Number of co-authors:16
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Flore Barcellini:6Jean-Marie Burkhardt:5Warren Sack:3
Francoise Detienne's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Elliot Soloway:77Nicolas Ducheneaut:29Jean-Marie Burkhar..:23
Design can be art. Design can be aesthetics. Design is so simple, that's why it is so complicated.
-- Paul Rand, 1997
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Publications by Francoise Detienne (bibliography)
Detienne, Francoise, Cahour, Beatrice, Legout, Marie-Christine and Relieu, Marc (2011): Participation framework(s) in Second Life meetings: communication media and roles. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 183-188.
Originality/Value -- Our analytical framework is based on the combination of two perspectives: a third view perspective based on analyses of observational data and a first view perspective based on users reports on their experience in SL. Take away message -- Designing collaborative virtual environment should be based on the understanding of the variety of use-cases with concomitant variance in SL communication media.
© All rights reserved Detienne et al. and/or their publisher
Detienne, Francoise, Cahour, Beatrice and Lefebvre, Liv (2010): Why do users communicate via such or such media?: some insights from users' daily experiences. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2010. pp. 627-630.
The objective of this study is to understand why people choose to use such or such media of communication in their daily activity. In a field study, twelve young adults were requested to narrate daily communication experiences on a storyboard, some of them being interviewed afterward. Quantitative results show a significant relationship between the choice of media and the affective or socio-relational link with the recipient. Qualitative analyses highlight (1) more or less deliberate choices of media, (2) strategic choices of media for emotional interactions or for reinforcing social relationships, (3) management of communication focus, (4) management of information complexity and ambiguity, (5) management of interruptiveness and modeling interlocutors' availability and preference, (6) management of time-distributed communication with conversational progress and context switches. These results are put into perspective in the framework of mediated communication theories.
© All rights reserved Detienne et al. and/or their publisher
Fréard, Dominique, Denis, Alexandre, Detienne, Francoise, Baker, Michael, Quignard, Matthieu and Barcellini, Flore (2010): The role of argumentation in online epistemic communities: the anatomy of a conflict in Wikipedia. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 91-98.
Motivation -- This research aims to investigate the processes by which knowledge objects -- in this case Wikipedia pages on astronomy -- are elaborated, in online communities, focussing on the role of argumentative interactions. Research approach -- We articulate qualitative multidimensional analysis of online discussions, in relation to elaboration of Wikipedia pages, with automatic semantic and syntactic Natural Language Processing (NLP) analysis focussed on identifying the roles of dialogical argumentation processes. Findings/Design -- Knowledge objects in online communities are jointly shaped by socio-relational and epistemic processes. Research limitations/Implications -- Our analysis method, based on previous research, is presently restricted to in-depth analysis of a small number of discussions. In ongoing work, our objective is to apply the method to the whole corpus of the Wikipedia astronomy online epistemic community. Originality/Value -- Our qualitative analysis approach distinguishes multiple functions of dialogue applying to diverse contents (task, interlocutor-related), in relation to automatic NLP analysis. Take away message -- The way that online epistemic communities function goes beyond knowledge-based discussion and argumentation, to involve negotiation of competencies of so-called 'experts' and 'amateurs'.
© All rights reserved Fréard et al. and/or their publisher
Prost, Magali, Cahour, Beatrice and Detienne, Francoise (2010): Analysing online social support between professionals. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 341-342.
Online forum give people new opportunities to interact with each other. It is a new mean of coping with problems at work. This paper reports an investigation of interaction structures within two forums on the web (general and specialized), examining different ways to expose a problem and different manifestations of social support. Results reveal two structures: << centralized >> and << distributed >>. Authors of discussions may use different processes, using more or less expressions of their emotions. Helpers can show their support by sharing similar experiences, or providing opinion-advice and opinion-analysis on the situation or the solution, with or without emotional support. The analytical method was tested on seven conversations and it will be extended to further conversations. This research will contribute to propose recommendations to improve social support forums for professionals and to know if this type of support is satisfying for the participants.
© All rights reserved Prost et al. and/or their publisher
Barcellini, Flore, Detienne, Francoise and Burkhardt, Jean-Marie (2008): User and developer mediation in an Open Source Software community: Boundary spanning through cross participation in online discussions. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 20 (7) pp. 558-570.
