Publication statistics

Pub. period:1996-2012
Pub. count:33
Number of co-authors:37



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Gilles Bailly:11
Yves Guiard:8
Laurence Nigay:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

Eric Lecolinet's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Laurence Nigay:62
Catherine Pelachau..:35
Yves Guiard:26
 
 
 

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Eric Lecolinet

Has also published under the name of:
"E. Lecolinet"

Personal Homepage:
perso.telecom-paristech.fr/~elc/

 

Publications by Eric Lecolinet (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Pietrzak, Thomas, Malacria, Sylvain and Lecolinet, Eric (2012): S-Notebook: augmenting mobile devices with interactive paper for data management. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2012. pp. 733-736. Available online

This paper presents S-Notebook, a tool that makes it possible to "extend" mobile devices with augmented paper. Paper is used to overcome the physical limitations of mobile devices by offering additional space to annotate digital files and to easily create relationships between them. S-Notebook allows users to link paper annotations or drawings to anchors in digital files without having to learn pre-defined pen gestures. The systems stores meta data such as spatial or temporal location of anchors in the document as well as the zoom level of the view. Tapping on notes with the digital pen make appear the corresponding documents as displayed when the notes were taken. A given piece of augmented paper can contain notes associated to several documents, possibly at several locations. The annotation space can thus serve as a simple way to relate various pieces of one or several digital documents between them. When the user shares his notes, the piece of paper becomes a tangible token that virtually contains digital information.

© All rights reserved Pietrzak et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Baglioni, Mathias, Malacria, Sylvain, Lecolinet, Eric and Guiard, Yves (2011): Flick-and-brake: finger control over inertial/sustained scroll motion. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2281-2286. Available online

We present two variants of Flick-and-Brake, a technique that allows users to not only trigger motion by touch-screen flicking but also to subsequently modulate scrolling speed by varying pressure of a stationary finger. These techniques, which further exploit the metaphor of a massive wheel, provide the user with online friction control. We describe a finite-state machine that models a variety of flicking interaction styles, with or without pressure control. We report the results of a preliminary user study that suggests that for medium to long distance scrolling the Flick-and-Brake techniques require less gestural activity than does standard flicking. One of the two variants of the technique is faster, but no less accurate, than state-of-the-art flicking. Users also reported they preferred Flick-and-Brake over the standard flick and judged it more efficient. We indicate some pending issues raised by the results of this preliminary investigation.

© All rights reserved Baglioni et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Baglioni, Mathias, Lecolinet, Eric and Guiard, Yves (2011): JerkTilts: using accelerometers for eight-choice selection on mobile devices. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2011. pp. 121-128. Available online

This paper introduces JerkTilts, quick back-and-forth gestures that combine device pitch and roll. JerkTilts may serve as gestural self-delimited shortcuts for activating commands. Because they only depend on device acceleration and rely on a parallel and independent input channel, these gestures do not interfere with finger activity on the touch screen. Our experimental data suggest that recognition rates in an eight-choice selection task are as high with JerkTilts as with thumb slides on the touch screen. We also report data confirming that JerkTilts can be combined successfully with simple touch-screen operation. Data from a field study suggest that inadvertent JerkTilts are unlikely to occur in real-life contexts. We describe three illustrative implementations of JerkTilts, which show how the technique helps to simplify and shorten the sequence of actions to reach frequently used commands.

© All rights reserved Baglioni et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bailly, Gilles, Vo, Dong-Bach, Lecolinet, Eric and Guiard, Yves (2011): Gesture-aware remote controls: guidelines and interaction technique. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2011. pp. 263-270. Available online

Interaction with TV sets, set-top boxes or media centers strongly differs from interaction with personal computers: not only does a typical remote control suffer strong form factor limitations but the user may well be slouching in a sofa. In the face of more and more data, features, and services made available on interactive televisions, we propose to exploit the new capabilities provided by gesture-aware remote controls. We report the data of three user studies that suggest some guidelines for the design of a gestural vocabulary and we propose five novel interaction techniques. Study 1 reports that users spontaneously perform pitch and yaw gestures as the first modality when interacting with a remote control. Study 2 indicates that users can accurately select up to 5 items with eyes-free roll gestures. Capitalizing on our findings, we designed five interaction techniques that use either device motion, or button-based interaction, or both. They all favor the transition from novice to expert usage for selecting favorites. Study 3 experimentally compares these techniques. It reveals that motion of the device in 3D space, associated with finger presses at the surface of the device, is achievable, fast and accurate. Finally, we discuss the integration of these techniques into a coherent multimedia menu system.

