Publication statistics

Pub. period:1995-2012
Pub. count:51
Number of co-authors:48



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Steven Poltrock:5
Victor M. Gonzalez:4
Bryan Semaan:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

Gloria Mark's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Jonathan Grudin:105
Paul Dourish:96
Volker Wulf:55
 
 
 

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Gloria Mark

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Gloria Mark is Professor at the Department of Informatics, Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences, University of California, Irvine

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Publications by Gloria Mark (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Semaan, Bryan and Mark, Gloria (2012): 'Facebooking' towards crisis recovery and beyond: disruption as an opportunity. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 27-36.

This paper reports on an ethnographic study of Facebook use amongst a population living through ongoing disruption. We interviewed 45 Iraqi citizens, as well as received survey responses from 218 individuals, who have been experiencing the current Gulf War since March 2003. We show how people in a society experiencing conflict use Facebook in ways that are different to uses in non-war societies. We find that Facebook supports people living in crisis environments at two levels. First, Facebook aids people directly to recover from disruption. People used Facebook to create "safe lists", to seek help and provide assistance, and to re-construct their social scaffolding. But at a deeper level, citizens also used Facebook to maintain and develop new social norms, and to re-direct their country. We discuss how disruption can serve as an opportunity by which people can re-invent their societies and how our understandings of Facebook should evolve.

© All rights reserved Semaan and Mark and/or ACM Press

 
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Al-Ani, Ban, Mark, Gloria, Chung, Justin and Jones, Jennifer (2012): The Egyptian blogosphere: a counter-narrative of the revolution. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 17-26.

In this paper we investigate the role blogs played within the context of the Egyptian revolution of early 2011 using blog data authored between 2004-2011. We conducted topic modeling analysis to gain a longitudinal view of the interaction of societal, personal and revolutionary blog topics over this period. Furthermore, a qualitative analysis of blog posts during the period that bracketed the political uprising revealed Egyptian bloggers' concerns. Reporting events and supplying commentary provided bloggers with a means to voice dissent against institutionalized power represented by the government-controlled media. In short, blogs reveal a counter-narrative to the government-supplied version of events in Egypt during the 18-day uprising. These narratives offer rich documentation of how blogs, and perhaps social media more generally, can be utilized by individuals operating under repressive conditions.

© All rights reserved Al-Ani et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mark, Gloria, Bagdouri, Mossaab, Palen, Leysia, Martin, James, Al-Ani, Ban and Anderson, Kenneth (2012): Blogs as a collective war diary. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 37-46.

Disaster-related research in human-centered computing has typically focused on the shorter-term, emergency period of a disaster event, whereas effects of some crises are long-term, lasting years. Social media archived on the Internet provides researchers the opportunity to examine societal reactions to a disaster over time. In this paper we examine how blogs written during a protracted conflict might reflect a collective view of the event. The sheer amount of data originating from the Internet about a significant event poses a challenge to researchers; we employ topic modeling and pronoun analysis as methods to analyze such large-scale data. First, we discovered that blog war topics temporally tracked the actual, measurable violence in the society suggesting that blog content can be an indicator of the health or state of the affected population. We also found that people exhibited a collective identity when they blogged about war, as evidenced by a higher use of first-person plural pronouns compared to blogging on other topics. Blogging about daily life decreased as violence in the society increased; when violence waned, there was a resurgence of daily life topics, potentially illustrating how a society returns to normalcy.

© All rights reserved Mark et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Semaan, Bryan and Mark, Gloria (2011): Creating a context of trust with ICTs: restoring a sense of normalcy in the environment. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW11 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2011. pp. 255-264.

This paper reports on an ethnographic study of the technology-enabled behavior that took place amongst a citizen population living in a conflict zone. We interviewed 65 Iraqi citizens who experienced the current Gulf War beginning in March 2003. In the context of a disrupted environment, trust in people and institutions can erode. We find that trust is contextual-as aspects of the physical world change, conceptions of trust can also change. We show how people were able to create a context of trust in the environment by using ICTs to manage their public identity, to conduct background checks, and to develop collaborative practices that relied on those with whom interpersonal trust previously existed. These new practices, in turn, enabled people to maintain work collaborations, to determine whether or not to continue interacting with others in public, to be able to travel safely, and to find trustworthy jobs. In developing these new practices we argue that technology enabled people to restore a sense of normalcy in an environment that had radically changed.