The aim of this research is to analyse how design and use are mediated in Open Source Software (OSS) design. Focusing on the Python community, our study examines a "pushed-by-users" design proposal through the discussions occurring in two mailing-lists: one, user-oriented and the other, developer-oriented. To characterize the links between users and developers, we investigate the activities and references (knowledge sharing) performed by the contributors to these two mailing-lists. We found that the participation of users remains local to their community. However, several key participants act as boundary spanners between the user and the developer communities. This emerging role is characterized by cross-participation in parallel same-topic discussions in both mailing-lists, cohesion between cross-participants, the occupation of a central position in the social network linking users and developers, as well as active, distinctive and adapted contributions. The user championing the proposal acts as a key boundary spanner coordinating the process and using explicit linking strategies. We argue that OSS design may be considered as a form of "role emerging design", i.e. design organized and pushed through emerging roles and through a balance between these roles. The OSS communities seem to provide a suitable socio-technical environment to enable such role emergence.
© All rights reserved Barcellini et al. and/or Academic Press
Barcellini, Flore, Detienne, Francoise, Burkhardt, Jean-Marie and Sack, Warren (2008): A socio-cognitive analysis of online design discussions in an Open Source Software community. In Interacting with Computers, 20 (1) pp. 141-165.
This paper is an analysis of online discussions in an Open Source Software (OSS) design community, the Python project. Developers of Python are geographically distributed and work online asynchronously. The objective of our study is to understand and to model the dynamics of the OSS design process that takes place in mailing list exchanges. We develop a method to study distant and asynchronous collaborative design activity based on an analysis of quoting practices. We analyze and visualize three aspects of the online dynamics: social, thematic temporal, and design. We show that roles emerge during discussions according to the involvement and the position of the participants in the discussions and how they influence participation in the design discussions. In our analysis of the thematic temporal dynamics of discussion, we examine how themes of discussion emerge, diverge, and are refined over time. To understand the design dynamics, we perform a content analysis of messages exchanged between developers to reveal how the online discussions reflect the "work flow" of the project: it provides us with a picture of the collaborative design process in the OSS community. These combined results clarify how knowledge and artefacts are elaborated in this epistemic, exploration-oriented, OSS community. Finally, we outline the need to automate of our method to extend our results. The proposed automation could have implications for both researchers and participants in OSS communities.
© All rights reserved Barcellini et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Barcellini, Flore, Detienne, Francoise and Burkhardt, Jean-Marie (2007): Cross-participants: fostering design-use mediation in an open source software community. In: Brinkman, Willem-Paul, Ham, Dong-Han and Wong, B. L. William (eds.) ECCE 2007 - Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics August 28-31, 2007, London, UK. pp. 57-64.
Sack, Warren, Detienne, Francoise, Ducheneaut, Nicolas, Burkhardt, Jean-Marie, Mahendran, Dilan and Barcellini, Flore (2006): A Methodological Framework for Socio-Cognitive Analyses of Collaborative Design of Open Source Software. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 15 (2) pp. 229-250.
Open Source Software (OSS) development challenges traditional software engineering practices. In particular, OSS projects are managed by a large number of volunteers, working freely on the tasks they choose to undertake. OSS projects also rarely rely on explicit system-level design, or on project plans or schedules. Moreover, OSS developers work in arbitrary locations and collaborate almost exclusively over the Internet, using simple tools such as email and software code tracking databases (e.g. CVS). All the characteristics above make OSS development akin to weaving a tapestry of heterogeneous components. The OSS design process relies on various types of actors: people with prescribed roles, but also elements coming from a variety of information spaces (such as email and software code). The objective of our research is to understand the specific hybrid weaving accomplished by the actors of this distributed, collective design process. This, in turn, challenges traditional methodologies used to understand distributed software engineering: OSS development is simply too "fibrous" to lend itself well to analysis under a single methodological lens. In this paper, we describe the methodological framework we articulated to analyze collaborative design in the Open Source world. Our framework focuses on the links between the heterogeneous components of a project's hybrid network. We combine ethnography, text mining, and socio-technical network analysis and visualization to understand OSS development in its totality. This way, we are able to simultaneously consider the social, technical, and cognitive aspects of OSS development. We describe our methodology in detail, and discuss its implications for future research on distributed collective practices.
© All rights reserved Sack et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers
Detienne, Francoise (2006): Collaborative design: Managing task interdependencies and multiple perspectives. In Interacting with Computers, 18 (1) pp. 1-20.
This paper focuses on two characteristics of collaborative design with respect to cooperative work: the importance of work interdependencies linked to the nature of design problems; and the fundamental function of design cooperative work arrangement, which is the confrontation and combination of perspectives. These two intrinsic characteristics of the design work stress specific cooperative processes: coordination processes in order to manage task interdependencies, establishment of common ground and negotiation mechanisms in order to manage the integration of multiple perspectives in design.
