Publication statistics

Pub. period:2005-2011
Pub. count:15
Number of co-authors:34



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Robert C. Miller:9
Max Goldman:3
Chandrika Jayant:2

 

 

Productive colleagues

Greg Little's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Mark S. Ackerman:67
Robert C. Miller:42
Jeffrey P. Bigham:32
 
 
 

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Greg Little

 

Publications by Greg Little (bibliography)

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2011
 
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Goldman, Max, Little, Greg and Miller, Robert C. (2011): Collabode: collaborative coding in the browser. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering 2011. pp. 65-68. Available online

Collaborating programmers should use a development environment designed specifically for collaboration, not the same one designed for solo programmers with a few collaborative processes and tools tacked on. This paper describes Collabode, a web-based Java integrated development environment built to support close, synchronous collaboration between programmers. We discuss three collaboration models in which participants take on distinct roles: micro-outsourcing to combine small contributions from many assistants; test-driven pair programming for effective pairwise development; and a mobile instructor connected to the work of many students. In particular, we report very promising preliminary results using Collabode to support micro-outsourcing.

© All rights reserved Goldman et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Goldman, Max, Little, Greg and Miller, Robert C. (2011): Real-time collaborative coding in a web IDE. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 155-164. Available online

This paper describes Collabode, a web-based Java integrated development environment designed to support close, synchronous collaboration between programmers. We examine the problem of collaborative coding in the face of program compilation errors introduced by other users which make collaboration more difficult, and describe an algorithm for error-mediated integration of program code. Concurrent editors see the text of changes made by collaborators, but the errors reported in their view are based only on their own changes. Editors may run the program at any time, using only error-free edits supplied so far, and ignoring incomplete or otherwise error-generating changes. We evaluate this algorithm and interface on recorded data from previous pilot experiments with Collabode, and via a user study with student and professional programmers. We conclude that it offers appreciable benefits over naive continuous synchronization without regard to errors and over manual version control.

© All rights reserved Goldman et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Little, Greg (2010): Exploring iterative and parallel human computation processes. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 4309-4314. Available online

Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is an increasingly popular web service for paying people small rewards to do human computation tasks. Current uses of MTurk typically post independent parallel tasks. This research explores an alternative iterative paradigm, in which workers build on each other's work. We run a couple of experiments comparing the efficacy of this paradigm in two different problem domains: image description writing, and brainstorming company names.

© All rights reserved Little and/or his/her publisher

 
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Bigham, Jeffrey P., Jayant, Chandrika, Ji, Hanjie, Little, Greg, Miller, Andrew, Miller, Robert C., Tatarowicz, Aubrey, White, Brandyn, White, Samuel and Yeh, Tom (2010): VizWiz: nearly real-time answers to visual questions. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility W4A 2010. p. 24. Available online

Visual information pervades our environment. Vision is used to decide everything from what we want to eat at a restaurant and which bus route to take to whether our clothes match and how long until the milk expires. Individually, the inability to interpret such visual information is a nuisance for blind people who often have effective, if inefficient, work-arounds to overcome them. Collectively, however, they can make blind people less independent. Specialized technology addresses some problems in this space, but automatic approaches cannot yet answer the vast majority of visual questions that blind people may have. VizWiz addresses this shortcoming by using the Internet connections and cameras on existing smartphones to connect blind people and their questions to remote paid workers' answers. VizWiz is designed to have low latency and low cost, making it both competitive with expensive automatic solutions and much more versatile.

© All rights reserved Bigham et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Little, Greg, Chilton, Lydia B., Goldman, Max and Miller, Robert C. (2010): TurKit: human computation algorithms on mechanical turk. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2010. pp. 57-66. Available online

Mechanical Turk (MTurk) provides an on-demand source of human computation. This provides a tremendous opportunity to explore algorithms which incorporate human computation as a function call. However, various systems challenges make this difficult in practice, and most uses of MTurk post large numbers of independent tasks. TurKit is a toolkit for prototyping and exploring algorithmic human computation, while maintaining a straight-forward imperative programming style. We present the crash-and-rerun programming model that makes TurKit possible, along with a variety of applications for human computation algorithms. We also present case studies of TurKit used for real experiments across different fields.

