Publication statistics

Pub. period:1991-2009
Pub. count:35
Number of co-authors:34



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Gordon Kurtenbach:26
Azam Khan:15
Ravin Balakrishnan:10

 

 

Productive colleagues

George W. Fitzmaurice's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Hiroshi Ishii:111
Ravin Balakrishnan:108
Bill Buxton:78
 
 
 

Upcoming Courses

go to course
Emotional Design: How to make products people will love
Starts TODAY LAST CALL!
go to course
UI Design Patterns for Successful Software
87% booked. Starts in 8 days
 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
start reading
 
 

George W. Fitzmaurice

Ph.D

Picture of George W. Fitzmaurice.
Update pic
Has also published under the name of:
"George Fitzmaurice"

Personal Homepage:
http://www.dgp.toronto.edu/~gf/

Current place of employment:
Alias - Interactive Graphics Research Group

George Fitzmaurice, Ph.D. is the Head of User Interface Research for Autodesk Research and a Senior Research Scientist. He has been with Autodesk (including Alias) for over 13 years conducting research in 2D and 3D UIs including: input devices, large displays, two-handed interaction, multi-touch, pen-based UIs, TrackingMenus, spatially-aware displays, 3D navigation and tangible UIs. In the HCI community he established the field of Graspable UIs which is the pre-cursor to what is known as Tangible UIs. Currently, he is leading research projects on Advanced Learning Technologies and Expert & Community Workflow Visualizations for feature-rich software applications. Working with his colleagues he has helped to author over 30 HCI papers and over 30 patents. Notable product contributions include Maya 1.0 UI, SketchBook Pro UI design, ShowMotion for Showcase and the 3D Navigation tools (ViewCube and SteeringWheels) for Autodesk products. Fitzmaurice received a B.Sc. in mathematics with computer science at MIT, an M.Sc. in computer science at Brown University and a Ph.D. in computer science at the University of Toronto. Fitzmaurice received a B.Sc. in mathematics with computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1988, an M.Sc. in computer science at Brown University in 1991, and a Ph.D. in computer science at the University of Toronto in 1996.

 

Publications by George W. Fitzmaurice (bibliography)

 what's this?
2009
 
Edit | Del

Song, Hyunyoung, Grossman, Tovi, Fitzmaurice, George W., Guimbretiere, Francois, Khan, Azam, Attar, Ramtin and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2009): PenLight: combining a mobile projector and a digital pen for dynamic visual overlay. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 143-152. Available online

Digital pen systems, originally designed to digitize annotations made on physical paper, are evolving to permit a wider variety of applications. Although the type and quality of pen feedback (e.g., haptic, audio, and visual) have a huge impact on advancing the digital pen technology, dynamic visual feedback has yet to be fully investigated. In parallel, miniature projectors are an emerging technology with the potential to enhance visual feedback for small mobile computing devices. In this paper we present the PenLight system, which is a testbed to explore the interaction design space and its accompanying interaction techniques in a digital pen embedded with a spatially-aware miniature projector. Using our prototype, that simulates a miniature projection (via a standard video projector), we visually augment paper documents, giving the user immediate access to additional information and computational tools. We also show how virtual ink can be managed in single and multi-user environments to aid collaboration and data management. User evaluation with professional architects indicated promise of our proposed techniques and their potential utility in the paper-intensive domain of architecture.

© All rights reserved Song et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Grossman, Tovi, Fitzmaurice, George W. and Attar, Ramtin (2009): A survey of software learnability: metrics, methodologies and guidelines. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 649-658. Available online

It is well-accepted that learnability is an important aspect of usability, yet there is little agreement as to how learnability should be defined, measured, and evaluated. In this paper, we present a survey of the previous definitions, metrics, and evaluation methodologies which have been used for software learnability. Our survey of evaluation methodologies leads us to a new question-suggestion protocol, which, in a user study, was shown to expose a significantly higher number of learnability issues in comparison to a more traditional think-aloud protocol. Based on the issues identified in our study, we present a classification system of learnability issues, and demonstrate how these categories can lead to guidelines for addressing the associated challenges.

