Publication statistics

Pub. period:1986-2012
Pub. count:45
Number of co-authors:64



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Judith S. Olson:19
Lisbeth A. Mack:4
Mark Carter:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

Gary M. Olson's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Hiroshi Ishii:111
Jonathan Grudin:105
Robert E. Kraut:98
 
 
 

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Gary M. Olson

Picture of Gary M. Olson.
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Has also published under the name of:
"Gary Olson"

Personal Homepage:
http://www.ics.uci.edu/~golson/

Gary M. Olson is Paul M. Fitts Collegiate Professor of Human Computer Interaction / Professor and Associate Dean for Research, School of Information / Professor of the Department of Psychology, University of Michigan

 

Publications by Gary M. Olson (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (2012): Collaboration technologies. In: Jacko, Julie A. (ed.). "Human-Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications, Third Edition (Human Factors and Ergonomics)". CRC Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 
2010
 
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Filho, Fernando Figueira, Olson, Gary M. and Geus, Paulo Lcio de (2010): Kolline: a task-oriented system for collaborative information seeking. In: ACM 28th International Conference on Design of Communication 2010. pp. 89-94. Available online

This paper presents results of an exploratory study which observed Linux novice users performing complex technical tasks using Google's search engine. In this study we observed that information triage is a difficult process for unexperienced users unless well structured information is provided which results in better satisfaction and search effectiveness. Providing a well structured information allows users to browse through different pieces of documentation without depending exclusively on the keyword search. Based on these observations, this research prototyped Kolline, a system that aims to facilitate information seeking for unexperienced users by allowing more experienced users to collaborate together. Users in Kolline create a task-oriented navigation structure based on web annotations. In this paper we discuss the potential benefits of this technique on helping unexperienced users to solve complex search tasks and present improvements for future work.

© All rights reserved Filho et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bos, Nathan D., Buyuktur, Ayse, Olson, Judith S., Olson, Gary M. and Voida, Amy (2010): Shared identity helps partially distributed teams, but distance still matters. In: GROUP10 International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2010. pp. 89-96. Available online

Previous research on partially distributed teams has revealed a cluster of problems, including difficulty coordinating, 'ingroup' formation among members in different locations, and lower trust in teammates across distance. But these prior studies involved groups of strangers; would pre-existing groups have the same problems? We recruited groups from the same fraternity or sorority to test groups with a pre-existing shared identity. We found that these groups did indeed coordinate work better, cooperated more, and were more willing and able to take on larger scale projects. However, even within these high-performing shared identity groups, there were significant differences between collocated and remote members in performance, group efficacy, and sense of group identity.

© All rights reserved Bos et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Olson, Gary M. and Grudin, Jonathan (2009): The information school phenomenon. In Interactions, 16 (2) pp. 15-19. Available online

2006
 
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Olson, Gary M. and Jeffries, Robin (eds.) Extended Abstracts Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) 2006, Montral, Canada.

 
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Olson, Gary M. and Jeffries, Robin (eds.) Extended Abstracts Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 22-27, 2006, Montral, Qubec, Canada.

2005
 
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Olson, Gary M. and Wixon, Dennis (2005): CHI 2006: interact, inform, inspire. In Interactions, 12 (6) pp. 12-13.

2002
 
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Bos, Nathan, Olson, Judith S., Gergle, Darren, Olson, Gary M. and Wright, Zach (2002): Effects of four computer-mediated communications channels on trust development. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 135-140.

 
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Zheng, Jun, Veinott, Elizabeth S., Bos, Nathan, Olson, Judith S. and Olson, Gary M. (2002): Trust without touch: jumpstarting long-distance trust with initial social activities. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 141-146.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Emotion and website design: [/encyclopedia/emotion_and_website_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Emotion and website design: [/encyclopedia/emotion_and_website_design.html]


 
2001
 
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Olson, Gary M., Malone, Thomas W. and Smith, John B. (eds.) (2001): Coordination Theory and Collaboration Technology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

2000
 
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Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (2000): Distance Matters. In Human-Computer Interaction, 15 (2) pp. 139-178.

