Publication statistics

Pub. period:1987-2012
Pub. count:31
Number of co-authors:31



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Arthur I. Karshmer:5
Marianne Rudisill:5
E. Pontelli:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

Douglas J. Gillan's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Arthur I. Karshmer:35
Thomas A. Dingus:23
Nancy J. Cooke:20
 
 
 

Upcoming Courses

go to course
User Experience: The Beginner's Guide
92% booked. Starts in 3 days
go to course
User-Centred Design - Module 2
91% booked. Starts in 4 days
 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
start reading
 
 

Douglas J. Gillan

Ph.D.

Picture of Douglas J. Gillan.
Update pic
Has also published under the name of:
"D. J. Gillan" and "D. Gillan"

Personal Homepage:
psychology.chass.ncsu.edu/faculty_staff/dgillan.php


Current place of employment:
North Carolina State University -- Department of Psychology

Doug Gillan graduated in 1974 from Macalester College with a BA in Psychology and in 1978 with a PhD from the University of Texas at Austin. He was a postdoctoral fellow at Yale University (NSF Fellowship) and the University of Pennsylvania (Sloan Foundation Fellowship). He spent 10 years working in industry -- 4 years at General Foods Research Center (doing taste perception research) and 6 years at Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Company at NASA-JSC (doing human factors research related to the design of Space Station). He has spent the last 20 years working in academic Psychology Departments at Rice University (as a visiting faculty member),the University of Idaho, New Mexico State University, and North Carolina State University where he is currently a Professor and Department Head

 

Publications by Douglas J. Gillan (bibliography)

 what's this?
2012
 
Edit | Del

Hardy, Megan and Gillan, Douglas J. (2012): Voluntary Task Switching Patterns in Everyday Tasks of Different Motivational Levels. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 2128-2132. Available online

In everyday settings people frequently perform multiple tasks within brief periods of time, typically called multi-tasking, task switching or task interleaving. Experimental studies of these effects typically involve an external cue or interruption to signal that the participant must switch. In contrast, in real world task interleaving the person doing the task frequently initiates the switch (e.g., Czerwinski, Horvitz,&Wilhite, 2004). Why an individual decides to make a voluntary task switch is largely an unexplored topic; the present study was designed to investigate motivational factors in switching tasks. Participants were allowed to switch freely between three tasks of different levels of interest and frustration -- playing a game, searching letter for the letter 'e' in nonsense text, and reading about human factors psychology. After the session, they rated the tasks on scales of interest and frustration. The results suggest that the level of frustration produced by the task is a stronger motivator for switching tasks than is interest in the task.

© All rights reserved Hardy and Gillan and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

2009
 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J. (2009): Human-Robot Interaction: Issues in the Design of Interfaces for Work in Distant Environments. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 165-166. Available online

The goal of technology tends to be to enhance and extend human capabilities. One purpose of robotics is to be able to work in a task environment that is distant from you, often because that distant environment is less safe and/or less accessible than your current environment. HRI must address a number of critical issues in order for human-robot system interfaces to be effective and efficient. The goal of this symposium is to identify selected critical interface issues and to provide conceptual/theoretical, empirical, and applied discussions of the interface-related issues in HRI.

© All rights reserved Gillan and/or his/her publisher

 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J. (2009): A Componential Model of Human Interaction with Graphs: VII. A Review of the Mixed Arithmetic-Perceptual Model. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 829-833. Available online

This paper provides a summary of the development and evaluation of a componential model of graph reading called the Mixed Arithmetic-Perceptual (MA-P) model. A review of the history underlying the development of the model begins the paper. The second section describes the research used to test the predictions from the model and to further develop it. The third section integrates the research to produce a single omnibus version of the MA-P model. Finally, the fourth section projects the future of the MA-P modeling approach, for specific versions of the model, additional research, as well as applications.

© All rights reserved Gillan and/or his/her publisher

 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J. and Sorensen, Douglas (2009): Minimalism and the Syntax of Graphs: II. Effects of Graph Backgrounds on Visual Search. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 1096-1100. Available online

Tufte (1983) proposed a measure, the data-ink ratio, and a rule that the data-ink ratio be maximized. The present research tested this rule by examining the effect of the relation between the physical features in the graph indicators and those in the background on graph reading performance. Eighteen participants performed comparison and difference tasks with bar graphs (rectangular indicators) or line graphs (circular indicators). Graphs had no background, a pictorial background containing circles, or a pictorial background containing rectangles. Accuracy was highest for the difference task when the features in the indicators and background of a graph differed. The role of preattentive processing during visual search in graph reading and the pop-out effect that occurs when background and search target features differ are discussed.