© All rights reserved Grossman et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Matejka, Justin, Grossman, Tovi, Lo, Jessica and Fitzmaurice, George W. (2009): The design and evaluation of multi-finger mouse emulation techniques. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1073-1082. Available online

We explore the use of multi-finger input to emulate full mouse functionality, such as the tracking state, three buttons, and chording. We first present the design space for such techniques, which serves as a guide for the systematic investigation of possible solutions. We then perform a series of pilot studies to come up with recommendations for the various aspects of the design space. These pilot studies allow us to arrive at a recommended technique, the SDMouse. In a formal study, the SDMouse was shown to significantly improve performance in comparison to previously developed mouse emulation techniques.

© All rights reserved Matejka et al. and/or ACM Press

2008
 
Edit | Del

Fitzmaurice, George W., Matejka, Justin, Khan, Azam, Glueck, Mike and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2008): PieCursor: merging pointing and command selection for rapid in-place tool switching. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1361-1370. Available online

We describe a new type of graphical user interface widget called the "PieCursor." The PieCursor is based on the Tracking Menu technique and consists of a radial cluster of command wedges, is roughly the size of a cursor, and replaces the traditional cursor. The PieCursor technique merges the normal cursor function of pointing with command selection into a single action. A controlled experiment was conducted to compare the performance of rapid command and target selection using the PieCursor against larger versions of Tracking Menus and a status quo Toolbar configuration. Results indicate that for small clusters of tools (4 and 8 command wedges) the PieCursor can outperform the toolbar by 20.8% for coarse pointing. For fine pointing, the performance of the PieCursor degrades approximately to the performance found for the Toolbar condition.

© All rights reserved Fitzmaurice et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Fitzmaurice, George W., Matejka, Justin, Mordatch, Igor, Khan, Azam and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2008): Safe 3D navigation. In: Haines, Eric and McGuire, Morgan (eds.) Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, SI3D 2008, February 15-17, 2008, Redwood City, CA, USA 2008. pp. 7-15. Available online

 
Edit | Del

Khan, Azam, Mordatch, Igor, Fitzmaurice, George W., Matejka, Justin and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2008): ViewCube: a 3D orientation indicator and controller. In: Haines, Eric and McGuire, Morgan (eds.) Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, SI3D 2008, February 15-17, 2008, Redwood City, CA, USA 2008. pp. 17-25. Available online

2006
 
Edit | Del

Burtnyk, Nicholas, Khan, Azam, Fitzmaurice, George W. and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2006): ShowMotion: camera motion based 3D design review. In: Olano, Marc and Squin, Carlo H. (eds.) Proceedings of the 2006 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, SI3D 2006, March 14-17, 2006, Redwood City, California, USA 2006. pp. 167-174. Available online

2005
 
Edit | Del

Owen, Russell, Kurtenbach, Gordon, Fitzmaurice, George W., Baudel, Thomas and Buxton, Bill (2005): When it gets more difficult, use both hands: exploring bimanual curve manipulation. In: Graphics Interface 2005 May 9-11, 2005, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 17-24. Available online

In this paper we investigate the relationship between bimanual (two-handed) manipulation and the cognitive aspects of task integration, divided attention and epistemic action. We explore these relationships by means of an empirical study comparing a bimanual technique versus a unimanual (one-handed) technique for a curve matching task. The bimanual technique was designed on the principle of integrating the visual, conceptual and input device space domain of both hands. We provide evidence that the bimanual technique has better performance than the unimanual technique and, as the task becomes more cognitively demanding, the bimanual technique exhibits even greater performance benefits. We argue that the design principles and performance improvements are applicable to other task domains.

© All rights reserved Owen et al. and/or their publisher

 
Edit | Del

Khan, Azam, Matejka, Justin, Fitzmaurice, George W. and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2005): Spotlight: directing users' attention on large displays. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 791-798. Available online

We describe a new interaction technique, called a spotlight, for directing the visual attention of an audience when viewing data or presentations on large wall-sized displays. A spotlight is simply a region of the display where the contents are displayed normally while the remainder of the display is somewhat darkened. In this paper we define the behavior of spotlights, show unique affordances of the technique, and discuss design characteristics. We also report on experiments that show the benefit of using the spotlight a large display and standard desktop configuration. Our results suggest that the spotlight is preferred over the standard cursor and outperforms it by a factor of 3.4 on a wall-sized display.