© All rights reserved Semaan and Mark and/or their publisher

 
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Dabbish, Laura, Mark, Gloria and Gonzalez, Victor M. (2011): Why do i keep interrupting myself?: environment, habit and self-interruption. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3127-3130.

Self-interruptions account for a significant portion of task switching in information-centric work contexts. However, most of the research to date has focused on understanding, analyzing and designing for external interruptions. The causes of self-interruptions are not well understood. In this paper we present an analysis of 889 hours of observed task switching behavior from 36 individuals across three high-technology information work organizations. Our analysis suggests that self-interruption is a function of organizational environment and individual differences, but also external interruptions experienced. We find that people in open office environments interrupt themselves at a higher rate. We also find that people are significantly more likely to interrupt themselves to return to solitary work associated with central working spheres, suggesting that self-interruption occurs largely as a function of prospective memory events. The research presented contributes substantially to our understanding of attention and multitasking in context.

© All rights reserved Dabbish et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Hincapi-Ramos, Juan David, Voida, Stephen and Mark, Gloria (2011): Sharing availability information with InterruptMe. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2011. pp. 477-478.

Workplace collaboration often requires interruptions, which can happen at inopportune times. Sharing availability information can reduce many of these untimely interruptions. However, designing a successful availability-sharing system requires finding the right balance to maximize the benefits and reduce costs for both the interrupter and interruptee. The main challenges for finding such balance lie in the acquisition of availability information from the interruptee and its delivery to the interrupter. In this demonstration, we show how common technical approaches in ubicomp can address some of the problems typically encountered in availability sharing. We present InterruptMe, a novel availability sharing system that uses sensor information to calculate multiple availability measures for each interruptee and that delivers this information in the periphery of the interrupter's attention by using a projected peripheral display and monitoring implicit inputs to the system.

© All rights reserved Hincapi-Ramos et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hincapi-Ramos, Juan David, Voida, Stephen and Mark, Gloria (2011): A design space analysis of availability-sharing systems. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 85-96.

Workplace collaboration often requires interruptions, which can happen at inopportune times. Designing a successful availability-sharing system requires finding the right balance to optimize the benefits and reduce costs for both the interrupter and interruptee. In this paper, we examine the design space of availability-sharing systems and identify six relevant design dimensions: abstraction, presentation, information delivery, symmetry, obtrusiveness and temporal gradient. We describe these dimensions in terms of the tensions between interrupters and interruptees revealed in previous studies of workplace collaboration and deployments of awareness systems. As a demonstration of the utility of our design space, we introduce InterruptMe, a novel availability-sharing system that represents a previously unexplored point in the design space and that balances the tensions between interrupters and interruptees. InterruptMe differs from previous systems in that it displays availability information only when needed by monitoring implicit inputs from the system's users, implements a traceable asymmetry structure, and introduces the notion of per-communications channel availability.

© All rights reserved Hincapi-Ramos et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Al-Ani, Ban, Mark, Gloria and Semaan, Bryan (2010): Blogging in a region of conflict: supporting transition to recovery. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1069-1078.

The blogosphere is changing how people experience war and conflict. We conducted an analysis of 125 blogs written by Iraqi citizens experiencing extreme disruption in their country. We used Hoffman's [8] stages of recovery model to understand how blogs support people in a region where conflict is occurring. We found that blogs create a safe virtual environment where people could interact, free of the violence in the physical environment and of the strict social norms of their changing society in wartime. Second, blogs enable a large network of global support through their interactive and personal nature. Third, blogs enable people experiencing a conflict to engage in dialogue with people outside their borders to discuss their situation. We discuss how blogs enable people to collaboratively interpret conflict through communities of interest and discussion with those who comment. We discuss how technology can better support blog use in a global environment.

© All rights reserved Al-Ani et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Yuzawa, Hideto and Mark, Gloria (2010): The Japanese garden: task awareness for collaborative multitasking. In: GROUP10 International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2010. pp. 253-262.