© All rights reserved Gillan and Sorensen and/or their publisher

 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J. (2009): Judging the Lengths of Curved Lines. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 1126-1130. Available online

Studying the psychophysical functions that physical length of lines to the perceived length is critical for the understanding of the perception of displays like maps and graphs. Previous research has examined straight lines and the circumference of a circle. The present research investigated the judgment of the length of both straight and curved lines, varying from slight to moderately high degrees of curvature and varying in length. In two experiments, the psychophysical functions relating perceived length to the physical length of a line was found to be similar for straight and curved lines. The Stevens' Law exponent for the straight and curved lines tended to be close to 1.0 for all lines, independent of curvature. The paper discusses spatial judgments, with a focus on the differences in the psychophysical functions or the various types of lines.

© All rights reserved Gillan and/or his/her publisher

2004
 
Edit | Del

Pontelli, E., Son, T. C., Kottapally, K., Ngo, C., Reddy, R. and Gillan, Douglas J. (2004): A system for automatic structure discovery and reasoning-based navigation of the web. In Interacting with Computers, 16 (3) pp. 451-475. Available online

In this paper, we highlight the main research directions currently pursued by the investigators for the development of new tools to improve Web accessibility for users with visual disabilities. The overall principle is to create intelligent software agents used to assist visually impaired individuals in accessing complex on-line data organizations (e.g. tables, frame structures) in a meaningful way. Accessibility agents make use of knowledge representation structures (automatically or manually derived) to assist users in developing navigation plans; these are employed to locate given pieces of information or to answer user's desired goals.

© All rights reserved Pontelli et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J., Barraza, Paula, Karshmer, Arthur I. and Pazuchanics, Skye (2004): Cognitive Analysis of Equation Reading: Application to the Development of the Math Genie. In: Klaus, Joachim, Miesenberger, Klaus, Zagler, Wolfgang L. and Burger, Dominique (eds.) ICCHP 2004 - Computers Helping People with Special Needs - 9th International Conference July 7-9, 2004, Paris, France. pp. 630-637. Available online

2003
 
Edit | Del

Kottapally, K., Ngo, C., Reddy, R., Pontelli, E., Son, T. C. and Gillan, Douglas J. (2003): Towards the creation of accessibility agents for non-visual navigation of the web. In: Proceedings of the 2003 ACM Conference on Universal Usability 2003. pp. 134-141. Available online

In this paper, we highlight the main research directions currently pursued by the investigators for the development of new tools to improve Web accessibility for users with visual disabilities. The overall principle is to create intelligent software agents used to assist visually impaired individuals in accessing complex on-line data organizations (e.g., tables, frame structures) in a meaningful way. Accessibility agents make use of knowledge representation structures (automatically or manually derived) to assist users in developing navigation plans; these are employed to locate given pieces of information or to answer user's desired goals.

© All rights reserved Kottapally et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Karshmer, Arthur I. and Gillan, Douglas J. (2003): How Well Can We Read Equations to Blind Mathematics Students: Some Answers from Psychology. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 1290-1294.

2002
 
Edit | Del

Pontelli, E., Gillan, Douglas J., Xiong, W., Saad, E., Gupta, G. and Karshmer, Arthur I. (2002): Navigation of HTML tables, frames, and XML fragments. In: Fifth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2002. pp. 25-32. Available online

In this paper, we provide a progress report on the development of technology to support the non-visual navigation of complex HTML and XML structures.

© All rights reserved Pontelli et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Pontelli, E., Gillan, Douglas J., Gupta, G., Karshmer, Arthur I., Saad, E. and Xiong, W. (2002): Intelligent non-visual navigation of complex HTML structures. In Universal Access in the Information Society, 2 (1) pp. 56-69. Available online

This paper provides an overview of a project aimed at using knowledge-based technology to improve accessibility of the Web for visually impaired users. The focus is on the multi-dimensional components of Web pages (tables and frames); our cognitive studies demonstrate that spatial information is essential in comprehending tabular data, and this aspect has been largely overlooked in the existing literature. Our approach addresses these issues by using explicit representations of the navigational semantics of the documents and using a domain-specific language to query the semantic representation and derive navigation strategies. Navigational knowledge is explicitly generated and associated to the tabular and multi-dimensional HTML structures of documents. This semantic representation provides to the blind user an abstract representation of the layout of the document; the user is then allowed to issue commands from the domain-specific language to access and traverse the document according to its abstract layout.