Giant strides in information technology at the turn of the century may have unleashed unreachable goals. With the invention of groupware, people expect to communicate easily with each other and accomplish difficult work even though they are remotely located or rarely overlap in time. Major corporations launch global teams, expecting that technology will make "virtual collocation" possible. Federal research money encourages global science through the establishment of "collaboratories." We review over 10 years of field and laboratory investigations of collocated and noncollocated synchronous group collaborations. In particular, we compare collocated work with remote work as it is possible today and comment on the promise of remote work tomorrow. We focus on the sociotechnical conditions required for effective distance work and bring together the results with four key concepts: common ground, coupling of work, collaboration readiness, and collaboration technology readiness. Groups with high common ground and loosely coupled work, with readiness both for collaboration and collaboration technology, have a chance at succeeding with remote work. Deviations from each of these create strain on the relationships among teammates and require changes in the work or processes of collaboration to succeed. Often they do not succeed because distance still matters.

© All rights reserved Olson and Olson and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Olson, Judith S. and Olson, Gary M. (2000): i2i trust in e-commerce. In Communications of the ACM, 43 (12) pp. 41-44. Available online

1999
 
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Veinott, Elizabeth S., Olson, Judith S., Olson, Gary M. and Fu, Xiaolan (1999): Video Helps Remote Work: Speakers Who Need to Negotiate Common Ground Benefit from Seeing Each Other. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 302-309. Available online

More and more organizations are forming teams that are not co-located. These teams communicate via email, fax, telephone and audio conferences, and sometimes video. The question often arises whether the cost of video is worth it. Previous research has shown that video makes people more satisfied with the work, but it doesn't help the quality of the work itself. There is one exception; negotiation tasks are measurably better with video. In this study, we show that the same effect holds for a more subtle form of negotiation, when people have to negotiate meaning in a conversation. We compared the performance and communication of people explaining a map route to each other. Half the pairs have video and audio connections, half only audio. Half of the pairs were native speakers of English; the other half were non-native speakers, those presumably who have to negotiate meaning more. The results showed that non-native speaker pairs did benefit from the video; native speakers did not. Detailed analysis of the conversational strategies showed that with video, the non-native speaker pairs spent proportionately more effort negotiating common ground.

© All rights reserved Veinott et al. and/or ACM Press

1998
 
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Olson, Gary M., Atkins, Daniel E., Clauer, Robert, Finholt, Thomas A., Jahanian, Farnam, Killeen, Timothy L., Prakash, Atul and Weymouth, Terry (1998): The Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory (UARC). In Interactions, 5 (3) pp. 48-55. Available online

 
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Olson, Gary M. and Moran, Thomas P. (1998): Introduction to This Special Issue on Experimental Comparisons of Usability Evaluation Methods. In Human-Computer Interaction, 13 (3) pp. 199-201.

1997
 
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Hymes, Charles M. and Olson, Gary M. (1997): Quick But Not So Dirty Web Design: Applying Empirical Conceptual Clustering Techniques to Organise Hypertext Content. In: Proceedings of DIS97: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1997. pp. 159-162. Available online

When the purpose of a web site is to communicate a body of information, the most common and significant problem for the user is understanding how content is organised within the site. The Rapid Empirical Clustering Approach (RECAp) was developed from cognitive science work on concept structure to help the designer represent the "modal mental model" of the users' conception of web site content. RECAp has been performed under tight time and resource constraints. None the less RECAp has been observed to substantially improve web site structure, while helping design teams maintain focus on users and usability.

© All rights reserved Hymes and Olson and/or ACM Press

1996
 
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Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

 
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McDaniel, Susan E., Olson, Gary M. and Magee, Joseph C. (1996): Identifying and Analyzing Multiple Threads in Computer-Mediated and Face-to-Face Conversations. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 39-47. Available online

We compared face-to-face (FTF) and computer-mediated (CMC) conversations among small groups of scientists carrying out data collection campaigns. We found multiple threads of conversation in both settings, but this was much more extensive in the CMC cases. The two kinds of conversation were very similar in content and nature of participation, but differed in their temporal flow. The software that supported the CMC conversations allowed interactions that were quite similar in character to the FTF situations. The low incidence of thread confusions and the potential value of overhearing useful conversations does not seem to warrant providing technology in the CMC situation to split apart conversational threads.