Most technical support for multi-tasking considers multi-tasking as a single-user activity. We consider multi-tasking instead as a collaborative activity and in this paper, we report on a prototype designed to help people manage interruptions by broadcasting to colleagues their availability for interruptions for specific projects. The prototype is designed as a tangible interface, a desktop "Japanese Garden" where rocks represent a person's projects. We first performed ethnographic observations of the prototype in a natural work environment and found that users used the prototype easily to signal work on their current task-at-hand. However, we found that social agreements are needed as well as a technical solution. We then conducted an experiment to test the use of the prototype compared to using a chat system alone to signal availability for interruptions. Our results showed that with our prototype, task performance results did not differ, but collaborating partners sent significantly fewer coordination messages, fewer inappropriate messages, and produced fewer interruptions. We discuss future design ideas using tangible interfaces to manage multi-tasking.

© All rights reserved Yuzawa and Mark and/or their publisher

2008
 
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Su, Norman Makoto and Mark, Gloria (2008): Communication chains and multitasking. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 83-92.

There is a growing literature on managing multitasking and interruptions in the workplace. In an ethnographic study, we investigated the phenomenon of communication chains, the occurrence of interactions in quick succession. Focusing on chains enable us to better understand the role of communication in multitasking. Our results reveal that chains are prevalent in information workers, and that attributes such as the number of links, and the rate of media and organizational switching can be predicted from the first catalyzing link of the chain. When chains are triggered by external interruptions, they have more links, a trend for more media switches and more organizational switches. We also found that more switching of organizational contexts in communication is associated with higher levels of stress. We describe the role of communication chains as performing alignment in multitasking and discuss the implications of our results.

© All rights reserved Su and Mark and/or ACM Press

 
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Mark, Gloria, Gudith, Daniela and Klocke, Ulrich (2008): The cost of interrupted work: more speed and stress. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 107-110.

We performed an empirical study to investigate whether the context of interruptions makes a difference. We found that context does not make a difference but surprisingly, people completed interrupted tasks in less time with no difference in quality. Our data suggests that people compensate for interruptions by working faster, but this comes at a price: experiencing more stress, higher frustration, time pressure and effort. Individual differences exist in the management of interruptions: personality measures of openness to experience and need for personal structure predict disruption costs of interruptions. We discuss implications for how system design can support interrupted work.

© All rights reserved Mark et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mark, Gloria and Semaan, Bryan (2008): Resilience in collaboration: technology as a resource for new patterns of action. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 137-146.

In CSCW, there has been little or no attention given to how people use technology to restore collaborations when there is a major environmental disruption. We are especially interested in studying resilience in collaboration-the extent to which people continue to collaborate with work groups or to socialize despite prolonged disruption. We conducted an empirical study of people living in two countries that experienced prolonged disruption through war in their work and personal lives. We describe how technology played a major role in providing people with alternative resources to reconstruct, modify, and develop new routines, or patterns of action, for work and socializing. People created new assemblages of technological and physical resources. We discuss how the use of new resources in creating new routines led to more of a reliance on virtual work and in some cases to deeper structural changes.

© All rights reserved Mark and Semaan and/or ACM Press

 
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Su, Norman Makoto and Mark, Gloria (2008): Designing for nomadic work. In: Proceedings of DIS08 Designing Interactive Systems 2008. pp. 305-314.

Nomadic work, an extreme form of mobile work, is becoming increasingly prevalent in organizations. Yet so far there has not been enough research attention on the particular challenges that nomadic workers face in order to design support for their work practices. We employed ethnographic interviews and observations to understand nomadic work practices. Drawing from strategies for survival of pastoralist nomads to guide our design investigation, we focus on an integrated perspective of nomadic work involving challenges related to assembling actants, seeking resources, and integrating with others in the organization. We discovered that nomadic workers need to continually seek out and compete for resources to maintain their mobile offices. They also face challenges in integrating into the organization to maintain visibility and to synchronize with others for meeting. We discuss the design recommendations that emerged from our investigation.

© All rights reserved Su and Mark and/or ACM Press

2007
 
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Su, Norman Makoto, Wilensky, Hiroko, Redmiles, David F. and Mark, Gloria (2007): The gospel of knowledge management in and out of a professional community. In: GROUP07: International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2007. pp. 197-206.

Knowledge management (KM) remains an anomaly in most corporations today. Critics call KM a fad of the 1990s, whereas supporters claim KM is actively evolving. Our work examines the disciplinary rhetoric of KM: how is it that practitioners of KM seek to legitimize their field in the corporate world? We focus on practitioners in the aerospace industry and their forum. We argue that this forum serves as a hub for constructing KM's legitimacy. Our two year ethnography traces the rhetorical strategies utilized by informants in and out of a professional community to legitimize KM as discipline in the aerospace industry.