© All rights reserved Little et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bernstein, Michael S., Little, Greg, Miller, Robert C., Hartmann, Bjorn, Ackerman, Mark S., Karger, David R., Crowell, David and Panovich, Katrina (2010): Soylent: a word processor with a crowd inside. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2010. pp. 313-322. Available online

This paper introduces architectural and interaction patterns for integrating crowdsourced human contributions directly into user interfaces. We focus on writing and editing, complex endeavors that span many levels of conceptual and pragmatic activity. Authoring tools offer help with pragmatics, but for higher-level help, writers commonly turn to other people. We thus present Soylent, a word processing interface that enables writers to call on Mechanical Turk workers to shorten, proofread, and otherwise edit parts of their documents on demand. To improve worker quality, we introduce the Find-Fix-Verify crowd programming pattern, which splits tasks into a series of generation and review stages. Evaluation studies demonstrate the feasibility of crowdsourced editing and investigate questions of reliability, cost, wait time, and work time for edits.

© All rights reserved Bernstein et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bigham, Jeffrey P., Jayant, Chandrika, Ji, Hanjie, Little, Greg, Miller, Andrew, Miller, Robert C., Miller, Robin, Tatarowicz, Aubrey, White, Brandyn, White, Samual and Yeh, Tom (2010): VizWiz: nearly real-time answers to visual questions. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2010. pp. 333-342. Available online

The lack of access to visual information like text labels, icons, and colors can cause frustration and decrease independence for blind people. Current access technology uses automatic approaches to address some problems in this space, but the technology is error-prone, limited in scope, and quite expensive. In this paper, we introduce VizWiz, a talking application for mobile phones that offers a new alternative to answering visual questions in nearly real-time -- asking multiple people on the web. To support answering questions quickly, we introduce a general approach for intelligently recruiting human workers in advance called quikTurkit so that workers are available when new questions arrive. A field deployment with 11 blind participants illustrates that blind people can effectively use VizWiz to cheaply answer questions in their everyday lives, highlighting issues that automatic approaches will need to address to be useful. Finally, we illustrate the potential of using VizWiz as part of the participatory design of advanced tools by using it to build and evaluate VizWiz::LocateIt, an interactive mobile tool that helps blind people solve general visual search problems.

© All rights reserved Bigham et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Little, Greg (2009): TurKit: Tools for iterative tasks on mechanical turk. In: IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing - VL/HCC 2009 20-24 September, 2009, Corvallis, OR, USA. pp. 252-253. Available online

2008
 
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Miller, Robert C., Chou, Victoria H., Bernstein, Michael S., Little, Greg, Kleek, Max Van, Karger, David R. and Schraefel, M. C. (2008): Inky: a sloppy command line for the web with rich visual feedback. In: Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 131-140. Available online

2007
 
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Little, Greg, Lau, Tessa A., Cypher, Allen, Lin, James, Haber, Eben M. and Kandogan, Eser (2007): Koala: capture, share, automate, personalize business processes on the web. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 943-946. Available online

We present Koala, a system that enables users to capture, share, automate, and personalize business processes on the web. Koala is a collaborative programming-by-demonstration system that records, edits, and plays back user interactions as pseudo-natural language scripts that are both human- and machine-interpretable. Unlike previous programming by demonstration systems, Koala leverages sloppy programming that interprets pseudo-natural language instructions (as opposed to formal syntactic statements) in the context of a given web page's elements and actions. Koala scripts are automatically stored in the Koalescence wiki, where a community of users can share, run, and collaboratively develop their "how-to" knowledge. Koala also takes advantage of corporate and personal data stores to automatically generalize and instantiate user-specific data, so that scripts created by one user are automatically personalized for others. Our initial experiences suggest that Koala is surprisingly effective at interpreting instructions originally written for people.