© All rights reserved Bailly et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Perrault, Simon T., Bailly, Gilles, Guiard, Yves and Lecolinet, Eric (2011): Promesses et contraintes de la joaillerie numérique interactive: un aperu de l'tat de l'art. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2011. p. 14. Available online

The miniaturization of electronic components paves the way for new interaction techniques for wearable computing. We briefly review interactive digital jewelry, an emerging subfield. We report the data of a limited poll about the way people perceive the prospect of digital jewelry. We then consider the constraints and the promise of digital jewelry, and finally classify the current solutions, which generally resort to gestural interaction.

© All rights reserved Perrault et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Vo, Dong-Bach, Bailly, Gilles, Lecolinet, Eric and Guiard, Yves (2011): Un espace de caractérisation de la télécommande dans le contexte de la tlvision interactive. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2011. p. 17. Available online

Initially designed in the nineteen seventies as a mere zapping tool, obviously the traditional device known as the TV remote control no longer responds to the multifarious needs of today's interactive television. Designing new remote-control devices is a challenge that the HCI community has started to face. The paper indicates the various directions that are currently being investigated by researchers. The paper starts with an attempt to characterize the specific context of interactive TV. We then offer a tentative account of the design and evaluation space of interest. There is little doubt that the traditional remote control may still be improved and augmented. It is unlikely, however, that it will survive for long the crisis it has been undergoing since the beginning of the digital era, given the emerging plethora of alternative interaction possibilities based on a variety of new interfacing logics, which the paper reviews.

© All rights reserved Vo et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Pietrzak, Thomas, Malacria, Sylvain, Tabard, Aurlien and Lecolinet, Eric (2010): What do U-Note? An Augmented Note Taking System for the Classroom. In: Kaplan, Frdric and Jermann, Patrick (eds.) First workshop on Paper Computing, Papercomp 2010 September 25, 2010, Copenhagen, Danemark. pp. 28-31.

We present U-Note, a new system that helps children to study their lessons. It links a paper notebook and digital documents in order to reconstruct the context of the class. This system makes it possible for students to browse the teacher's documents at the state it was when he wrote the words he is currently reading. The student can also add information he found on the internet. We first discuss the interviews we had with teachers, that le to the design of the system. Then we describe the system itself, which consists of a capture system, and a browsing application.

© All rights reserved Pietrzak et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Francone, Jrmie, Bailly, Gilles, Lecolinet, Eric, Mandran, Nadine and Nigay, Laurence (2010): Wavelet menus on handheld devices: stacking metaphor for novice mode and eyes-free selection for expert mode. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2010. pp. 173-180. Available online

This paper presents the design and evaluation of the Wavelet menu and its implementation on the iPhone. The Wavelet menu consists of a concentric hierarchical Marking menu using simple gestures. The novice mode, i.e. when the menu is displayed, is well adapted to the limited screen space of handheld devices because the representation of the menu hierarchy is inverted, the deeper submenu being always displayed at the center of the screen. The visual design is based on a stacking metaphor to reinforce the perception of the hierarchy and to help users to quickly understand how the technique works. The menu also supports submenu previsualization, a key property to navigate efficiently in a hierarchy of commands. The quantitative evaluation shows that the Wavelet menu provides an intuitive way for supporting efficient gesture-based navigation. The expert mode, i.e. gesture without waiting for the menu to pop-up, is another key property of the Wavelet menu: By providing stroke shortcuts, the Wavelet favors the selection of frequent commands in expert mode and makes eyes-free selection possible. A user experiment shows that participants are able to select commands, eyes-free, while walking.

© All rights reserved Francone et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bailly, Gilles, Lecolinet, Eric and Guiard, Yves (2010): Finger-count & radial-stroke shortcuts: 2 techniques for augmenting linear menus on multi-touch surfaces. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 591-594. Available online

We propose Radial-Stroke and Finger-Count Shortcuts, two techniques aimed at augmenting the menubar on multi-touch surfaces. We designed these multi-finger two-handed interaction techniques in an attempt to overcome the limitations of direct pointing on interactive surfaces, while maintaining compatibility with traditional interaction techniques. While Radial-Stroke Shortcuts exploit the well-known advantages of Radial Strokes, Finger-Count Shortcuts exploit multi-touch by simply counting the number of fingers of each hand in contact with the surface. We report the results of an experimental evaluation of our technique, focusing on expert-mode performance. Finger-Count Shortcuts outperformed Radial-Stroke Shortcuts in terms of both easiness of learning and performance speed.