© All rights reserved Khan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Khan, Azam, Komalo, Ben, Stam, Jos, Fitzmaurice, George W. and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2005): HoverCam: interactive 3D navigation for proximal object inspection. In: Lastra, Anselmo, Olano, Marc, Luebke, David P. and Pfister, Hanspeter (eds.) Proceedings of the 2005 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, SI3D 2005, April 3-6, 2005, Washington, DC, USA 2005. pp. 73-80. Available online

 
Edit | Del

Fitzmaurice, George W., Khan, Azam, Kurtenbach, Gordon and Binks, Graham (2005): Cinematic Meeting Facilities Using Large Displays. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 25 (4) pp. 17-21. Available online

 
Edit | Del

Kurtenbach, Gordon and Fitzmaurice, George W. (2005): Guest Editors' Introduction: Applications of Large Displays. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 25 (4) pp. 22-23. Available online

2004
 
Edit | Del

Khan, Azam, Fitzmaurice, George W., Almeida, Don, Burtnyk, Nicolas and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2004): A remote control interface for large displays. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2004. pp. 127-136. Available online

We describe a new widget and interaction technique, known as a \"Frisbee,\" for interacting with areas of a large display that are difficult or impossible to access directly. A frisbee is simply a portal to another part of the display. It consists of a local \"telescope\" and a remote \"target\". The remote data surrounded by the target is drawn in the telescope and interactions performed within it are applied on the remote data. In this paper we define the behavior of frisbees, show unique affordances of the widget, and discuss design characteristics. We have implemented a test application and report on an experiment that shows the benefit of using the frisbee on a large display. Our results suggest that the frisbee is preferred over walking back and forth to the local and remote spaces at a distance of 4.5 feet.

© All rights reserved Khan et al. and/or ACM Press

2003
 
Edit | Del

Fitzmaurice, George W., Khan, Azam, Pieke, Robert, Buxton, Bill and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2003): Tracking menus. In: Proceedings of the 16th annural ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology November, 2-5, 2003, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 71-79. Available online

We describe a new type of graphical user interface widget, known as a "tracking menu." A tracking menu consists of a cluster of graphical buttons, and as with traditional menus, the cursor can be moved within the menu to select and interact with items. However, unlike traditional menus, when the cursor hits the edge of the menu, the menu moves to continue tracking the cursor. Thus, the menu always stays under the cursor and close at hand. In this paper we define the behavior of tracking menus, show unique affordances of the widget, present a variety of examples, and discuss design characteristics. We examine one tracking menu design in detail, reporting on usability studies and our experience integrating the technique into a commercial application for the Tablet PC. While user interface issues on the Tablet PC, such as preventing round trips to tool palettes with the pen, inspired tracking menus, the design also works well with a standard mouse and keyboard configuration.

© All rights reserved Fitzmaurice et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Tsang, Michael, Fitzmaurice, George W., Kurtenbach, Gordon and Khan, Azam (2003): Game-like navigation and responsiveness in non-game applications. In Communications of the ACM, 46 (7) pp. 56-61. Available online

2002
 
Edit | Del

Grossman, Tovi, Balakrishnan, Ravin, Kurtenbach, Gordon, Fitzmaurice, George W., Khan, Azam and Buxton, Bill (2002): Creating principal 3D curves with digital tape drawing. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 121-128.

 
Edit | Del

Burtnyk, Nicholas, Khan, Azam, Fitzmaurice, George W., Balakrishnan, Ravin and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2002): StyleCam: interactive stylized 3D navigation using integrated spatial & temporal controls. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 101-110. Available online

This paper describes StyleCam, an approach for authoring 3D viewing experiences that incorporate stylistic elements that are not available in typical 3D viewers. A key aspect of StyleCam is that it allows the author to significantly tailor what the user sees and when they see it. The resulting viewing experience can approach the visual richness and pacing of highly authored visual content such as television commercials or feature films. At the same time, StyleCam allows for a satisfying level of interactivity while avoiding the problems inherent in using unconstrained camera models. The main components of StyleCam are camera surfaces which spatially constrain the viewing camera; animation clips that allow for visually appealing transitions between different camera surfaces; and a simple, unified, interaction technique that permits the user to seamlessly and continuously move between spatial-control of the camera and temporal-control of the animated transitions. Further, the user's focus of attention is always kept on the content, and not on extraneous interface widgets. In addition to describing the conceptual model of StyleCam, its current implementation, and an example authored experience, we also present the results of an evaluation involving real users.

