining to both processes and outcomes were collected and analysed. Representativeness bias was reduced by the use of the problem representation tool. Increased use of the tool led to greater awareness about the base rate and, consequently, to better judgments in this problem context. On the other hand, computer-mediated communication did not reduce the representativeness bias. Although computer-mediated communication is capable of improving the interpersonal aspect of information integration, the representativeness bias is primarily a result of cognitive limitations, and benefits little from improved communication among group members. It is also possible that benefits of computer-mediated communication can be more readily derived by larger groups than by smaller groups of size three used in this study.

© All rights reserved Lim and Benbasat and/or Academic Press

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Lim, Kai H., Benbasat, Izak and Todd, Peter (1996): An Experimental Investigation of the Interactive Effects of Interface Style, Instructions, and Task Familiarity on User Performance. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 3 (1) pp. 1-37.

Norman proposed a model describing the sequence of user activities involved in human-computer interaction. Through this model, Norman provides a rationale for why direct-manipulation interfaces may be preferred to other design alternatives. Based on action identification theory we developed several hypotheses about the operations of Norman's model and tested them in a laboratory experiment. The results show that users of a direct-manipulation interface and a menu-based interface did not differ in the total amount of time used to perform a task. However, with the direct-manipulation interface, more time is devoted to performing motor actions, but this is offset by shorter nonmotor time. Furthermore, there are significant interactions between task familiarity, instructions, and the type of interface, indicating that Norman's model may not hold under all conditions.

© All rights reserved Lim et al. and/or ACM Press

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Mao, Jiye, Benbasat, Izak and Dhaliwal, Jasbir Singh (1996): Enhancing Explanations in Knowledge-Based Systems with Hypertext. In Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 6 (3) pp. 239-268.

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Lim, Lai-Huat and Benbasat, Izak (1996): IT Support for Reducing Group Judgment Biases. In: HICSS 1996 1996. pp. 98-108. Available online

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Mao, Ji-Ye, Dhaliwal, Jasbir Singh and Benbasat, Izak (1994): The Use of Hypertext to Provide Explanations in Knowledge-Based Systems: A Conceptual Model and an Implementation. In: HICSS 1994 1994. pp. 333-342.

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Benbasat, Izak and Todd, Peter (1993): An Experimental Investigation of Interface Design Alternatives: Icon vs. Text and Direct Manipulation vs. Menus. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 38 (3) pp. 369-402.

This paper reports on two experiments which examine the effects of iconic and direct manipulation interfaces on the performance of casual users using an electronic mail system. There are two key aspects to these experiments. First, they have been carefully designed to separate the effect of iconic representation from that of direct manipulation in order to examine the independent effect of each as well as their joint effect. Second, subjects performed the same experimental task three different times over 1 week, thus allowing for the effects of icons and direct manipulation interfaces to be assessed over repeated trials. Each experiment measured time taken and errors made in task completion as dependent variables. Results indicate that there were no advantages associated with iconic representations compared to text-based representations of actions and objects. Subjects working with direct manipulation interfaces completed the task faster than those with menu-based interfaces. However, this difference in time was not significant when the task was repeated for a third time, indicating that the benefits to direct manipulation might diminish after a learning period. No interface was better than others in terms of reducing error rates when interacting with the computer system.

© All rights reserved Benbasat and Todd and/or Academic Press

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Benbasat, Izak, Dexter, Albert S. and Todd, Peter (1986): The Influence of Color and Graphical Information Presentation in a Managerial Decision Simulation. In Human-Computer Interaction, 2 (1) pp. 65-92.

A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the influence of graphical and color-enhanced information presentation on information use and decision quality in a simulation setting. This is the third in a series of studies examining the effects of colors and graphics in a managerial decision-making task. The findings reported in this article indicate that graphical presentations are more useful when evaluating information in order to determine promising directions in the search for an optimal solution, but when the task requires the determination of exact data values for computational purposes, graphical reports are less useful than tabular ones. Benefits of color include taking fewer iterations to complete the task. However, these benefits are associated more strongly with the graphical report as indicated by the significantly higher use of color-enhanced graphical reports over monochromatic ones. The benefits of color are also restricted to the early stages in the decision task, with color graphic report usage dropping sharply over time.

© All rights reserved Benbasat et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

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Benbasat, Izak, Dexter, Albert S. and Todd, Peter A. (1986): An Experimental Program Investigating Color-Enhanced and Graphical Information Presentation: An Integration of the Findings. In Communications of the ACM, 29 (11) pp. 1094-1105.

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Benbasat, Izak and Wand, Yair (1984): A Structured Approach to Designing Human-Computer Dialogues. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 21 (2) pp. 105-126.

This article presents a conceptual model and software tool for designing and implementing flexible human-computer dialogues. The tool is referred to as a dialogue generator. The rationale for building such a tool is discussed in the context of other work in the literature, and is based on a fully operational version written in APL. A dialogue generator is important because of the cost of designing dialogues, and the rapidly increasing importance of dialogue generation due to the proliferation of interactive applications of computers. A command language model is used for the target dialogue because of its inherent simplicity, which promotes a structured and streamlined approach based on interaction events, which are described in tabular form in the dialogue data-base. "Help" and "abort" facilities are provided, as are facilities for controlling the flow of the dialogue. The implementation is discussed, particularly in terms of how to represent the various types of information pertaining to an interaction event, and how to store and organize the information. The concepts of user guided and system guided dialogues are re-examined in the context of the flow-control mechanism. Both styles of dialogue are needed, depending on the user, and both can be covered by the model described. The model is compared with others in the literature, and its capabilities are evaluated against published rules for dialogue programming.

© All rights reserved Benbasat and Wand and/or Academic Press

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Benbasat, Izak, Dexter, Albert S., Drury, Donald H. and Goldstein, Robert C. (1984): A Critique of the Stage Hypothesis: Theory and Empirical Evidence. In Communications of the ACM, 27 (5) pp. 476-485.

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Benbasat, Izak and Wand, Yair (1984): Command Abbreviation Behavior in Human-Computer Interaction. In Communications of the ACM, 27 (4) pp. 376-383.

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Benbasat, Izak, Dexter, Albert S. and Masulis, Paul S. (1981): An Experimental Study of the Human/Computer Interface. In Communications of the ACM, 24 (11) pp. 752-762.

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