© All rights reserved Bailly et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Malacria, Sylvain, Lecolinet, Eric and Guiard, Yves (2010): Clutch-free panning and integrated pan-zoom control on touch-sensitive surfaces: the cyclostar approach. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2615-2624. Available online

This paper introduces two novel navigation techniques, CycloPan, for clutch-free 2D panning and browsing, and CycloZoom+, for integrated 2D panning and zooming. These techniques instantiate a more generic concept which we call Cyclo* (CycloStar). The basic idea is that users can exert closed-loop control over several continuous variables by voluntarily modulating the parameters of a sustained oscillation. Touch-sensitive surfaces tend to offer impoverished input resources. Cyclo* techniques seem particularly promising on these surfaces because oscillations have multiple geometrical and kinematic parameters many of which may be used as controls. While CycloPan and CycloZoom+ are compatible with each other and with much of the state of the art, our experimental evaluations suggest that these two novel techniques outperform flicking and rubbing techniques.

© All rights reserved Malacria et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Roudaut, Anne, Lecolinet, Eric and Guiard, Yves (2009): MicroRolls: expanding touch-screen input vocabulary by distinguishing rolls vs. slides of the thumb. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 927-936. Available online

The input vocabulary for touch-screen interaction on handhelds is dramatically limited, especially when the thumb must be used. To enrich that vocabulary we propose to discriminate, among thumb gestures, those we call MicroRolls, characterized by zero tangential velocity of the skin relative to the screen surface. Combining four categories of thumb gestures, Drags, Swipes, Rubbings and MicroRolls, with other classification dimensions, we show that at least 16 elemental gestures can be automatically recognized. We also report the results of two experiments showing that the roll vs. slide distinction facilitates thumb input in a realistic copy and paste task, relative to existing interaction techniques.

© All rights reserved Roudaut et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Francone, Jrmie, Bailly, Gilles, Nigay, Laurence and Lecolinet, Eric (2009): Wavelet menus: a stacking metaphor for adapting marking menus to mobile devices. In: Proceedings of 11th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2009. p. 49. Available online

Exploration and navigation in multimedia data hierarchies (e.g., photos, music) are frequent tasks on mobile devices. However, visualization and interaction are impoverished due to the limited size of the screen and the lack of precise input devices. As a result, menus on mobile devices do not provide efficient navigation as compared to many innovative menu techniques proposed for Desktop platforms. In this paper, we present Wavelet, the adaptation of the Wave menu for the navigation in multimedia data on iPhone. Its layout, based on an inverted representation of the hierarchy, is particularly well adapted to mobile devices. Indeed, it guarantees that submenus are always displayed on the screen and it supports efficient navigation by providing previsualization of the submenus.

© All rights reserved Francone et al. and/or their publisher

2008
 
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Tahir, Muhammad, Bailly, Gilles, Lecolinet, Eric and Mouret, Grard (2008): TactiMote: a tactile remote control for navigating in long lists. In: Digalakis, Vassilios, Potamianos, Alexandros, Turk, Matthew, Pieraccini, Roberto and Ivanov, Yuri (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2008 October 20-22, 2008, Chania, Crete, Greece. pp. 285-288. Available online

 
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Bailly, Gilles, Lecolinet, Eric and Nigay, Laurence (2008): Flower menus: a new type of marking menu with large menu breadth, within groups and efficient expert mode memorization. In: Levialdi, Stefano (ed.) AVI 2008 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 28-30, 2008, Napoli, Italy. pp. 15-22. Available online

 
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Roudaut, Anne, Huot, Stephane and Lecolinet, Eric (2008): TapTap and MagStick: improving one-handed target acquisition on small touch-screens. In: Levialdi, Stefano (ed.) AVI 2008 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 28-30, 2008, Napoli, Italy. pp. 146-153. Available online

 
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Tahir, Muhammad, Bailly, Gilles and Lecolinet, Eric (2008): Exploring the Impulsion and Vibration Effects of Tactile Patterns. In: Proceedings of the HCI08 Conference on People and Computers XXII 2008. pp. 237-240. Available online

This paper explores the impulsion and vibration properties of different tactile patterns. These properties describe the unique states of the pins for example raised or lowered. The tactile feedback is provided by Braille pins on a finger and is in the form of different patterns chosen for the experiments. We tested these features on the Braille display of dimension 4x2 (8 pins). The experiments were conducted to determine the selection time and error rate of impulsion and vibration characteristics. We report preliminary results of informal tests. We also discuss the related issues and propose possible future directions.