© All rights reserved Su et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Abrams, Steve and Mark, Gloria (2007): Network-centricity: hindered by hierarchical anchors. In: Kandogan, Eser and Jones, Patricia M. (eds.) CHIMIT 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st ACM Symposium on Computer Human Interaction for Management of Information Technology March 30-31, 2007, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. p. 7.

 
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Abrams, Steve and Mark, Gloria (2007): Network-centricity: hindered by hierarchical anchors. In: Proceedings of the 2007 Symposium on Computer Human Interaction for the Management of Information Technology 2007. p. 7.

Network-centricity is a concept under consideration as a useful paradigm for complex organizational operations, combining the strengths of bureaucracy with the innovative possibilities afforded by the ongoing explosion of information and communication technologies. Network-centric work (NCW) is that in which the activities associated with work are conducted via informal self-directed networks of people, occurring within an environment enabled by technological and organizational infrastructure. NCW cuts across boundaries within and between organizations and engages participants with more regard for their expertise and motivation than their formal roles. Network-centric organizations embrace NCW alongside bureaucracies oriented to providing the resources and articulating the vision to which the NCW is to be oriented. Network-centricity is motivated by a desire for rapid adaptation and flexibility to changing circumstances. However, in an ethnographic study of a distributed team deployed by a large corporation seeking to benefit from a network-centric approach, we found that the work of the distributed team was hindered by some team members "anchoring" to bureaucratic work practices instead of supporting network-centric practices. We identify several such anchor points and the ways in which they impeded network-centric work.

© All rights reserved Abrams and Mark and/or ACM Press

2006
 
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Lee, Charlotte P., Dourish, Paul and Mark, Gloria (2006): The human infrastructure of cyberinfrastructure. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW06 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2006. pp. 483-492.

Despite their rapid proliferation, there has been little examination of the coordination and social practices of cyberinfrastructure projects. We use the notion of "human infrastructure" to explore how human and organizational arrangements share properties with technological infrastructures. We conducted an 18-month ethnographic study of a large-scale distributed biomedical cyberinfrastructure project and discovered that human infrastructure is shaped by a combination of both new and traditional team and organizational structures. Our data calls into question a focus on distributed teams as the means for accomplishing distributed work and we argue for using human infrastructure as an alternative perspective for understanding how distributed collaboration is accomplished in big science.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or ACM Press

2005
 
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Mark, Gloria, Gonzalez, Victor M. and Harris, Justin (2005): No task left behind?: examining the nature of fragmented work. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 321-330.

We present data from detailed observation of 24 information workers that shows that they experience work fragmentation as common practice. We consider that work fragmentation has two components: length of time spent in an activity, and frequency of interruptions. We examined work fragmentation along three dimensions: effect of collocation, type of interruption, and resumption of work. We found work to be highly fragmented: people average little time in working spheres before switching and 57% of their working spheres are interrupted. Collocated people work longer before switching but have more interruptions. Most internal interruptions are due to personal work whereas most external interruptions are due to central work. Though most interrupted work is resumed on the same day, more than two intervening activities occur before it is. We discuss implications for technology design: how our results can be used to support people to maintain continuity within a larger framework of their working spheres.

© All rights reserved Mark et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mark, Gloria and Kobsa, Alfred (2005): The Effects of Collaboration and System Transparency on CIVE Usage: An Empirical Study and Model. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 14 (1) pp. 60-80.

 
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Mark, Gloria and Abrams, Steve (2005): Differential Interaction and Attribution in Collocated and Distributed Large-Scale Collaboration. In: HICSS 2005 - 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3-6 January, 2005, Big Island, HI, USA. .

2004
 
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Gonzalez, Victor M. and Mark, Gloria (2004): "Constant, constant, multi-tasking craziness": managing multiple working spheres. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 113-120.

Most current designs of information technology are based on the notion of supporting distinct tasks such as document production, email usage, and voice communication. In this paper we present empirical results that suggest that people organize their work in terms of much larger and thematically connected units of work. We present results of fieldwork observation of information workers in three different roles: analysts, software developers, and managers. We discovered that all of these types of workers experience a high level of discontinuity in the execution of their activities. People average about three minutes on a task and somewhat more than two minutes using any electronic tool or paper document before switching tasks. We introduce the concept of working spheres to explain the inherent way in which individuals conceptualize and organize their basic units of work. People worked in an average of ten different working spheres. Working spheres are also fragmented; people spend about 12 minutes in a working sphere before they switch to another. We argue that design of information technology needs to support people's continual switching between working spheres.

