Publication statistics

Pub. period:1990-2011
Pub. count:45
Number of co-authors:43



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

George W. Fitzmaurice:26
Azam Khan:16
Bill Buxton:16

 

 

Productive colleagues

Gordon Kurtenbach's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Ravin Balakrishnan:108
Abigail Sellen:81
Bill Buxton:78
 
 
 
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Gordon Kurtenbach

Ph.D

Picture of Gordon Kurtenbach.
Personal Homepage:
autodeskresearch.com/people/gord

Current place of employment:
Autodesk

Dr. Gordon Kurtenbach is the Senior Director of Research at Autodesk where he oversees a group whose focus is research on 3D interactive graphics in the areas of Human-Computer Interaction and Computer Graphics. Prior to Autodesk, Gordon was the head the interactive graphics research group at Alias which researched advanced technologies for products such as Maya, AliasStudio, SketchBook and PortfolioWall. Prior to Alias, Gordon was a researcher at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center working on pen based user interfaces for wall-sized display systems. Before Xerox, Gordon was a member of Apple Computer's Advanced Technology Group researching gesture-based input techniques for graphical user interfaces. Gordon received a B.Sc. from University of Saskatchewan in 1984, a M.Sc. from University of Toronto in 1988, and a Ph.D. from University of Toronto in 1993 in Computer Science. Gordon's Ph.D. work on "marking menus" is a patented feature used broadly in Autodesk products. His research interests in the field of human-computer interaction include input devices, bi-manual input, high degree of freedom input, menuing systems, UI for 3d graphics, human motor control and perception. Gordon has many research publications and over thirty granted patents.

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Publications by Gordon Kurtenbach (bibliography)

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2011
 
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Khan, Azam, Bartram, Lyn, Blevis, Eli, DiSalvo, Carl, Froehlich, Jon and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2011): CHI 2011 sustainability community invited panel: challenges ahead. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 73-76.

As part of a new CHI Sustainability Community, focused on environmental sustainability, this panel will discuss specific ways in which HCI research will be critical in finding solutions to this global challenge. While research to date has primarily focused on the end consumer, the panel will be challenged with enlarging the discussion to include the designer as a target user and to consider interfaces and interactions that support sustainable design and sustainable manufacturing, as well as sustainable consumption. Specifically, to make real progress, we seek to enumerate ways that HCI needs to grow, as well as to find ways that can help more HCI researchers to become involved.

© All rights reserved Khan et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Song, Hyunyoung, Grossman, Tovi, Fitzmaurice, George W., Guimbretiere, Francois, Khan, Azam, Attar, Ramtin and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2009): PenLight: combining a mobile projector and a digital pen for dynamic visual overlay. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 143-152.

Digital pen systems, originally designed to digitize annotations made on physical paper, are evolving to permit a wider variety of applications. Although the type and quality of pen feedback (e.g., haptic, audio, and visual) have a huge impact on advancing the digital pen technology, dynamic visual feedback has yet to be fully investigated. In parallel, miniature projectors are an emerging technology with the potential to enhance visual feedback for small mobile computing devices. In this paper we present the PenLight system, which is a testbed to explore the interaction design space and its accompanying interaction techniques in a digital pen embedded with a spatially-aware miniature projector. Using our prototype, that simulates a miniature projection (via a standard video projector), we visually augment paper documents, giving the user immediate access to additional information and computational tools. We also show how virtual ink can be managed in single and multi-user environments to aid collaboration and data management. User evaluation with professional architects indicated promise of our proposed techniques and their potential utility in the paper-intensive domain of architecture.

© All rights reserved Song et al. and/or ACM Press

2008
 
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Fitzmaurice, George W., Matejka, Justin, Khan, Azam, Glueck, Mike and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2008): PieCursor: merging pointing and command selection for rapid in-place tool switching. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1361-1370.

We describe a new type of graphical user interface widget called the "PieCursor." The PieCursor is based on the Tracking Menu technique and consists of a radial cluster of command wedges, is roughly the size of a cursor, and replaces the traditional cursor. The PieCursor technique merges the normal cursor function of pointing with command selection into a single action. A controlled experiment was conducted to compare the performance of rapid command and target selection using the PieCursor against larger versions of Tracking Menus and a status quo Toolbar configuration. Results indicate that for small clusters of tools (4 and 8 command wedges) the PieCursor can outperform the toolbar by 20.8% for coarse pointing. For fine pointing, the performance of the PieCursor degrades approximately to the performance found for the Toolbar condition.