© All rights reserved McDaniel et al. and/or ACM Press

1995
 
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Olson, Judith S., Olson, Gary M. and Meader, David K. (1995): What Mix of Video and Audio is Useful for Small Groups Doing Remote Real-Time Design Work?. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 362-368. Available online

This study reports the second in a series of related studies of the ways in which small groups work together, and the effects of various kinds of technology support. In this study groups of three people worked for an hour and a half designing an Automated Post Office. Our previous work showed that people doing this task produced higher quality designs when they were able to use a shared-editor to support their emerging design. This study compares the same kinds of groups now working at a distance, connected to each other both by this shared editor and either with high-quality stereo audio or the same audio plus high-quality video. The video was arranged so that people made eye contact and spatial relations were preserved, allowing people to have a sense of who was doing what in a way similar to that in face-to-face work. Results showed that with video, work was as good in quality as that face-to face; with audio only, the quality of the work suffered a small but significant amount. When working at a distance, however, groups spent more time clarifying to each other and talking longer about how to manage their work. Furthermore, groups rated the audio-only condition as having a lower discussion quality, and reported more difficulty communicating Perceptions suffer without video, and work is accomplished in slightly different manner, but the quality of work suffers very little.

© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Herbsleb, James D., Klein, Helen, Olson, Gary M., Brunner, Hans, Olson, Judith S. and Harding, Joe (1995): Object-Oriented Analysis and Design in Software Project Teams. In Human-Computer Interaction, 10 (2) pp. 249-292.

Software development poses enormous cognitive, organizational, and managerial challenges. In this article, we focus on two of the most formidable of these challenges and on the promise of object-oriented (OO) technology for addressing them. In particular, we analyze the claims made about OO design (OOD) and (a) dissemination of domain knowledge and (b) communication and coordination. In order to address the validity of these claims, we conducted an in-depth observational study of OOD in an industrial setting as well as a series of interviews with experienced OOD practitioners. Compared to similar projects using traditional methods, our study found evidence in the OOD project for a reduced need for clarification in design discussions; differences in participation, in how meeting time is spent, and in the sequential order of design discussions; and a much greater tendency to ask why questions. We discuss the implications of these findings for tools, grain size of design units, interactions with clients, and organizing for OOD.

© All rights reserved Herbsleb et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Bekker, Tilde, Olson, Judith S. and Olson, Gary M. (1995): Analysis of Gestures in Face-to-Face Design Teams Provides Guidance for How to Use Groupware in Design. In: Proceedings of DIS95: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1995. pp. 157-166.

Many phases of design projects are done in groups. Communication in these groups is naturally supported through a variety of gestures. We catalog four types of gestures that people use when engaged in design (kinetic, spatial, pointing, and other), and overlay it with the purpose of the design subtask, -- design, meeting management, and other. From this and other observations, we list recommendations for supporting this kind of communication in settings which have technology support, either face-to-face with group editors (where people do not necessarily see the same thing at the same time), and remote work (where people see neither the same view of the object nor a full room view of the other participants).

© All rights reserved Bekker et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Olson, Gary M. (1995): An Appreciation of Lawrence Rosenberg. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (4) p. 55.

1994
 
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Olson, Gary M., Herbsleb, James D. and Rueter, Henry (1994): Characterizing the Sequential Structure of Interactive Behaviors Through Statistical and Grammatical Techniques. In Human-Computer Interaction, 9 (3) pp. 427-472.

Statistical and grammatical techniques are reviewed as an integrated approach to exploratory sequential data analysis (ESDA) for categorical data. The first step is the identification and validation of the categories to be analyzed. The main statistical techniques discussed are log-linear modeling and lag sequential analysis. These methods allow for the statistical evaluation of a wide range of general and specific hypotheses about sequential structure. Grammatical techniques based on definite-clause grammars are described and illustrated, and the complex issue of measuring the goodness of fit of a set of patterns is discussed. Throughout the article, examples from our own research illustrate how the various techniques are used, especially in concert, while carrying out ESDA. In section 6, several other human-computer interaction and computer-supported cooperative work applications of these techniques are discussed.

© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

1993
 
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Olson, Judith S., Card, Stuart K., Landauer, Thomas K., Olson, Gary M., Malone, Thomas W. and Leggett, John (1993): Computer-Supported Co-Operative Work: Research Issues for the 90s. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 12 (2) pp. 115-129.

 
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Olson, Judith S., Olson, Gary M., Storrosten, Marianne and Carter, Mark (1993): Groupwork Close Up: A Comparison of the Group Design Process With and Without a Simple Group Editor. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 11 (4) pp. 321-348. Available online

A simple collaborative tool, a shared text editor called ShrEdit, changed the way groups of designers performed their work, and changed it for the better. First, the designs produced by the 19 groups of three designers were of higher quality than those of the 19 groups who worked with conventional whiteboard, paper and pencil. The groups with the new tool reported liking their work process a little less, probably because they had to adapt their work style to a new tool. We expected, from the brainstorming literature and recent work on Group Support Systems, that the reason the designs were of better quality was that the supported groups generated more ideas. To our surprise, the groups working with ShrEdit generated fewer design ideas, but apparently better ones. It appears that the tool helped the supported groups keep more focused on the core issues in the emerging design, to waste less time on less important topics, and to capture what was said as they went. This suggests that small workgroups can capitalize on the free access they have to a shared workspace, without requiring a facilitator or a work process embedded in the software.

© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or ACM Press

1992
 
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Olson, Judith S., Olson, Gary M., Storrosten, Marianne and Carter, Mark (1992): How a Group-Editor Changes the Character of a Design Meeting as Well as its Outcome. In: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work November 01 - 04, 1992, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 91-98. Available online

This study reports how the introduction of a simple collaborative tool changed the way groups of people did an interesting problem solving task, the design of an automatic post office. The designs produced by the groups supported with this tool were of higher quality than those who worked with conventional whiteboard and paper and pencil. They liked the process a little less, probably because it was a new tool. But, more surprising was the fact that those supported with the tool did less extensive exploration of the design space. Our expectation was just the opposite. It appears that the tool helped the supported group keep more focused on the core issues in the emerging design, to waste less time on less important topics, and to capture what was said as they went.

© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hymes, Charles McLaughlin and Olson, Gary M. (1992): Unblocking Brainstorming through the Use of a Simple Group Editor. In: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work November 01 - 04, 1992, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 99-106. Available online

Earlier studies of computerized brainstorming showed that by restructuring group processes, groups can overcome well known performance deficits that groups suffer relative to nominal groups. These earlier tools are essentially computerized versions of Nominal Group Technique. We examined the ability of a simple, unstructured parallel editor to facilitate idea generation in face to face groups. Our results showed that parallel interacting groups outperformed serial interacting groups, and parallel interacting groups did not differ significantly from nominal, non interacting groups. Thus, an informal tool that allows parallel work is an effective way to increase idea generation in real interacting groups.

© All rights reserved Hymes and Olson and/or ACM Press

 
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Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Kraut, Robert E. (1992): Introduction to This Special Issue on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. In Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (3) pp. 251-256.

 
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Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S., Carter, Mark and Storrosten, Marianne (1992): Small Group Design Meetings: An Analysis of Collaboration. In Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (4) pp. 347-374.

The development of schemes to support group work, whether behavioral methods or new technologies like groupware, should be based on detailed knowledge about how groups work, what they do well, and what they have trouble with. Such data can be used to suggest what kinds of tools people might need as well as to provide a baseline for evaluating the effects of schemes for improvement. We present details of how real groups engage in a representative collaborative task -- early software design meetings -- to provide such knowledge. We studied 10 design meetings from four projects in two organizations. The meetings were videotaped, transcribed, and then analyzed using a coding scheme that looked at participants' problem solving and the activities they used to coordinate and manage themselves. We also analyzed the structure of their design arguments. We found, to our surprise, that although the meetings differed in how many issues were covered they were strikingly similar in both how people spent their time and in the sequential organization of that activity. Overall, only 40% of the time was spent in direct discussions of design, with many swift transitions between alternative ideas and their evaluation. The groups spent another 30% taking stock of their progress through walkthroughs and summaries. Pure coordination activities consumed

© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

1991
 
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Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana.