© All rights reserved Little et al. and/or ACM Press

2006
 
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Little, Greg and Miller, Robert C. (2006): Translating keyword commands into executable code. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2006. pp. 135-144. Available online

Modern applications provide interfaces for scripting, but many users do not know how to write script commands. However, many users are familiar with the idea of entering keywords into a web search engine. Hence, if a user is familiar with the vocabulary of an application domain, we anticipate that they could write a set of keywords expressing a command in that domain. For instance, in the web browsing domain, a user might enter "click search button". We call expressions of this form keyword commands, and we present a novel approach for translating keyword commands directly into executable code. Our prototype of this system in the web browsing domain translates "click search button" into the Chickenfoot code click(findButton("search")). This code is then executed in the context of a web browser to carry out the effect. We also present an implementation of this system in the domain of Microsoft Word. A user study revealed that subjects could use keyword commands to successfully complete 90% of the web browsing tasks in our study without instructions or training. Conversely, we would expect users to complete close to 0% of the tasks if they had to guess the underlying JavaScript commands with no instructions or training.

© All rights reserved Little and Miller and/or ACM Press

 
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Fu, Anthony Y., Deng, Xiaotie, Wenyin, Liu and Little, Greg (2006): The methodology and an application to fight against Unicode attacks. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2006. pp. 91-101. Available online

Unicode is becoming a dominant character representation format for information processing. This presents a very dangerous usability and security problem for many applications. The problem arises because many characters in the UCS (Universal Character Set) are visually and/or semantically similar to each other. This presents a mechanism for malicious people to carry out Unicode Attacks, which include spam attacks, phishing attacks, and web identity attacks. In this paper, we address the potential attacks, and propose a methodology for countering them. To evaluate the feasibility of our methodology, we construct a Unicode Character Similarity List (UC-SimList). We then implement a visual and semantic based edit distance (VSED), as well as a visual and semantic based Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm (VSKMP), to detect Unicode attacks. We develop a prototype Unicode attack detection tool, IDN-SecuChecker, which detects phishing weblinks and fake user name (account) attacks. We also introduce the possible practical use of Unicode attack detectors.

© All rights reserved Fu et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Wu, Min, Miller, Robert C. and Little, Greg (2006): Web wallet: preventing phishing attacks by revealing user intentions. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2006. pp. 102-113. Available online

We introduce a new anti-phishing solution, the Web Wallet. The Web Wallet is a browser sidebar which users can use to submit their sensitive information online. It detects phishing attacks by determining where users intend to submit their information and suggests an alternative safe path to their intended site if the current site does not match it. It integrates security questions into the user's workflow so that its protection cannot be ignored by the user. We conducted a user study on the Web Wallet prototype and found that the Web Wallet is a promising approach. In the study, it significantly decreased the

© All rights reserved Wu et al. and/or ACM Press

2005
 
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Krishna, Sreekar, Little, Greg, Black, John and Panchanathan, Sethuraman (2005): A wearable face recognition system for individuals with visual impairments. In: Seventh Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2005. pp. 106-113. Available online

This paper describes the iCare Interaction Assistant, an assistive device for helping the individuals who are visually impaired during social interactions. The research presented here addresses the problems encountered in implementing real-time face recognition algorithms on a wearable device. Face recognition is the initial step towards building a comprehensive social interaction assistant that will identify and interpret facial expressions, emotions and gestures. Experiments conducted for selecting a face recognition algorithm that works despite changes in facial pose and illumination angle are reported. Performance details of the face recognition algorithms tested on the device are presented along with the overall performance of the system. The specifics of the hardware components used in the wearable device are mentioned and the block diagram of the wearable system is explained in detail.

© All rights reserved Krishna et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Krishna, Sreekar, Little, Greg, Black, John and Panchanathan, Sethuraman (2005): iCARE interaction assistant: a wearable face recognition system for individuals with visual impairments. In: Seventh Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2005. pp. 216-217. Available online

This presentation demonstrates a working prototype of the iCare Interaction Assistant, a wearable assistive device based on research aimed at facilitating the social interactions of people who are blind or visually impaired. Using a tiny unobtrusive camera mounted inside the nose bridge of a pair of eyeglasses, this prototype is able to learn and recognize faces at a distances up to 10 feet, thus allowing the user to initiate conversations with persons in their vicinity, without waiting for others to approach them. Ongoing work is aimed at facilitating the subsequent verbal interaction by recognizing and interpreting non-verbal communication, including eye contact, facial expressions, emotions, and gestures.

© All rights reserved Krishna et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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