© All rights reserved Burtnyk et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Tsang, Michael, Fitzmaurice, George W., Kurtenbach, Gordon, Khan, Azam and Buxton, Bill (2002): Boom chameleon: simultaneous capture of 3D viewpoint, voice and gesture annotations on a spatially-aware display. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 111-120. Available online

We introduce the Boom Chameleon, a novel input/output device consisting of a flat-panel display mounted on a tracked mechanical boom. The display acts as a physical window into 3D virtual environments, through which a one-to-one mapping between real and virtual space is preserved. The Boom Chameleon is further augmented with a touch-screen and a microphone/speaker combination. We present a 3D annotation application that exploits this unique configuration in order to simultaneously capture viewpoint, voice and gesture information. Design issues are discussed and results of an informal user study on the device and annotation software are presented. The results show that the Boom Chameleon annotation facilities have the potential to be an effective, easy to learn and operate 3D design review system.

© All rights reserved Tsang et al. and/or ACM Press

2001
 
Edit | Del

Balakrishnan, Ravin, Fitzmaurice, George W. and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2001): User Interfaces for Volumetric Displays. In IEEE Computer, 34 (3) pp. 37-45. Available online

 
Edit | Del

Grossman, Tovi, Balakrishnan, Ravin, Kurtenbach, Gordon, Fitzmaurice, George W., Khan, Azam and Buxton, William (2001): Interaction techniques for 3D modeling on large displays. In: SI3D 2001 2001. pp. 17-23. Available online

2000
 
Edit | Del

Buxton, William, Fitzmaurice, George W., Balakrishnan, Ravin and Kurtenbach, Gordon (2000): Large Displays in Automotive Design. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 20 (4) pp. 68-75. Available online

1999
 
Edit | Del

Fitzmaurice, George W., Balakrishnan, Ravin, Kurtenbach, Gordon and Buxton, Bill (1999): An Exploration into Supporting Artwork Orientation in the User Interface. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 167-174. Available online

Rotating a piece of paper while drawing is an integral and almost subconscious part of drawing with pencil and paper. In a similar manner, the advent of lightweight pen-based computers allow digital artwork to be rotated while drawing by rotating the entire computer. Given this type of manipulation we explore the implications for the user interface to support artwork orientation. First we describe an exploratory study to further motivate our work and characterize how artwork is manipulated while drawing. After presenting some possible UI approaches to support artwork orientation, we define a new solution called a rotating user interface (RUIs). We then discuss design issues and requirements for RUIs based on our exploratory study.

© All rights reserved Fitzmaurice et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Kurtenbach, Gordon, Fitzmaurice, George W., Owen, Russell N. and Baudel, Thomas (1999): The Hotbox: Efficient Access to a Large Number of Menu-Items. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 231-237. Available online

The proliferation of multiple toolbars and UI widgets around the perimeter of application windows is an indication that the traditional GUI design of a single menubar is not sufficient to support large scale applications with numerous functions. In this paper we describe a new widget which is an enhancement of the traditional menubar which dramatically increases menu-item capacity. This widget, called the "Hotbox" combines several GUI techniques which are generally used independently: accelerator keys, modal dialogs, pop-up/pull down menus, radial menus, marking menus and menubars. These techniques are fitted together to create a single, easy to learn yet fast to operate GUI widget which can handle significantly more menu-items than the traditional GUI menubar. We describe the design rationale of the Hotbox and its effectiveness in a large scale commercial application. While the Hotbox was developed for a particular application domain, the widget itself and the design rationale are potentially useful in other domains.