© All rights reserved Gonzalez and Mark and/or ACM Press

 
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Mark, Gloria, Bergman, Mark and Poltrock, Steven (2004): Expanding the Horizons of Requirements Engineering: Examining Requirements during Groupware Tool Diffusion. In: 12th IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering RE 2004 6-10 September, 2004, Kyoto, Japan. pp. 186-195.

 
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Mark, Gloria and Poltrock, Steven (2004): Groupware adoption in a distributed organization: transporting and transforming technology through social worlds. In Information and Organization, 14 (4) pp. 297-327.

In this paper, we draw on theory from social worlds to analyze how different organizational contexts affect groupware adoption. We report on a study of the adoption of data conferencing in a large distributed organization. Our data show that the diffusion process, which was driven by the users, was a result of communication and transformation of the technology across different social worlds. We also discovered that membership in multiple social worlds in an organization creates a tension for the potential adopter who is in a distributed team. To function effectively, team members must uniformly adopt the technology, yet some may face resistance from other social worlds to which they belong. Our study showed that adoption was affected by organizational sites having conflicting views of the value of collaboration, different amounts and needs for resources, and different acceptance of technology standards. Potential technology adopters on distributed teams are faced with conflicting loyalties, constraints, and requirements between their distributed collaborations and organizational homes.

© All rights reserved Mark and Poltrock and/or Elsevier Ltd

 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 
2003
 
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Mark, Gloria and Poltrock, Steven (2003): Shaping technology across social worlds: groupware adoption in a distributed organization. In: Tremaine, Marilyn M. and Simone, Carla (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 2003 November 9-12, 2003, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 284-293.

In this paper, we draw on theory about social worlds to analyze how different organizational contexts affect groupware adoption. We report on a study of the adoption of data conferencing in a large distributed organization. Our data show that the diffusion process, which was driven by the users, was a result of communication and transformation of the technology across different social worlds. We also discovered that membership in multiple social worlds in an organization creates a tension for the potential adopter who is in a distributed team. To function effectively, team members must uniformly adopt the technology, yet some may face resistance at their organizational homes. Our case study showed that adoption was affected by organizational sites having conflicting views of the value of collaboration, different amounts and needs for resources, and different acceptance of technology standards. Potential technology adopters on distributed teams are faced with conflicting loyalties, constraints, and requirements between their distributed collaborations and organizational homes.

© All rights reserved Mark and Poltrock and/or ACM Press

 
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Mark, Gloria, Abrams, S. and Nassif, N. (2003): Group-to-group distance collaboration: Examining the "Space Between". In: Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2003. pp. 99-118.

 
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Mark, Gloria, Abrams, S. and Nassif, N. (2003): Group-to-group distance collaboration: Examining the "Space Between". In: Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2003. pp. 99-118.

 
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Bergman, Mark and Mark, Gloria (2003): In Situ Requirements Analysis: A Deeper Examination of the Relationship between Requirements Determination and Project Selection. In: 11th IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering RE 2003 8-12 September, 2003, Monterey Bay, CA, USA. pp. 11-22.

 
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Souza, Cleidson R. B. de, Redmiles, David F., Mark, Gloria, Penix, John and Sierhuis, Maarten (2003): Management of Interdependencies in Collaborative Software Development. In: ISESE 2003 - International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering 30 September - 1 October, 2003, Rome, Italy. pp. 294-303.

 
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Bradner, Erin, Mark, Gloria and Hertel, Tammie D. (2003): Effects of Team Size on Participation, Awareness, and Technology Choice in Geographically Distributed Teams. In: HICSS 2003 2003. p. 271.

 
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Mark, Gloria, Carpenter, Keri and Kobsa, Alfred (2003): A Model of Synchronous Collaborative Information Visualization. In: Banissi, Ebad, Borner, Katy, Chen, Chaomei, Clapworthy, Gordon, Maple, Carsten, Lobben, Amy, Moore, Christopher J., Roberts, Jonathan C., Ursyn, Anna and Zhang, Jian (eds.) IV 2003 - Seventh International Conference on Information Visualization 16-18 July, 2003, London, UK. pp. 373-383.