© All rights reserved Fitzmaurice et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Fitzmaurice, George W., Matejka, Justin, Mordatch, Igor, Khan, Azam and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2008): Safe 3D navigation. In: Haines, Eric and McGuire, Morgan (eds.) Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, SI3D 2008, February 15-17, 2008, Redwood City, CA, USA 2008. pp. 7-15.

 
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Khan, Azam, Mordatch, Igor, Fitzmaurice, George W., Matejka, Justin and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2008): ViewCube: a 3D orientation indicator and controller. In: Haines, Eric and McGuire, Morgan (eds.) Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, SI3D 2008, February 15-17, 2008, Redwood City, CA, USA 2008. pp. 17-25.

2006
 
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Burtnyk, Nicholas, Khan, Azam, Fitzmaurice, George W. and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2006): ShowMotion: camera motion based 3D design review. In: Olano, Marc and Séquin, Carlo H. (eds.) Proceedings of the 2006 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, SI3D 2006, March 14-17, 2006, Redwood City, California, USA 2006. pp. 167-174.

2005
 
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Owen, Russell, Kurtenbach, Gordon, Fitzmaurice, George W., Baudel, Thomas and Buxton, Bill (2005): When it gets more difficult, use both hands: exploring bimanual curve manipulation. In: Graphics Interface 2005 May 9-11, 2005, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 17-24.

In this paper we investigate the relationship between bimanual (two-handed) manipulation and the cognitive aspects of task integration, divided attention and epistemic action. We explore these relationships by means of an empirical study comparing a bimanual technique versus a unimanual (one-handed) technique for a curve matching task. The bimanual technique was designed on the principle of integrating the visual, conceptual and input device space domain of both hands. We provide evidence that the bimanual technique has better performance than the unimanual technique and, as the task becomes more cognitively demanding, the bimanual technique exhibits even greater performance benefits. We argue that the design principles and performance improvements are applicable to other task domains.

© All rights reserved Owen et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Khan, Azam, Matejka, Justin, Fitzmaurice, George W. and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2005): Spotlight: directing users' attention on large displays. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 791-798.

We describe a new interaction technique, called a spotlight, for directing the visual attention of an audience when viewing data or presentations on large wall-sized displays. A spotlight is simply a region of the display where the contents are displayed normally while the remainder of the display is somewhat darkened. In this paper we define the behavior of spotlights, show unique affordances of the technique, and discuss design characteristics. We also report on experiments that show the benefit of using the spotlight a large display and standard desktop configuration. Our results suggest that the spotlight is preferred over the standard cursor and outperforms it by a factor of 3.4 on a wall-sized display.

© All rights reserved Khan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Khan, Azam, Komalo, Ben, Stam, Jos, Fitzmaurice, George W. and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2005): HoverCam: interactive 3D navigation for proximal object inspection. In: Lastra, Anselmo, Olano, Marc, Luebke, David P. and Pfister, Hanspeter (eds.) Proceedings of the 2005 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, SI3D 2005, April 3-6, 2005, Washington, DC, USA 2005. pp. 73-80.

 
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Fitzmaurice, George W., Khan, Azam, Kurtenbach, Gordon and Binks, Graham (2005): Cinematic Meeting Facilities Using Large Displays. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 25 (4) pp. 17-21.

 
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Kurtenbach, Gordon and Fitzmaurice, George W. (2005): Guest Editors' Introduction: Applications of Large Displays. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 25 (4) pp. 22-23.

2004
 
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Khan, Azam, Fitzmaurice, George W., Almeida, Don, Burtnyk, Nicolas and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2004): A remote control interface for large displays. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2004. pp. 127-136.

We describe a new widget and interaction technique, known as a \"Frisbee,\" for interacting with areas of a large display that are difficult or impossible to access directly. A frisbee is simply a portal to another part of the display. It consists of a local \"telescope\" and a remote \"target\". The remote data surrounded by the target is drawn in the telescope and interactions performed within it are applied on the remote data. In this paper we define the behavior of frisbees, show unique affordances of the widget, and discuss design characteristics. We have implemented a test application and report on an experiment that shows the benefit of using the frisbee on a large display. Our results suggest that the frisbee is preferred over walking back and forth to the local and remote spaces at a distance of 4.5 feet.