© All rights reserved Tahir et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Tahir, Muhammad, Bailly, Gilles, Lecolinet, Eric and Mouret, Grard (2008): TactiMote: a tactile remote control for navigating in long lists. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2008. pp. 285-288. Available online

This paper presents TactiMote, a remote control with tactile feedback designed for navigating in long lists and catalogues. TactiMote integrates a joystick that allows 2D interaction with the thumb and a Braille cell that provides tactile feedback. This feedback is intended to help the selection task in novice mode and to allow for fast eyes-free navigation among favorite items in expert mode. The paper describes the design of the TactiMote prototype for TV channel selection and reports a preliminary experiment that shows the feasibility of the approach.

© All rights reserved Tahir et al. and/or their publisher

2007
 
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Bailly, Gilles, Lecolinet, Eric and Nigay, Laurence (2007): Wave Menus: Improving the Novice Mode of Hierarchical Marking Menus. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 475-488. Available online

 
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Huot, Stephane and Lecolinet, Eric (2007): Focus+Context Visualization Techniques for Displaying Large Lists with Multiple Points of Interest on Small Tactile Screens. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 219-233. Available online

 
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Ziat, Mounia, Gapenne, Olivier, Lenay, Charles, Lecolinet, Eric, Mouret, Grard and Stewart, John (2007): Espace de perception et seuils de confort pour un zoom haptique en 2D. In Revue d'Interaction Homme Machine, 7 (2) pp. 29-54. Available online

2006
 
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Huot, Stephane and Lecolinet, Eric (2006): SpiraList: a compact visualization technique for one-handed interaction with large lists on mobile devices. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2006. pp. 445-448. Available online

This paper presents SpiraList, a focus+context visualization technique for interacting with large lists on handheld devices. SpiraList has been specifically designed to fit the constraints of small tactile screens. It provides a global view of large lists by way of a compact layout based on a spiral representation. Its design also allows for direct interaction with fingers. The combination of this compact layout and one-handed interaction makes SpiraList particularly suitable for mobility.

© All rights reserved Huot and Lecolinet and/or ACM Press

 
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Lecolinet, Eric and Nguyen, Duc (2006): Reprsentation focus+contexte de listes hirarchiques zoomables. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2006. pp. 195-198. Available online

Ordinary tree widgets do not make it easy to browse all the nodes of the hierarchy, thus reducing the performances for discovering or retrieving an object of interest. This paper presents a new visualization and interaction technique that tries to solve this problem by using a fish eye representation, semantic zooming and an interaction technique that is derived from Control menus. This technique makes it possible to browse the entire hierarchy by using a limited amount of mouse gestures.

© All rights reserved Lecolinet and Nguyen and/or ACM Press

2005
 
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Lecolinet, Eric and Mouret, Grard (2005): TACTIBALL,TACTIPEN,TACTITAB Ou comment « toucher du doigt » les donnes de son ordinateur. In: Proceedings of the 2005 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2005. pp. 227-230. Available online

This paper is dedicated to the augmentation of standard pointing devices to provide a simple symbolical form of tactile feedback. Several prototypes and applications have been developed to show the feasibility of the approach. The final goal of the study is to evaluate how simple tactile devices can be used by non blind people in conjunction with vision.

© All rights reserved Lecolinet and Mouret and/or ACM Press

 
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Lecolinet, Eric, Faure, Claudie, Demeure, Isabelle, Moissinac, Jean-Claude and Pook, Stuart (2005): Augmentation de cours et de réunions dans un campus. In: Proceedings of the 2005 French-speaking conference on Mobility and ubiquity computing 2005. pp. 161-168. Available online

This paper presents two prototypes for augmenting lectures and small group meetings that have been developed in the context of a digital campus. The various aspects that have been developed (augmented whiteboard interaction, annotation management, multimedia, wireless communication strategies, single display groupware, user centred conception...) are described and analyzed relatively to the considered scenarios. Some preliminary observations are presented and compared to other studies.

© All rights reserved Lecolinet et al. and/or ACM Press

2003
 
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Lecolinet, Eric (2003): A molecular architecture for creating advanced GUIs. In: Proceedings of the 16th annural ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology November, 2-5, 2003, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 135-144. Available online

This paper presents a new GUI architecture for creating advanced interfaces. This model is based on a limited set of general principles that improve flexibility and provide capabilities for implementing information visualization techniques such as magic lenses, transparent tools or semantic zooming. This architecture also makes it possible to create multiple views and application-sharing systems (by sharing views on multiple computer screens) in a simple and uniform way and to handle bimanual interaction and multiple pointers. An experimental toolkit called Ubit was implemented to test the feasibility of this approach. It is based on a pseudo-declarative C++ API that tries to simplify GUI programming by providing a higher level of abstraction.