2002
 
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Mark, Gloria (2002): Conventions and Commitments in Distributed CSCW Groups. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 11 (3) pp. 349-387.

Conventions are necessary to establish in any recurrent cooperative arrangement. In electronic work, they are important so as to regulate the use of shared objects. Based on empirical results from a long-term study of a group cooperating in electronic work, I present examples showing that the group failed to develop normative convention behavior. These difficulties in forming conventions can be attributed to a long list of factors: the lack of clear precedents, different perspectives among group members, a flexible cooperation media, limited communication, the design process, and discontinuous cooperation. Further, I argue that commitments to the conventions were difficult, due to the conventions not reaching an acceptance threshold, uneven payoffs, and weak social influences. The empirical results call for a specific set of awareness information requirements to promote active learning about the group activity in order to support the articulation of conventions. The requirements focus on the role of feedback as a powerful mechanism for shaping and learning about group behavior.

© All rights reserved Mark and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Bradner, Erin and Mark, Gloria (2002): Why distance matters: effects on cooperation, persuasion and deception. In: Churchill, Elizabeth F., McCarthy, Joe, Neuwirth, Christine and Rodden, Tom (eds.) Proceedings of the 2002 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. pp. 226-235.

In this study, we examine how geographic distance affects collaboration using computer-mediated communication technology. We investigated experimentally the effects of cooperating partners being in the same or distant city on three behaviors: cooperation, persuasion, and deception using video conferencing and instant messaging (IM). Our results indicate that subjects are more likely to deceive, be less persuaded by, and initially cooperate less, with someone they believe is in a distant city, as opposed to in the same city as them. Although people initially cooperate less with someone they believe is far away, their willingness to cooperate increases quickly with interaction. Since the same media were used in both the far and near city conditions, these effects cannot be attributed to the media, but rather to social differences. This study confirms how CSCW needs to be concerned with developing technologies for bridging social distance, as well as geographic distance.

© All rights reserved Bradner and Mark and/or ACM Press

 
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Bergman, Mark and Mark, Gloria (2002): Exploring the Relationship between Project Selection and Requirements Analysis: An Empirical Study of the New Millennium Program. In: 10th Anniversary IEEE Joint International Conference on Requirements Engineering RE 2002 9-13 September, 2002, Essen, Germany. pp. 247-254.

 
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Mark, Gloria, Kobsa, Alfred and Gonzalez, Victor M. (2002): Do Four Eyes See Better than Two? Collaborative Versus Individual Discovery in Data Visualization Systems. In: IV 2002 2002. pp. 249-.

 
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Mark, Gloria (2002): Extreme collaboration. In Communications of the ACM, 45 (6) pp. 89-93.

2001
 
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Bradner, Erin and Mark, Gloria (2001): Social presence with video and application sharing. In: Ellis, Clarence and Zigurs, Ilze (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 2001 September 30 - October 3, 2001, Boulder, Colorado, USA. pp. 154-161.

We present two experimental studies examining the effects of videoconferencing and application sharing on task performance. We studied performance on a cognitive reasoning task while subjects were observed via two-way video, one-way video and application sharing. Results demonstrate that performance is impaired when subjects are observed via media compared to when they are not observed. Surprisingly, we found no significant difference in awareness of the observer's presence between the application sharing and the two-way video conditions. This is surprising because application sharing lacks visual feedback of the observer. This finding contradicts social presence theory which claims that media which provides visual feedback of others produce the greatest sense of social presence. Our data also show that media use heightens the perception of task difficulty. We extend social presence theory and argue that these social effects need to be considered in the design and deployment of video and application sharing technologies for use in the workplace.

© All rights reserved Bradner and Mark and/or ACM Press

 
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Mark, Gloria and Poltrock, Steven (2001): Diffusion of a collaborative technology cross distance. In: Ellis, Clarence and Zigurs, Ilze (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 2001 September 30 - October 3, 2001, Boulder, Colorado, USA. pp. 232-241.