 
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Streitz, Norbert A., Halasz, Frank, Ishii, Hiroshi, Malone, Thomas W., Neuwirth, Chris and Olson, Gary M. (1991): The Role of Hypertext for CSCW Applications. In: Walker, Jan (ed.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 91 Conference December 15-18, 1991, San Antonio, Texas. pp. 369-377. Available online

 
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Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (1991): User-Centered Design of Collaboration Technology. In Journal of Organizational Computing, 1 (1) pp. 61-83.

Groupware, like other forms of information technology, should be designed with the users' needs and capabilities as the focus. User-centered system design consists of observation and analysis of users at work, assistance in design from relevant aspects of theory, and iterative testing with users. We illustrate the various stages of this approach with our development of groupware for software designers. We have extensive studies of designers at work, have developed the beginnings of a theory of distributed cognition, and are at the first stages of iterative testing and redesign of a prototype of a shared editor to support their work.

© All rights reserved Olson and Olson and/or Ablex Publishing

1990
 
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Olson, Judith R. and Olson, Gary M. (1990): The Growth of Cognitive Modeling in Human-Computer Interaction Since GOMS. In Human-Computer Interaction, 5 (2) pp. 221-265.

The purpose of this article is to review where we stand with regard to modeling the kind of cognition involved in human-computer interaction. Card, Moran, and Newell's pioneering work on cognitive engineering models and explicit analyses of the knowledge people need to perform a procedure was a significant advance from the kind of modeling cognitive psychology offered at the time. Since then, coordinated bodies of research have both confirmed the basic set of parameters and advanced the number of parameters that account for the time of certain component activities. Formal modeling in grammars and production systems has provided an account for error production in some cases, as well as a basis for calculating how long a system will take to learn and how much savings there is from previous learning. Recently, we were given a new tool for modeling nonsequential component processes, adapting the "critical path analysis" from engineering to the specification of interacting processes and their consequent durations. Though these advances have helped, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the whole process of interacting with computers. The cumulative nature of this empirical body and its associated modeling framework has further highlighted important issues central to research in cognitive psychology: how people move smoothly between skilled performance and problem solving, how people learn, how to design for consistent user interfaces, how people produce and manage errors, how we interpret visual displays for meaning, and what processes run concurrently and which depend on the completion of prior processes. In the bigger picture, cognitive modeling is a method that is useful in both initial design (it can narrow the design space and provide early analyses of design alternatives), evaluation, and training. But it does not extend to broader aspects of the context in which people use computers, partly because there are significant gaps in contemporary cognitive theory to inform the modeling and partly because it is the wrong form of model for certain kinds of more global questions in human-computer interaction. Notably, it fails to capture the user's fatigue, individual differences, or mental workload. And it is not the type of model that will aid the designer in designing the set of functions the software ought to contain, to assess the user's judgment of the acceptability of the software, or the change that could be expected in work life and the organization in which this work and person fits. Clearly, these kinds of considerations require modeling and tools of a different granularity and form.

© All rights reserved Olson and Olson and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Olson, Judith S., Olson, Gary M., Mack, Lisbeth A. and Wellner, Pierre D. (1990): Concurrent Editing: The Groups Interface. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 835-840.

We review aspects of systems built for group work that allow real-time, concurrent editing of a single work object. Existing systems vary in both what group functions they offer users (e.g., whether simultaneous editing is possible or it must proceed one by one) and how these functions appear in the user interface (e.g. what signals are given to the user that the window is public or private). Design alternatives suggested by existing systems are analyzed in terms of their value for various phases of group work and their support for individuals' needs in coordinating their work.

© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or North-Holland

1989
 
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Olson, Gary M. (1989): Cognitive Science and Machine Intelligence Laboratory, The University of Michigan. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 151-152.

 
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Cornell, Paul, Luchetti, Robert, Mack, Lisbeth A., Olson, Gary M., Stone, Phil and Sundstrom, Eric (1989): Technological Support for Group Work: Merits and Limitations of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. pp. 546-549.

There is a strong trend in American business towards the use of teams and groups. New products are being introduced to support this emerging work style. A new field of study, commonly known as computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW), has emerged which focuses on provided electronic support for group activities. One particularly active area is the electronic meeting room, where computers support teams meeting in the same time and place. These facilities typically provide meeting participants with a terminal, keyboard and mouse and link them to a large public display. Existing rooms, some of which have been in operation for several years, accommodate anywhere from two to 48 people. To date, most of the research attention has been devoted to developing the hardware and software for these facilities. This focus is shifting and research is now underway addressing the impact of CSCW on group performance and viability. This panel has three objectives: to discuss the merits and limitations of CSCW in the context of organizational, environmental and technological factors, to predict its potential impact now and in the future, and to discuss a research agenda. The opinions of the panelists are mixed. Some feel CSCW has already proven its value, even though the technology is in its infancy and the data are anecdotal -- its worth will only improve with time. Others are concerned about trying to design and provide tools for a process that is not well defined or measured -- other more important issues need to be addressed first. Consensus exists on the need for more empirical research, but the nature and priorities of that research agenda is a subject of debate.

© All rights reserved Cornell et al. and/or Human Factors Society

 
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Cornell, Paul, Luchetti, Robert, Mack, Lisbeth A. and Olson, Gary M. (1989): CSCW: Evolution and Status of Computer Supported Cooperative Work. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. p. 851.

Recently we have experienced an exponential increase in the use of work groups to solve business problems, make decisions and develop products. In the past five years several products and facilities have come on-line which provide computer support for group activities. As is typical of new fields, this domain goes by many names, the most common being computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). The pace of research and development in CSCW is brisk. In this symposium we review these developments and disrobe the state-of-the-art. Many forms of CSCW exist, but here we will focus specifically on collaboration that occurs in the same time and place. Since much of the literature does not overlap that of the typical human factors professional, the review focuses on the interests and concerns of our discipline. Included in the review are five of the better known labs: Capture Lab (EDS), Project Nick (MCC), Prexsys (U. of Arizona), the Pod (ICL), and Colab (Xerox). Also reviewed is our own work-in-progress at the Collaboration Technology Suite at the University of Michigan and Andersen Consulting, and the Behavioral and Environmental Research group at Steelcase, Inc. Four areas of concern are covered: the nature of group work, technological alternatives, ergonomic and environmental concerns, and future directions. CSCW technology holds much promise for facilitating group performance. It is felt that existing and emerging CSCW technology is not the obstacle but rather a catalyst for change, potentially altering the process and content of collaborative work.

© All rights reserved Cornell et al. and/or Human Factors Society

 
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Olson, Gary M. (1989): The Nature of Group Work. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. pp. 852-856.

Collaborative work, while very common, is also difficult. The reasons for pursing collaborative work are described, along with some of the most common sources of difficulty. New information technologies may provide support for collaboration. But in order to develop appropriate technology, it is necessary to draw upon existing theory and data in cognitive and social science. In addition, it is important to carry out observational studies of collaborative work to look for opportunities for technology intervention.

© All rights reserved Olson and/or Human Factors Society

 
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Cornell, Paul, Luchetti, Robert, Mack, Lisbeth A. and Olson, Gary M. (1989): CSCW Anecdotes and Directions. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. pp. 867-871.

This paper reviews the impact that computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) has had on groups meeting in the same time and place. As is typical with new fields of study, there are few rigorous studies evaluating the merits of CSCW. Nonetheless, researchers have repeatedly observed events that, while not statistically verified, are worth sharing. These observations can aid development and help establish a research agenda. Among the major findings are that groups appear to reach consensus more quickly, are able to handle larger amounts of information more accurately, and are generally satisfied with the results. There is need for caution, however, about the effect on group dynamics and the need to tradeoff individual ergonomics and group needs. The results to date are very encouraging. New developments and research currently underway will add significant value, enhancing group performance and viability. If these developments come to fruition, CSCW could radically change existing notions of work collaboration.