© All rights reserved Pontelli et al. and/or Springer Verlag

 
Edit | Del

Karshmer, Arthur I., Gupta, Gopal and Gillan, Douglas J. (2002): Architecting an Auditory Browser for Navigating Mathematical Expressions. In: Miesenberger, Klaus, Klaus, Joachim and Zagler, Wolfgang L. (eds.) ICCHP 2002 - Computers Helping People with Special Needs - 8th International Conference July 15-20, 2002, Linz, Austria. pp. 477-485. Available online

2001
 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J. and Bias, Randolph G. (2001): Usability Science. I: Foundations. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 13 (4) pp. 351-372.

In this article, we describe and analyze the emergence of a scientific discipline, usability science, which bridges basic research in cognition and perception and the design of usable technology. An analogy between usability science and medical science (which bridges basic biological science and medical practice) is discussed, with lessons drawn from the way in which medical practice translates practical problems into basic research and fosters technology transfer from research to technology. The similarities and differences of usability science to selected applied and basic research disciplines-human factors and human-computer interaction (HCI) is also described. The underlying philosophical differences between basic cognitive research and usability science are described as Wundtian structuralism versus Jamesian pragmatism. Finally, issues that usability science is likely to continue to address-presentation of information, user navigation, interaction, learning, and methods-are described with selective reviews of work in graph reading, controlled movement, and method development and validation.

© All rights reserved Gillan and Bias and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

1995
 
Edit | Del

Cooke, Nancy J. and Gillan, Douglas J. (1995): Exposing and Imposing Cognitive Structure: Applications to Human Factors. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting 1995. .

 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J., Fogas, Bruce S., Aberasturi, Suzanne and Richards, Shannon (1995): Cognitive Ability and Computing Experience Influence Interpretation of Computer Metaphors. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting 1995. pp. 243-247.

Metaphors play a central role in human-computer interaction. Research on general metaphor interpretation has shown that different types of people interpret metaphors differently. The present experiment examined the effects of cognitive ability and computer experience on the interpretation of computer-related metaphors. Subjects completed five cognitive tests, filled out a questionnaire concerning their experience with computers, and interpreted computer metaphor terms. Identification of a term as a metaphor was related to their frequency of computer use and nonverbal cognitive ability. Concreteness of metaphor interpretations decreased with increased knowledge of programming. Abstractness of interpretations increased with frequency of computer use. The discussion focuses on metaphors in the design of user interfaces for novices and experienced users.

© All rights reserved Gillan et al. and/or Human Factors Society

1994
 
Edit | Del

Bias, Randolph G. and Gillan, Douglas J. (1994): User Interface Navigation: And a Model for Explicit Research-Practice Interaction. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. p. 255.

 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J. (1994): Cognitive Psychophysics and Mental Models. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. pp. 256-260.

With the increased emphasis on incorporating users' mental models in design of interfaces comes an increased need for instruments for measuring mental models. Two frequently-used instruments for measuring people's mental representations of physical space are drawing a map and rating the distances between pairs of points in the space. The assumption underlying the present research was that mental representations of space (M{sub:i}) are transformed to become a subject's response (R{sub:i}), yielding the following functions: R{sub:drawi} =f{sub:r{sub:d}}(M{sub:i}) + e{sub:d} (for drawing a map), R{sub:ratei} =f{sub:r}(M{sub:i}) + e{sub:r} (for making category ratings), and R{sub:navigatei} =f{sub:n}(M{sub:i}) + e{sub:n} (for navigating). If each of these functions were equivalent, then the correlations among the different measurement methods should be high. Subjects either drew maps in two sessions, provided category ratings of the distances between pairs of locations in two sessions, or drew maps in one session and rated distances in a second session. The correlations were significantly lower when subjects switched between rating and drawing than when they performed the same response in both sessions. These data suggest that the functions relating the mental representation to a response differ between drawing and rating. The discussion focuses on methods for measuring mental maps and the use of mental map data in designing spatial interfaces (including interfaces to information spaces).