Achieving a common set of collaboration tools is a significant challenge for people working together in a geographically distributed enterprise. It requires coordinated technology adoption across geographic distance and organizational boundaries. In this paper, we report on the diffusion of a data conferencing technology in a large distributed enterprise. Two years ago we studied the early adopters; now the technology is widespread. We conducted a company-wide survey and found that it is generally the users, and not management, who are the driving force in diffusing the technology across distance. We discuss the organizational conditions that led to the diffusion, how barriers have changed, and emerging work practices as a result of the diffusion.

© All rights reserved Mark and Poltrock and/or ACM Press

1999
 
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Mark, Gloria, Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven (1999): Meeting at the desktop: An empirical study of virtually collocated teams. In: Boedker, Susanne, Kyng, Morten and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 99 - Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 12-16 September, 1999, Copenhagen, Denmark. p. 159.

 
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Mark, Gloria and Wulf, Volker (1999): Changing Interpersonal Communication through Groupware Use. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 18 (5) pp. 385-395.

Interpersonal communication is the basis for almost any type of cooperation. Changing patterns of communication may have an impact on the quality of cooperative work. In this paper, user experiences are described in a long-term groupware project. Communication changes, both planned and unplanned, were examined as a result of the system introduction. Reduced face-to-face communication, task-related and task-unrelated, were found, as well as a changing dissemination of information. Certain losses in interpersonal communication were compensated for by user advocacy and design team-user workshops. It is proposed that with groupware introduction, organizations should consider support for both planned and informal means as compensation for reduced communication.

© All rights reserved Mark and Wulf and/or Taylor and Francis

1998
 
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Prinz, Wolfgang, Mark, Gloria and Pankoke-Babatz, Uta (1998): Designing Groupware for Congruency in Use. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 373-382.

In this paper, we present experiences from long-term groupware development, introduction, and use in an organization. We report lessons learned concerning how a complex design process operates and how its components interact. Our experiences suggest that the processes of requirement analysis, system development, and user support need to facilitate the merging of individual work patterns into congruent system usage. We confirm the changing nature of groupware use by reporting empirical results describing different learning phases.

© All rights reserved Prinz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Toomey, Lori, Tang, John C., Mark, Gloria and Adams, Lia (1998): Designing Virtual Communities for Work. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. p. 417.

While the popularity of networked virtual communities has been growing, their use has remained primarily social. Given the necessity of communication and collaboration among distributed workers, it seems natural to consider how these spaces might be used to support work and the surrounding social interactions. This workshop will focus on understanding how organizations are currently using virtual communities, and how they could be enhanced to better support the needs of collaborative workers. By "virtual communities" we are thinking primarily of MUDs, MOOs, and other collaboration software involving text, graphics, and/or other media. We will explore how to take advantage of the inherently engaging attributes of virtual communities to accomplish work, preserve organizational memory, promote corporate culture, and encourage professional networking. We will identify issues that are common to groups exploring work-based virtual communities and share the design approaches that are being tried to address them.

© All rights reserved Toomey et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mambrey, Peter, Mark, Gloria and Pankoke-Babatz, Uta (1998): User Advocacy in Participatory Design: Designers' Experiences with a New Communication Channel. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 7 (3) pp. 291-313.

We report on participatory design activities within the PoliTeam project, a large project which introduces groupware into the German government. Working with a representative small group of users in different worksites, an existing system was adapted to user and organizational needs, with the plan to improve and expand the system to a large scale. We integrated new approaches of user advocacy and osmosis with an evolutionary cycling process. User advocates and osmosis were techniques used to explore the users' needs during actual system use. These techniques were incorporated into the system development. In this paper, we present experiences with this approach and reflect on its impact on the design process from the designers' point of view.

© All rights reserved Mambrey et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Mark, Gloria and Bordetsky, Alexander B. (1998): Structuring Feedback for Groupware Use: Memory-Based Awareness. In: HICSS 1998 1998. pp. 184-193.

1997
 
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Mark, Gloria, Fuchs, Ludwin and Sohlenkamp, Markus (1997): Supporting Groupware Conventions through Contextual Awareness. In: Hughes, John F., Prinz, Wolfgang and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 7-11 September, 1997, Lancaster, UK. pp. 253-268.

 
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Mark, Gloria, Haake, Jorg M. and Steritz, Norbert A. (1997): Hypermedia Use in Group Work: Changing the Product, Process, and Strategy. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 6 (4) pp. 327-368.