© All rights reserved Khan et al. and/or ACM Press

2003
 
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Fitzmaurice, George W., Khan, Azam, Pieke, Robert, Buxton, Bill and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2003): Tracking menus. In: Proceedings of the 16th annural ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology November, 2-5, 2003, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 71-79.

We describe a new type of graphical user interface widget, known as a "tracking menu." A tracking menu consists of a cluster of graphical buttons, and as with traditional menus, the cursor can be moved within the menu to select and interact with items. However, unlike traditional menus, when the cursor hits the edge of the menu, the menu moves to continue tracking the cursor. Thus, the menu always stays under the cursor and close at hand. In this paper we define the behavior of tracking menus, show unique affordances of the widget, present a variety of examples, and discuss design characteristics. We examine one tracking menu design in detail, reporting on usability studies and our experience integrating the technique into a commercial application for the Tablet PC. While user interface issues on the Tablet PC, such as preventing round trips to tool palettes with the pen, inspired tracking menus, the design also works well with a standard mouse and keyboard configuration.

© All rights reserved Fitzmaurice et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Tsang, Michael, Fitzmaurice, George W., Kurtenbach, Gordon and Khan, Azam (2003): Game-like navigation and responsiveness in non-game applications. In Communications of the ACM, 46 (7) pp. 56-61.

2002
 
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Grossman, Tovi, Balakrishnan, Ravin, Kurtenbach, Gordon, Fitzmaurice, George W., Khan, Azam and Buxton, Bill (2002): Creating principal 3D curves with digital tape drawing. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 121-128.

 
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Burtnyk, Nicholas, Khan, Azam, Fitzmaurice, George W., Balakrishnan, Ravin and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2002): StyleCam: interactive stylized 3D navigation using integrated spatial & temporal controls. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 101-110.

This paper describes StyleCam, an approach for authoring 3D viewing experiences that incorporate stylistic elements that are not available in typical 3D viewers. A key aspect of StyleCam is that it allows the author to significantly tailor what the user sees and when they see it. The resulting viewing experience can approach the visual richness and pacing of highly authored visual content such as television commercials or feature films. At the same time, StyleCam allows for a satisfying level of interactivity while avoiding the problems inherent in using unconstrained camera models. The main components of StyleCam are camera surfaces which spatially constrain the viewing camera; animation clips that allow for visually appealing transitions between different camera surfaces; and a simple, unified, interaction technique that permits the user to seamlessly and continuously move between spatial-control of the camera and temporal-control of the animated transitions. Further, the user's focus of attention is always kept on the content, and not on extraneous interface widgets. In addition to describing the conceptual model of StyleCam, its current implementation, and an example authored experience, we also present the results of an evaluation involving real users.

© All rights reserved Burtnyk et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Tsang, Michael, Fitzmaurice, George W., Kurtenbach, Gordon, Khan, Azam and Buxton, Bill (2002): Boom chameleon: simultaneous capture of 3D viewpoint, voice and gesture annotations on a spatially-aware display. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 111-120.

We introduce the Boom Chameleon, a novel input/output device consisting of a flat-panel display mounted on a tracked mechanical boom. The display acts as a physical window into 3D virtual environments, through which a one-to-one mapping between real and virtual space is preserved. The Boom Chameleon is further augmented with a touch-screen and a microphone/speaker combination. We present a 3D annotation application that exploits this unique configuration in order to simultaneously capture viewpoint, voice and gesture information. Design issues are discussed and results of an informal user study on the device and annotation software are presented. The results show that the Boom Chameleon annotation facilities have the potential to be an effective, easy to learn and operate 3D design review system.

© All rights reserved Tsang et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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McGuffin, Michael, Burtnyk, Nicholas and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2002): FaST Sliders: Integrating Marking Menus and the Adjustment of Continuous Values. In: Graphics Interface 2002 May 27-29, 2002, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. pp. 35-42.

2001
 
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Balakrishnan, Ravin, Fitzmaurice, George W. and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2001): User Interfaces for Volumetric Displays. In IEEE Computer, 34 (3) pp. 37-45.

 
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Grossman, Tovi, Balakrishnan, Ravin, Kurtenbach, Gordon, Fitzmaurice, George W., Khan, Azam and Buxton, William (2001): Interaction techniques for 3D modeling on large displays. In: SI3D 2001 2001. pp. 17-23.

2000
 
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Buxton, William, Fitzmaurice, George W., Balakrishnan, Ravin and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2000): Large Displays in Automotive Design. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 20 (4) pp. 68-75.