© All rights reserved Kurtenbach et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Balakrishnan, Ravin, Fitzmaurice, George W., Kurtenbach, Gordon and Buxton, Bill (1999): Digital Tape Drawing. In: Zanden, Brad Vander and Marks, Joe (eds.) Proceedings of the 12th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 07 - 10, 1999, Asheville, North Carolina, United States. pp. 161-169. Available online

Tape drawing is the art of creating sketches on large scale upright surfaces using black photographic tape. Typically used in the automotive industry, it is an important part of the automotive design process that is currently not computerized. We analyze and describe the unique aspects of tape drawing, and use this knowledge to design and implement a digital tape drawing system. Our system retains the fundamental interaction and visual affordances of the traditional media while leveraging the power of the digital media. Aside from the practical aspect of our work, the interaction techniques developed have interesting implications for current theories of human bimanual interaction.

© All rights reserved Balakrishnan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Fitzmaurice, George W., Balakrishnan, Ravin and Kurtenbach, Gordon (1999): Sampling, Synthesis, and Input Devices. In Communications of the ACM, 42 (8) pp. 54-63. Available online

 
Edit | Del

Balakrishnan, Ravin, Fitzmaurice, George W., Kurtenbach, Gordon and Singh, Karan (1999): Exploring interactive curve and surface manipulation using a bend and twist sensitive input strip. In: SI3D 1999 1999. pp. 111-118. Available online

 Cited in the following chapters:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]

3D User Interfaces: [/encyclopedia/3d_user_interfaces.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]

3D User Interfaces: [/encyclopedia/3d_user_interfaces.html]


 
1997
 
Edit | Del

Kurtenbach, Gordon, Fitzmaurice, George W., Baudel, Thomas and Buxton, Bill (1997): The Design of a GUI Paradigm Based on Tablets, Two-Hands, and Transparency. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 35-42. Available online

An experimental GUI paradigm is presented which is based on the design goals of maximizing the amount of screen used for application data, reducing the amount that the UI diverts visual attentions from the application data, and increasing the quality of input. In pursuit of these goals, we integrated the non-standard UI technologies of multi-sensor tablets, toolglass, transparent UI components, and marking menus. We describe a working prototype of our new paradigm, the rationale behind it and our experiences introducing it into an existing application. Finally, we presents some of the lessons learned: prototypes are useful to break the barriers imposed by conventional GUI design and some of their ideas can still be retrofitted seamlessly into products. Furthermore, the added functionality is not measured only in terms of user performance, but also by the quality of interaction, which allows artists to create new graphic vocabularies and graphic styles.

© All rights reserved Kurtenbach et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Balakrishnan, Ravin, Baudel, Thomas, Kurtenbach, Gordon and Fitzmaurice, George W. (1997): The Rockin' Mouse: Integral 3D Manipulation on a Plane. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 311-318. Available online

A novel input device called the Rockin'Mouse is described and evaluated. The Rockin'Mouse is a four degree-of-freedom input device that has the same shape as a regular mouse except that the bottom of the Rockin'Mouse is rounded so that it can be tilted. This tilting can be used to control two extra degrees of freedom, thus making it suitable for manipulation in 3D environments. Like the regular mouse, the Rockin'Mouse can sense planar position and perform all the usual functions. However, in a 3D scene a regular mouse can only operate on 2 dimensions at a time and therefore manipulation in 3D requires a way to switch between dimensions. With the Rockin'Mouse, however, all the dimensions can be simultaneously controlled. In this paper we describe our design rationale behind the Rockin'Mouse, and present an experiment which compares the Rockin'Mouse to the standard mouse in a typical 3D interaction task. Our results indicate that the Rockin'Mouse is 30% faster and is a promising device for both 2D and 3D interaction.