© All rights reserved Detienne and/or Elsevier Science
Barcellini, Flore, Detienne, Francoise, Burkhardt, Jean-Marie and Sack, Warren (2005): Thematic coherence and quotation practices in OSS design-oriented online discussions. In: GROUP05: International Conference on Supporting Group Work November 6-9, 2005, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 177-186.
This paper presents an analysis of online discussions in Open Source Software (OSS) design. The objective of our work is to understand and model the dynamics of OSS design that take place in mailing list exchanges. We show how quotation practices can be used to locate design relevant data in discussion archives. OSS developers use quotation as a mechanism to maintain the discursive context. To retrace thematic coherence in the online discussions of a major OSS project, Python, we follow how messages are linked through quotation practices. We compare our quotation-based analysis with a more conventional analysis: a thread-based of the reply-to links between messages. The advantages of a quotation-based analysis over a thread-based analysis are outlined. Our analysis reveals also the links between the social structure and elements in the discussion space and how it shapes influence in the design process.
© All rights reserved Barcellini et al. and/or ACM Press
Detienne, Francoise (1997): Assessing the Cognitive Consequences of the Object-Oriented Approach: A Survey of Empirical Research on Object-Oriented Design by Individuals and Teams. In Interacting with Computers, 9 (1) pp. 47-72.
This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of empirical research on object-oriented (OO) design. Many claims about the cognitive benefits of the OO paradigm have been made by its advocates. These claims concern the ease of designing and reusing software at the individual level as well as the benefits of this paradigm at the team level. Since these claims are cognitive in nature, it seems important to assess them empirically. After a brief presentation of the main concepts of the OO paradigm, the claims about the superiority of OO design are outlined. The core of this paper consists of a review of empirical studies of OO design (OOD). We first discuss results concerning OOD by individuals. On the basis of empirical work, we (1) analyse the design activity of novice OO designers, (2) compare OOD with procedural design and (3) discuss a typology of problems relevant for the OO approach. Then we assess the claims about naturalness and ease of OOD. The next part discusses results on OO software reuse. On the basis of empirical work, we (1) compare reuse in the OO versus the procedural paradigm, (2) discuss the potential for OO software reuse and (3) analyse reuse activity in the OO paradigm. Then we assess claims on reusability. The final part reviews empirical work on OOD by teams. We present results on communication, coordination, knowledge discrimination and interactions with clients. Then we assess claims about OOD at the software design team level. In a general conclusion, we discuss the limitations of these studies and give some directions for future research.
© All rights reserved Detienne and/or Elsevier Science
Detienne, Francoise (1996): Empirical Research on Object-Oriented Design: From Individuals to Teams. In: Gray, Wayne D., Boehm-Davis, Deborah A. and Spohrer, James C. (eds.) Empirical Studies of Programmers - Sixth Workshop January 5-7, 1996, 1996, Alexandria, Virginia. .
Detienne, Francoise and Rist, Robert S. (1995): Introduction to This Special Issue on Empirical Studies of Object-Oriented Design. In Human-Computer Interaction, 10 (2) pp. 121-128.
Object-oriented (OO) technology has been accepted by both academia and industry in a very short time. Ten years ago, the few OO languages available were seen as interesting ideas. Since then, new languages have been designed, and existing languages have been extended to become OO. Given the rapid acceptance of this new technology, it is imperative to understand the process and to evaluate the benefits of OO design. The field of the psychology of programming has matured to take on this task. In 1986, two papers (Curtis, 1986; Soloway, 1986) from the First Workshop on Empirical Studies of Programmers noted the limits of current research-studies of students rather than of real programmers and studies of "programming in the small" rather than of real and thus large software projects. The work presented in this special issue reflects the shift from students to real programmers and from studies of individual programmers to the study of software development teams. At the same time, the focus of the studies has moved from programming tasks (e.g., coding and debugging) to more upstream activities (e.g., design, analysis, communication, and team organization). This special issue presents the results of laboratory and field studies of OO design. It consists of five empirical studies plus a concluding commentary. In this introduction, we compare the structure of solutions generated using an OO design approach versus a traditional design approach, discuss claims for the superiority of OO design, and present an outline of the articles.
© All rights reserved Detienne and Rist and/or Taylor and Francis
Detienne, Francoise (1995): Design Strategies and Knowledge in Object-Oriented Programming: Effects of Experience. In Human-Computer Interaction, 10 (2) pp. 129-169.