© All rights reserved Cornell et al. and/or Human Factors Society

1988
 
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Olson, Gary M., Borning, Alan, diSessa, Andrea A., Lewis, Clayton H., Sherwood, Bruce and Smith, Randall B. (1988): Making Interactive Graphics Accessible: Comparison of Approaches. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. p. 249.

The participants have all created systems designed to make it easier to build interactive graphics applications such as animated physics demonstrations: Borning, ThingLab; DiSessa, BOXER; Lewis, NoPumpG; Sherwood, CMU Tutor; Smith, Alternate Reality Kit. These systems represent a wide variety of technical approaches, including spreadsheet extensions, object-oriented programming, constraint management, and procedural languages. In preparation for the panel, the panelists have exchanged problems selected to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of their systems, and each has undertaken to solve all of the problems. Based on this experience the panelists will discuss general issues raised by the problems, the advantages and limitations of their systems, and what suggestions can be made about the value of particular approaches to making interactive graphics accessible to a wide audience.

© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or ACM Press

1987
 
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Olson, Gary M., Sheppard, Sylvia B. and Soloway, Elliot (eds.) (1987): Empirical Studies of Programmers: Second Workshop. Norwood, NJ, Ablex Publishing

 
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Lewis, Clayton H. and Olson, Gary M. (1987): Can Principles of Cognition Lower the Barriers to Programming?. In: Olson, Gary M., Sheppard, Sylvia B. and Soloway, Elliot (eds.). "Empirical Studies of Programmers: Second Workshop". Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishingpp. 248-263

 
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Olson, Gary M., Sheppard, Sylvia B. and Soloway, Elliot (eds.) Empirical Studies of Programmers - Second Workshop December 7-8 1987, 1987, Washington, DC.

 
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Olson, Gary M., Catrambone, Richard and Soloway, Elliot (1987): Programming and Algebra Word Problems: A Failure to Transfer. In: Olson, Gary M., Sheppard, Sylvia B. and Soloway, Elliot (eds.) Empirical Studies of Programmers - Second Workshop December 7-8 1987, 1987, Washington, DC. pp. 1-13.

Prior work has suggested that learning to program may provide students with skills that help them in algebra. However, this work was only preliminary. An extensive experiment was conducted in order to examine the contribution of programming to students' algebra word problem performance. Students taking an introductory programming course in Pascal were compared to a control group of students (taking an introductory statistics course) with a similar mathematics background. Subjects were tested on algebra word problems at the beginning of the semester and either one week later or at the end of the semester (12 weeks later). Subjects performance on the algebra word problems improved from the first test to the second. However, contrary to expectations, the programming students did not improve more than the control subjects. In addition, those subjects who took the second test one week after the first test improved more than subjects who took the second test at the end of the semester. The results suggest that programming does not provide general benefits that transfer to algebra word problems, but that there is specific transfer due to practicing algebra problems.

© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or Ablex Publishing

1986
 
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Gugerty, Leo and Olson, Gary M. (1986): Comprehension Differences in Debugging by Skilled and Novice Programmers. In: Soloway, Elliot and Iyengar, Sitharama (eds.) Empirical Studies of Programmers June 5-6 1986, 1986, Washington, DC. pp. 13-27.

Two experiments investigated expert-novice differences in debugging computer programs. Subjects used a microcomputer to debug programs provided to them. The programs were in LOGO in Experiment 1 and Pascal in Experiment 2. We found that experts debugged more quickly and successfully than novices, largely because they generated high quality hypotheses on the basis of less study of the code. Further, novices frequently added bugs to the program while trying to find the original one. We also described some of the debugging strategies the subjects used. At least in these simple programs, experts' superior debugging performance seemed to be due primarily to their superior ability to comprehend the program.

© All rights reserved Gugerty and Olson and/or Ablex Publishing

 
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