© All rights reserved Balakrishnan et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
1996
 
Edit | Del

Fitzmaurice, George W. (1996). Graspable User Interfaces (Ph.D. Thesis). Retrieved [Date unavailable] from http://www.dgp.toronto.edu/~gf/papers/PhD%20-%20Graspable%20UIs/Thesis.gf.html

 Cited in the following chapter:

Tangible Interaction: [/encyclopedia/tangible_interaction.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Tangible Interaction: [/encyclopedia/tangible_interaction.html]


 
1995
 
Edit | Del

Fitzmaurice, George W., Ishii, Hiroshi and Buxton, Bill (1995): Bricks: Laying the Foundations for Graspable User Interfaces. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 442-449. Available online

We introduce the concept of Graspable User Interfaces that allow direct control of electronic or virtual objects through physical handles for control. These physical artifacts, which we call "bricks," are essentially new input devices that can be tightly coupled or "attached" to virtual objects for manipulation or for expressing action (e.g., to set parameters or for initiating processes). Our bricks operate on top of a large horizontal display surface known as the "ActiveDesk." We present four stages in the development of Graspable UIs: (1) a series of exploratory studies on hand gestures and grasping; (2) interaction simulations using mock-ups and rapid prototyping tools; (3) a working prototype and sample application called GraspDraw; and (4) the initial integrating of the Graspable UI concepts into a commercial application. Finally, we conclude by presenting a design space for Bricks which lay the foundation for further exploring and developing Graspable User Interfaces.

© All rights reserved Fitzmaurice et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapters:

Tangible Interaction: [/encyclopedia/tangible_interaction.html]

Industrial Design: [/encyclopedia/industrial_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Tangible Interaction: [/encyclopedia/tangible_interaction.html]

Industrial Design: [/encyclopedia/industrial_design.html]


 
 
Edit | Del

Fitzmaurice, George W., Ishii, Hiroshi and Buxton, Bill (1995): Bricks: Laying the Foundations for Graspable User Interfaces. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCHI May, 1995. pp. 442-449.

1993
 
Edit | Del

Fitzmaurice, George W., Zhai, Shumin and Chignell, Mark (1993): Virtual Reality for Palmtop Computers. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 11 (3) pp. 197-218. Available online

We are exploring how virtual reality theories can be applied toward palmtop computers. In our prototype, called the Chameleon, a small 4-inch hand-held monitor acts as a palmtop computer with the capabilities of a Silicon Graphics workstation. A 6D input device and a response button are attached to the small monitor to detect user gestures and input selections for issuing commands. An experiment was conducted to evaluate our design and to see how well depth could be perceived in the small screen compared to a large 21-inch screen, and the extent to which movement of the small display (in a palmtop virtual reality condition) could improve depth perception. Results show that with very little training, perception of depth in the palmtop virtual reality condition is about as good as corresponding depth perception in a large (but static) display. Variations to the initial design are also discussed, along with issues to be explored in future research. Our research suggests that palmtop virtual reality may support effective navigation and search and retrieval, in rich and portable information spaces.

© All rights reserved Fitzmaurice et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Fitzmaurice, George W. (1993): Situated Information Spaces and Spatially Aware Palmtop Computers. In Communications of the ACM, 36 (7) pp. 38-49.

1992
 
Edit | Del

Palaniappan, Murugappan, Yankelovich, Nicole, Fitzmaurice, George W., Loomis, Anne, Haan, Bernard, Coombs, James H. and Meyrowitz, Norman (1992): The Envoy Framework: An Open Architecture for Agents. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 10 (3) pp. 233-264. Available online

The Envoy Framework addresses a need for computer-based assistants or agents that operate in conjunction with users' existing applications, helping them perform tedious, repetitive, or time-consuming tasks more easily and efficiently. Envoys carry out missions for users by invoking envoy-aware applications called operatives and inform users of mission results via envoy-aware applications called informers. The distributed, open architecture developed for Envoys is derived from an analysis of the best characteristics of existing agent systems. This architecture has been designed as a model for how agent technology can be seamlessly integrated into the electronic desktop. It defines a set of application programmer's interfaces so that developers may convert their software to envoy-aware applications. A subset of the architecture described in this paper has been implemented in an Envoy Framework prototype.

© All rights reserved Palaniappan et al. and/or ACM Press

1991
 
Edit | Del

Palaniappan, Murugappan and Fitzmaurice, George W. (1991): InternetExpress: An Inter-Desktop Multimedia Data-Transfer Service. In IEEE Computer, 24 (10) pp. 58-67.

 
Add publication
Show list on your website
 
 

Join our community and advance:

Your
Skills

Your
Network

Your
Career

 
Join our community!
 
 
 

Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/george_w__fitzmaurice.html