Hypermedia structures have been integrated with CSCW functionality to develop the DOLPHIN system, an electronic meeting room environment. In this paper, a study is reported investigating how the DOLPHIN environment affects group work. Different aspects of group problem solving were examined to understand the effects of working with hypermedia: the group's product, cognitive factors, and the group process. The results showed that groups can easily work with hypermedia structures, and that these structures influence groups to produce a different product, to use a different strategy, and to use a different collaborative style, namely of dividing up their labor. The experimental results are explained in a model which suggests the involvement of both procedural and semantic components in hypermedia use. We discuss wider implications of hypermedia for CSCW and group work.

© All rights reserved Mark et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Mark, Gloria (1997): Merging Multiple Perspectives in Groupware Use: Intra- and Intergroup Conventions. In: Payne, Stephen C. and Prinz, Wolfgang (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 1997 November 11-19, 1997, Phoenix, Arizona, USA. pp. 19-28.

Intergroup cooperation is characterized by groups having different work roles and experiences. When cooperating with a flexible groupware system, groups may face the problem of using conventions that are not congruent. This paper describes the experience of convention use between heterogeneous groups using a groupware system in a real work setting. We discovered that intragroup conventions can transfer from prior work experience and be robust. The method used in POLITeam for supporting conventions is compared with other methods for groupware users when heterogeneous groups were involved.

© All rights reserved Mark and/or ACM Press

 
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Pankoke-Babatz, Uta, Mark, Gloria and Klockner, Konrad (1997): Design in the POLITeam Project: Evaluating User Needs in Real Work Practice. In: Proceedings of DIS97: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1997. pp. 277-287.

We report on a unique design approach used in the POLITeam project, which introduces groupware into a German ministry. An existing groupware system was adapted to user and organizational needs, with the plan to improve and expand the system to a large-scale. We integrated new approaches of user advocacy and direct designer-user interaction, with an evolutionary cycling process. We focus in particular on the role of user advocacy in evaluating the users' needs during actual system use. We explain the design process, and discuss the system requirements that emerged as a result of using this method. We also report the results of interviews with the users and design team and reflect on the impact that the design process had on them.

© All rights reserved Pankoke-Babatz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mark, Gloria and Wulf, Volker (1997): Coordinating Effective Work Routines with Groupware: Intra- and Intergroup Conventions. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1997. pp. 73-76.

 
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Wulf, Volker and Mark, Gloria (1997): The Emergence of Conventions Within Processes of Integrated Organization and Technology Development. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1997. pp. 293-296.

1996
 
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Mark, Gloria, Haake, Jorg M. and Streitz, Norbert A. (1996): Hypermedia Structures and the Division of Labor in Meeting Room Collaboration. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 170-179.

The type of collaboration for a group, whether working in parallel or collectively, is a style for a group influenced by many factors, among them the technology that the group works with. In an empirical study using the DOLPHIN system, we focused on the effect that using hypermedia structures in an electronic meeting room had on collaborative style. We found that groups who created documents using hypermedia were: 1) more likely to divide up their labor and work in parallel, and 2) to have a slower frequency of switching between the task phases of planning and developing ideas. We present a model to explain this effect of hypermedia on task division which suggests the involvement of mechanical and semantic components. We also discuss how DOLPHIN supports awareness of others people's activities for a parallel collaborative style.

© All rights reserved Mark et al. and/or ACM Press

1995
 
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Mark, Gloria, Haake, Jorg M. and Streitz, Norbert A. (1995): The Use of Hypermedia in Group Problem Solving: An Evaluation of the DOLPHIN Electronic Meeting Room Environment. In: Marmolin, Hans, Sundblad, Yngve and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 95 - Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 11-15 September, 1995, Stockholm, Sweden. pp. 197-213.

In this paper, we report on an empirical evaluation of selected aspects of DOLPHIN, a meeting room environment of computers networked with an electronic whiteboard. Our results show that in a face-to-face meeting, the use of DOLPHIN's hypermedia functionality changed the nature of the product and the way groups worked, compared to using only electronic whiteboard functionality. Groups organized their ideas into network, rather than pure hierarchical, structures. These were more deeply elaborated, contained more ideas, and had more relationships between the ideas. The problem solutions were also judged to be more original. Groups were more likely to use a top-down planning strategy, and to exhibit a different temporal work pattern. The results suggest that work groups can benefit from using hypermedia in problem solving.

© All rights reserved Mark et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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