1999
 
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Balakrishnan, Ravin and Kurtenbach, Gordon (1999): Exploring Bimanual Camera Control and Object Manipulation in 3D Graphics Interfaces. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 56-63.

We explore the use of the non-dominant hand to control a virtual camera while the dominant hand performs other tasks in a virtual 3D scene. Two experiments and an informal study are presented which evaluate this interaction style by comparing it to the status-quo unimanual interaction. In the first experiment, we find that for a target selection task, performance using the bimanual technique was 20% faster. Experiment 2 compared performance in a more complicated object docking task. Performance advantages are shown, however, only after practice. Free-form 3D painting was explored in the user study. In both experiments and in the user study participants strongly preferred the bimanual technique. The results also indicate that user preferences concerning bimanual interaction may be driven by factors other than simple time-motion performance advantages.

© All rights reserved Balakrishnan and Kurtenbach and/or ACM Press

 
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Fitzmaurice, George W., Balakrishnan, Ravin, Kurtenbach, Gordon and Buxton, Bill (1999): An Exploration into Supporting Artwork Orientation in the User Interface. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 167-174.

Rotating a piece of paper while drawing is an integral and almost subconscious part of drawing with pencil and paper. In a similar manner, the advent of lightweight pen-based computers allow digital artwork to be rotated while drawing by rotating the entire computer. Given this type of manipulation we explore the implications for the user interface to support artwork orientation. First we describe an exploratory study to further motivate our work and characterize how artwork is manipulated while drawing. After presenting some possible UI approaches to support artwork orientation, we define a new solution called a rotating user interface (RUIs). We then discuss design issues and requirements for RUIs based on our exploratory study.

© All rights reserved Fitzmaurice et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kurtenbach, Gordon, Fitzmaurice, George W., Owen, Russell N. and Baudel, Thomas (1999): The Hotbox: Efficient Access to a Large Number of Menu-Items. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 231-237.

The proliferation of multiple toolbars and UI widgets around the perimeter of application windows is an indication that the traditional GUI design of a single menubar is not sufficient to support large scale applications with numerous functions. In this paper we describe a new widget which is an enhancement of the traditional menubar which dramatically increases menu-item capacity. This widget, called the "Hotbox" combines several GUI techniques which are generally used independently: accelerator keys, modal dialogs, pop-up/pull down menus, radial menus, marking menus and menubars. These techniques are fitted together to create a single, easy to learn yet fast to operate GUI widget which can handle significantly more menu-items than the traditional GUI menubar. We describe the design rationale of the Hotbox and its effectiveness in a large scale commercial application. While the Hotbox was developed for a particular application domain, the widget itself and the design rationale are potentially useful in other domains.

© All rights reserved Kurtenbach et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Balakrishnan, Ravin, Fitzmaurice, George W., Kurtenbach, Gordon and Buxton, Bill (1999): Digital Tape Drawing. In: Zanden, Brad Vander and Marks, Joe (eds.) Proceedings of the 12th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 07 - 10, 1999, Asheville, North Carolina, United States. pp. 161-169.

Tape drawing is the art of creating sketches on large scale upright surfaces using black photographic tape. Typically used in the automotive industry, it is an important part of the automotive design process that is currently not computerized. We analyze and describe the unique aspects of tape drawing, and use this knowledge to design and implement a digital tape drawing system. Our system retains the fundamental interaction and visual affordances of the traditional media while leveraging the power of the digital media. Aside from the practical aspect of our work, the interaction techniques developed have interesting implications for current theories of human bimanual interaction.

© All rights reserved Balakrishnan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Fitzmaurice, George W., Balakrishnan, Ravin and Kurtenbach, Gordon (1999): Sampling, Synthesis, and Input Devices. In Communications of the ACM, 42 (8) pp. 54-63.

 
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Balakrishnan, Ravin, Fitzmaurice, George W., Kurtenbach, Gordon and Singh, Karan (1999): Exploring interactive curve and surface manipulation using a bend and twist sensitive input strip. In: SI3D 1999 1999. pp. 111-118.

 Cited in the following chapters:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]

3D User Interfaces: [/encyclopedia/3d_user_interfaces.html]


 
1997
 
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Kurtenbach, Gordon, Fitzmaurice, George W., Baudel, Thomas and Buxton, Bill (1997): The Design of a GUI Paradigm Based on Tablets, Two-Hands, and Transparency. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 35-42.