© All rights reserved Lecolinet and/or ACM Press

 
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Lecolinet, Eric (2003): Multiple pointers: a study and an implementation. In: Proceedings of the 2003 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2003. pp. 134-141. Available online

This paper describes the main cases of multiple pointer interaction and proposes a new notation (named UDP/C) for classifying and comparing these systems. A technical solution that makes use of two complementary tools is presented in the second part of the paper. This implementation can support most cases of multiple pointer interaction. It is currently based on the X-Window windowing system and the Ubit toolkit.

© All rights reserved Lecolinet and/or ACM Press

 
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Goy, Alain, Lecolinet, Eric, Lin, Shiuan-Sung, Chollet, Grard, Pelachaud, Catherine, Ding, Xiaoqing and Ni, Yang (2003): Multimodal user interfaces for a travel assistant. In: Proceedings of the 2003 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2003. pp. 244-247. Available online

As a part of a project to develop a personal assistant for travellers, we have studied three types of multimodal interfaces for a PDA: 1) a combination of Control menus and vocal inputs to control zoomable user interfaces to graphical or textual databases, 2) refinement of pictures captured by the integrated camera, based on correlating a series of pictures, in order to enhance character recognition, and 3) embodied conversational agents able to communicate via synchronized speech and culture dependent nonverbal behaviors (face, gaze and gesture). We describe in this paper these three modalities and their integration in the main application.

© All rights reserved Goy et al. and/or ACM Press

2001
 
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Robert, L. and Lecolinet, Eric (2001): Digital Annotation and Exploration Techniques for Handling Image-Based Hypermedia. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 318-325.

2000
 
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Pook, Stuart, Lecolinet, Eric, Vaysseix, Guy and Barillot, Emmanuel (2000): Context and Interaction in Zooable User Interfaces. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 2000 2000. pp. 227-231.

1998
 
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Robert, Laurent and Lecolinet, Eric (1998): Browsing Hyperdocuments with Multiple Focus+Context Views. In: Hypertext 98 - Proceedings of the Ninth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia June 20-24, 1998, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pp. 293-294. Available online

We present an interactive focus+context environment based on zooming and hierarchical representations for browsing large data sets. It gives an overview of the data and provides multiple views for visualizing the content and the local organization of documents of interest. This multi-view system has been applied to the World Wide Web browsing as a first practical demonstration.

© All rights reserved Robert and Lecolinet and/or ACM Press

 
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Lecolinet, Eric, Likforman-Sulem, L., Robert, L., Role, F. and Lebrave, J-L. (1998): An Integrated Reading and Editing Environment for Scholarly Research on Literary Works and their Handwritten Sources. In: DL98: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries 1998. pp. 144-151. Available online

We present an integrated system devoted to the visualization and the editing of hypermedia documents from literary material including document images and structured text. First, capabilities are offered to transcribe manuscript images. Transcribing the text consists in coupling lines typed on the keyboard with their corresponding text lines in the manuscript images. A semi-automatic system based on computer-human interaction and document analysis is proposed for performing this task. This system provides editing capabilities for linking document images and the corresponding structured textual representations (encoded by means of a logical markup language). Finally, application-specific visualization tools have been developed in order to provide users with an idea of the overall organization of the hyperdocument and help them to navigate.

© All rights reserved Lecolinet et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lecolinet, Eric (1998): Designing GUIs by sketch drawing and visual programming. In: Catarci, Tiziana, Costabile, Maria Francesca, Santucci, Giuseppe and Tarantino, Laura (eds.) AVI 1998 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 24 - 27, 1998, LAquila, Italy. pp. 274-276. Available online

1996
 
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Lecolinet, Eric (1996): XXL: A Dual Approach for Building User Interfaces. In: Kurlander, David, Brown, Marc and Rao, Ramana (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 1996, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 99-108. Available online

This paper presents XXL, a new interactive development system for building user interfaces which is based on the concept of textual and visual equivalence. XXL includes an interactive builder and a "small" C compatible special-purpose language that is both interpretable and compilable. The visual builder is able to establish the reverse correspondence between the dynamic objects that it manipulates and their textual descriptions in the original source code. Interactive modifications performed by using the builder result in incremental modifications of the original text. Lastly, XXL not only allows users to specify the widget part of the interface but can also be used to manage various behaviors and to create distributed interfaces.

© All rights reserved Lecolinet and/or ACM Press

 
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