An empirical study of design strategies and knowledge used in object-oriented (OO) software design was conducted. Eight professional programmers experienced with procedural programming languages and either experienced or not experienced in OO programming (OOP) participated in this experiment. The programmers were asked to design a program for a procedural problem and a declarative problem. Analysis was concentrated on the design strategies related to two central aspects of the OO paradigm: (a) associating actions (i.e., execution steps) of a complex plan to different objects and revising a complex plan and (b) defining simple plans at different levels in the class hierarchy. Regarding the development of complex-plan elements attached to different objects, the present results show that, for beginners in OOP, the description of objects and the description of actions are not always integrated in an early design phase, particularly for a declarative problem; for the programmers experienced in OOP, the description of objects and the description of actions tend to be integrated in first drafts of solutions, whichever the problem type. Most of the first drafts of solutions were structured around the objects, whatever the experience of subjects in OOP. However, by analyzing the order in which actions are generated, it was found that, for the programmers experienced in OOP, methods were grouped together mainly by membership in the same class; for the beginners in OOP, methods were grouped together mainly by functional similarity and execution order. Furthermore, with only a little experience in OOP, complex plans were revised more often. Regarding the development of simple plans at different levels in the class hierarchy the present results indicate that with less OOP experience simple plans are developed either in a top-down manner or in a bottom-up manner; with more OOP experience simple plans are developed in a strictly top-down manner. The analysis of design strategies revealed the use of different knowledge according to subjects language experience: (a) schemas related to procedural languages (actions organized in an execution order) and (b) schemas related to OO languages (actions and objects integrated and actions organized around objects).
© All rights reserved Detienne and/or Taylor and Francis
Detienne, Francoise (1991): Reasoning from a Schema and from an Analog in Software Code Reuse. In: Koenemann-Belliveau, Jurgen, Moher, Thomas G. and Robertson, Scott P. (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Workshop on Empirical Studies of Programmers 1991, Norwood, New Jersey, USA. pp. 5-22.
The activity of design involves the decomposition of problems into subproblems and the development and evaluation of solutions. In many cases, solution development is not done from scratch. Designers often evoke and adapt solutions developed in the past. These solutions may come from an internal source, i.e. the memory of the designers, and/or from an external source. The goal of this paper is to analyse the characteristics of the cognitive mechanisms, the knowledge and the representations involved in the code reuse activity performed by experienced programmers. More generally, the focus is the control structure of the reuse activity. Data collected in an experiment in which programmers had to design programs are analyzed. Two code reuse situations are distinguished depending on whether or not the processes involved in reuse start before the elaboration of what acts as a source-solution. Our analysis highlights the use of reasoning from a schema and from an analog in the code reuse activity.
© All rights reserved Detienne and/or Ablex Publishing
Detienne, Francoise (1991): Reusing Solutions in Software Design Activity: An Empirical Study. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (4) pp. 84-85.
Detienne, Francoise and Soloway, Elliot (1990): An Empirically-Derived Control Structure for the Process of Program Understanding. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 33 (3) pp. 323-342.
Various models of program understanding have been developed from the Schema Theory. To date, the authors have sought to identify the knowledge that programmers have and use in understanding programs, i.e. Programming Plans and Rules of Discourse. However, knowledge is only one aspect of program understanding. The other aspect is the cognitive mechanisms that use knowledge. The contribution of this study is the identification of different mechanisms involved in program understanding by experts, specifically the mechanisms which cope with novelty. An experiment was conducted to identify and describe the expert's strategies involved in understanding usual (plan-like) and unusual (unplan-like) programs. While performing a fill-in-a-blank task, subjects were asked to talk aloud. The analysis of verbal protocols allowed the identification of four different strategies of understanding. Under "normal" conditions the strategy of symbolic simulation is involved. But when failures occur additional strategies are required. The authors identified three types of understanding failures the subject may experience (no expectation, expectation clashes, insufficient expectations) and the additional strategies invoked in those cases: (1) reasoning according to rules of discourse and principles of the task domain; (2) reasoning with plan constraints; (3) concrete simulation. The authors develop an operational description of these strategies and discuss the control structure of program understanding in the framework of schema theory.
© All rights reserved Detienne and Soloway and/or Academic Press
Detienne, Francoise (1990): Difficulties in Designing with an Object-Oriented Language: An Empirical Study. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 971-976.
An experiment has been conducted to study the activity of program design developed by programmers experienced in classical procedural languages as they use an object-oriented programming (OOP) language. This paper focuses on the analysis of the difficulties programmers experienced in designing with OOP language. An important difficulty is to articulate the declarative and the procedural characteristics of the solution. This study highlights the importance of a representation of the procedure so as to construct the static relations between objects. This result does not support the hypothesis on naturalness of design with an OOP language made by advocates of OOP. This experiment also show that previous knowledge of programming languages may produce negative effects in the acquisition of a new language.
© All rights reserved Detienne and/or North-Holland
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