An experimental GUI paradigm is presented which is based on the design goals of maximizing the amount of screen used for application data, reducing the amount that the UI diverts visual attentions from the application data, and increasing the quality of input. In pursuit of these goals, we integrated the non-standard UI technologies of multi-sensor tablets, toolglass, transparent UI components, and marking menus. We describe a working prototype of our new paradigm, the rationale behind it and our experiences introducing it into an existing application. Finally, we presents some of the lessons learned: prototypes are useful to break the barriers imposed by conventional GUI design and some of their ideas can still be retrofitted seamlessly into products. Furthermore, the added functionality is not measured only in terms of user performance, but also by the quality of interaction, which allows artists to create new graphic vocabularies and graphic styles.

© All rights reserved Kurtenbach et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Balakrishnan, Ravin, Baudel, Thomas, Kurtenbach, Gordon and Fitzmaurice, George W. (1997): The Rockin' Mouse: Integral 3D Manipulation on a Plane. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 311-318.

A novel input device called the Rockin'Mouse is described and evaluated. The Rockin'Mouse is a four degree-of-freedom input device that has the same shape as a regular mouse except that the bottom of the Rockin'Mouse is rounded so that it can be tilted. This tilting can be used to control two extra degrees of freedom, thus making it suitable for manipulation in 3D environments. Like the regular mouse, the Rockin'Mouse can sense planar position and perform all the usual functions. However, in a 3D scene a regular mouse can only operate on 2 dimensions at a time and therefore manipulation in 3D requires a way to switch between dimensions. With the Rockin'Mouse, however, all the dimensions can be simultaneously controlled. In this paper we describe our design rationale behind the Rockin'Mouse, and present an experiment which compares the Rockin'Mouse to the standard mouse in a typical 3D interaction task. Our results indicate that the Rockin'Mouse is 30% faster and is a promising device for both 2D and 3D interaction.

© All rights reserved Balakrishnan et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
1996
 
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Moran, Thomas P., Chiu, Patrick, Harrison, Steve, Kurtenbach, Gordon, Minneman, Scott and Melle, William van (1996): Evolutionary Engagement in an Ongoing Collaborative Work Process: A Case Study. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 150-159.

We describe a case study in which experimental collaboration technologies was used for over two years in the real, ongoing work process of intellectual property management (IPM) at Xerox PARC. The technologies include LiveBoard-based meeting support tools, laptop notetaking tools, digital audio recording, and workstation tools to later access and replay the meeting activities. In cooperation with the IPM manager, both the work process and the tools were continuously evolved to improve the process. We supported and observed over 60 meetings, leading to a rich set of empirical observations of the meeting activities. We note some practical lessons for this research approach.

© All rights reserved Moran et al. and/or ACM Press

1995
 
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Moran, Thomas P., Chiu, Patrick, Melle, William van and Kurtenbach, Gordon (1995): Implicit Structures for Pen-Based Systems within a Freeform Interaction Paradigm. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 487-494.

This paper presents a scheme for extending an informal, pen-based whiteboard system (Tivoli on the Xerox LiveBoard) to provide a structured editing capability without violating its free expression and ease of use. The scheme supports list, text, table, and outline structures over handwritten scribbles and typed text. The scheme is based on the system temporarily perceiving the "implicit structure" that humans see in the material, which is called a WYPIWYG (What You Perceive Is What You Get) capability. The design techniques, principles, trade-offs, and limitations of the scheme are discussed. A notion of "freeform interaction" is proposed to position the system with respect to current user interface techniques.

© All rights reserved Moran et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Harrison, Beverly L., Kurtenbach, Gordon and Vicente, Kim J. (1995): An Experimental Evaluation of Transparent User Interface Tools and Information Content. In: Robertson, George G. (ed.) Proceedings of the 8th annual ACM symposium on User interface and software technology November 15 - 17, 1995, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. pp. 81-90.

The central research issue addressed by this paper is how we can design computer interfaces that better support human attention and better maintain the fluency of work. To accomplish this we propose to use semi-transparent user interface objects. This paper reports on an experimental evaluation which provides both valuable insights into design parameters and suggests a systematic evaluation methodology. For this study, we used a variably-transparent tool palette superimposed over different background content, combining text, wire-frame or line art images, and solid images. The experiment explores the issue of focused attention and interference, by varying both visual distinctiveness and levels of transparency.

© All rights reserved Harrison et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Tapia, Mark A. and Kurtenbach, Gordon (1995): Some Design Refinements and Principles on the Appearance and Behavior of Marking Menus. In: Robertson, George G. (ed.) Proceedings of the 8th annual ACM symposium on User interface and software technology November 15 - 17, 1995, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. pp. 189-195.

This paper describes some design refinements on marking menus and shows how these refinements embody interesting and relevant design principles for HCI. These refinements are based on the design principles of: (1) maintaining visual context, (2) hiding unnecessary information, and (3) supporting skill development by graphical feedback. The result is a new graphical representation and a more effective form of visual feedback and behavior for marking menus.

© All rights reserved Tapia and Kurtenbach and/or ACM Press

 
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Minneman, Scott L., Harrison, Steve R., Janssen, Bill, Kurtenbach, Gordon, Moran, Thomas P., Smith, Ian E. and Melle, William van (1995): A Confederation of Tools for Capturing and Accessing Collaborative Activity. In: ACM Multimedia 1995 1995. pp. 523-534.

1994
 
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Kurtenbach, Gordon and Buxton, Bill (1994): User Learning and Performance with Marking Menus. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 258-264.

A marking menu is designed to allow a user to perform a menu selection by either popping-up a radial (or pie) menu, or by making a straight mark in the direction of the desired menu item without popping-up the menu. Previous evaluations in laboratory settings have shown the potential for marking menus. This paper reports on a case study of user behavior with marking menus in a real work situation. The study demonstrates the following: First, marking menus are used as designed. When users become expert with the menus, marks are used extensively. However, the transition to using marks is not one way. Expert users still switch back to menus to refresh their memory of menu layout. Second, marking is an extremely efficient interaction technique. Using a mark on average was 3.5 times faster than using the menu. Finally, design principles can be followed that make menu item/mark associations easier to learn, and interaction efficient.

© All rights reserved Kurtenbach and Buxton and/or ACM Press

 
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Kurtenbach, Gordon, Moran, Thomas P. and Buxton, Bill (1994): Contextual animation of gestural commands. In: Graphics Interface 94 May 18-20, 1994, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 83-90.

 
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Kurtenbach, Gordon, Moran, Thomas P. and Buxton, Bill (1994): Contextual Animation of Gestural Commands. In Comput. Graph. Forum, 13 (5) pp. 305-314.

1993
 
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Hardock, Gary, Kurtenbach, Gordon and Buxton, Bill (1993): A Marking Based Interface for Collaborative Writing. In: Hudson, Scott E., Pausch, Randy, Zanden, Brad Vander and Foley, James D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology 1993, Atlanta, Georgia, United States. pp. 259-266.

We describe a system to support a particular model of document creation. In this model, the document flows from the primary author to one or more collaborators. They annotate it, then return it to the author who makes the final changes. Annotations are made using conventional marks, typically using a stylus. The intent is to match the flow and mark-up of paper documents observed in the everyday world. The system is very much modeled on Wang Freestyle (Perkins, Watt, Workman and Ehrlich, 1989; Francik and Akagi, 1989;&Levine and Ehrlich, in press). Our contribution is to incorporate mark recognition into the system and to explore some novel navigation tools that are enabled by the higher-level data structures that we use. The system is described and the results of initial user-testing are reported.

© All rights reserved Hardock et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kurtenbach, Gordon, Sellen, Abigail and Buxton, Bill (1993): An Empirical Evaluation of Some Articulatory and Cognitive Aspects of Marking Menus. In Human-Computer Interaction, 8 (1) pp. 1-23.

We describe marking menus, an extension of pie menus, which are well suited for stylus-based interfaces. Pie menus are circular menus subdivided into sectors, each of which might correspond to a different command. One moves the cursor from the center of the pie into the desired sector. Marking menus are invisible pie menus in which the movement of the cursor during a selection leaves an "ink trail" similar to a pen stroke on paper. The combination of a pie menu and a marking menu supports an efficient transition from novice to expert performance. Novices can "pop-up" a pie menu and make a selection, whereas experts can simply make the corresponding mark without waiting for the menu to appear. This article describes an experiment in which we explored both articulatory and cognitive aspects of marking menus for different numbers of items per menu and using different input devices (mouse, trackball, and stylus). The articulatory aspects are how well subjects could execute the physical actions necessary to select from pie marking menus. Articulatory aspects were investigated by presenting one group of subjects with the task of selecting from fully visible menus. Because one feature of marking menus is that users should be able to select from them without seeing the menus (by making a mark), we also ran two groups of subjects with invisible pie menus: one group with an ink trail and one without. These subjects were therefore faced with the task of either mentally representing the menu or associating marks with the commands they invoked through practice. These then are the cognitive aspects to which we refer. Our results indicate that subjects' performance degraded as the number of items increased. When menus were hidden, however, subjects performance did not degrade as rapidly when menus contained even numbers of items. We also found subjects performed better with the mouse and stylus than with the trackball.

© All rights reserved Kurtenbach et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

1992
 
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Sellen, Abigail, Kurtenbach, Gordon and Buxton, Bill (1992): The Prevention of Mode Errors Through Sensory Feedback. In Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (2) pp. 141-164.

The use of different kinds of feedback in preventing mode errors was investigated. Two experiments examined the frequency of mode errors in a text-editing task where a mode error was defined as an attempt to issue navigational commands while in insert mode, or an attempt to insert text while in command mode. In Experiment 1, the effectiveness of kinesthetic versus visual feedback was compared in four different conditions: the use of keyboard versus foot pedal for changing mode (kinesthetic feedback), crossed with the presence or absence of visual feedback to indicate mode. The results showed both kinesthetic and visual feedback to be effective in reducing mode errors. However, kinesthetic was more effective than visual feedback both in terms of reducing errors and in terms of reducing the cognitive load associated with mode changes. Experiment 2 tested the hypothesis that the superiority of this kinesthetic feedback was due to the fact that the foot pedal required subjects actively to maintain insert mode. The results confirmed that the use of a nonlatching foot pedal for switching modes provided a more salient source of information on mode state than the use of a latching pedal. On the basis of these results, we argue that user-maintained mode states prevent mode errors more effectively than system-maintained mode states.

© All rights reserved Sellen et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

1991
 
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Kurtenbach, Gordon (1991): Marking Primitives as the Basis for a New User Interface Paradigm. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. p. 490.

 
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Kurtenbach, Gordon and Buxton, Bill (1991): Issues in Combining Marking and Direct Manipulation Techniques. In: Rhyne, James R. (ed.) Proceedings of the 4th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology Hilton Head, South Carolina, United States, 1991, Hilton Head, South Carolina, United States. pp. 137-144.

The direct manipulation paradigm has been effective in helping designers create easy to use mouse and keyboard based interfaces. The development of flat display surfaces and transparent tablets are now making possible interfaces where a user can write directly on the screen using a special stylus. The intention of these types of interfaces is to exploit users' existing handwriting, mark-up and drawing skills while also providing the benefits of direct manipulation. This paper reports on a test bed program which we are using for exploring hand-marking types of interactions and their integration with direct manipulation interactions.

© All rights reserved Kurtenbach and Buxton and/or ACM Press

 
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Kurtenbach, Gordon and Buxton, Bill (1991): GEdit: A Test Bed for Editing by Contiguous Gestures. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (2) pp. 22-26.

 
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Kurtenbach, Gordon (1991): Making Marks Self-Revealing. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (4) pp. 60-61.

1990
 
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Sellen, Abigail, Kurtenbach, Gordon and Buxton, Bill (1990): The Role of Visual and Kinesthetic Feedback in the Prevention of Mode Errors. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 667-673.

The use of visual and kinesthetic feedback in preventing mode errors was investigated. Mode errors were defined in the context of text editing as attempting to issue navigation commands while in insert mode, or attempting to insert text while in command mode. Twelve novices and twelve expert users of the Unix-based text editor vi performed a simple text editing task in conjunction with a distractor task in four different conditions. These conditions consisted of comparing the use of keyboard versus foot pedal for changing mode, crossed with the presence or absence of visual feedback to indicate mode. Both visual and kinesthetic feedback were effective in reducing mode errors, although for experts visual feedback was redundant given that they were using a foot pedal. Other measures of system usability indicate the superiority of the use of a foot pedal over visual feedback in delivering system state information for this type of task.

© All rights reserved Sellen et al. and/or North-Holland

 
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URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/gordon_kurtenbach.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1990-2011
Pub. count:45
Number of co-authors:43



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

George W. Fitzmaurice:26
Azam Khan:16
Bill Buxton:16

 

 

Productive colleagues

Gordon Kurtenbach's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Ravin Balakrishnan:108
Abigail Sellen:81
Bill Buxton:78
 
 
 
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