© All rights reserved Gillan and/or Human Factors Society

 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J. and LaSalle, S. Mark (1994): A Componential Model of Human Interaction with Graphs. III. Spatial Orientation. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. pp. 285-289.

The Mixed Arithmetic-Perceptual (MA-P) model of graph comprehension proposes that graph users apply combinations of component processes -- including Searching for indicators, Encoding the value of indicators, performing Arithmetic Operations on the values, making Spatial Comparisons among the indicators, and Responding -- when they answer questions from a graph. The model further suggests that the combination and order of the components that the user applies depends on a user's task and the type of graph. The present research investigated the use of another component process -- mental rotation -- in interacting with star graphs. Subjects used two star graphs to answer comparison and difference questions in which the differences in orientation of the indicators in question varied from 0 to 288{deg}. The results showed a nonmonotonic change in response time with the difference in orientation. The discussion addresses the effects of mental rotation in reading displays and the role that rotation may play in the hierarchy of graph effectiveness proposed by Cleveland and McGill.

© All rights reserved Gillan and LaSalle and/or Human Factors Society

1993
 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J. (1993): A Componential Model of Human Interaction with Graphical Displays. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 25 (3) pp. 64-66.

A componential model of graphical interaction was developed based on analyses of humans interacting with graphical displays. The model, known as the Mixed Arithmetic-Perceptual (MA-P) model, proposes that five component processes underlie graphical interactions: Searching, Encoding, Arithmetic operations, Spatial comparison, and Responding. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the number of components for a given question-graph combination predicted the time to answer that question using that graph. Experiment 2 provided empirical support for two predictions from the model concerning the spatial relations among the elements of the graph. A metric for determining the ease of processing of a graph is outlined and guidelines for design of graphs are presented.

© All rights reserved Gillan and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Bias, Randolph G., Gillan, Douglas J. and Tullis, Thomas S. (1993): Three Usability Enhancements to the Human Factors-Design Interface. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1993. pp. 169-174.

In a recent paper (Gillan&Bias, 1992), two of us considered the interaction between human factors (HF) professionals and other software designers. We couched our discussion in familiar human-computer interface (HCI) terms, and then addressed the design of this human-human interface. We identified the objectives or the HF-design interface, listed requirements, and evaluated early interface designs (e.g., where HF experts are involved only at the end of the development cycle). Further, we proposed three design concepts we expected to improve the HF-design interface: education, an electronic gatekeeper, and design analysis software.

© All rights reserved Bias et al. and/or Elsevier Science

1992
 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J., Breedin, Sarah D. and Cooke, Nancy J. (1992): Network and Multidimensional Representations of the Declarative Knowledge of Human-Computer Interface Design Experts. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 36 (4) pp. 587-615.

A two-part experiment investigated human computer interface (HCI) experts' organization of declarative knowledge about the HCI. In Part 1, two groups of experts in HCI design -- human factors experts and software development experts -- and a control group of non-experts sorted 50 HCI concepts concerned with display, control, interaction, data manipulation and user knowledge into categories. In the second part of the experiment, the three groups judged the similarity of two sets of HCI concepts related to display and interaction, respectively. The data were transformed into measures of psychological distance and were analyzed using Pathfinder, which generates network representations of the data, and multidimensional scaling (MDS), which fits the concepts in a multidimensional space. The Pathfinder networks from the first part of the experiments differed in organization between the two expert groups, with human factors experts' networks consisting of highly interrelated subnetworks and software experts' networks consisting of central nodes and fewer, less interconnected sub-networks. The networks also differed across groups in concepts linked with such concepts as graphics, natural language, function keys and speech recognition. The networks of both expert groups showed much greater organization than did the non-experts' network. The network and MDS representations of the concepts for the two expert groups showed somewhat greater agreement in Part 2 than in Part 1. However, the MDS representations from Part 2 suggested that software experts organized their concepts on dimensions related to technology, implementation and user characteristics, whereas the human factors experts' organized their concepts more uniformly according to user characteristics. The discussion focuses on (1) the differences in cognitive models as a function of the amount and type of HCI design experience and (2) the role of cognitive models in HCI design and in communications within a multidisciplinary design team.

© All rights reserved Gillan et al. and/or Academic Press

 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J., Holden, Kritina, Adam, Susan, Rudisill, Marianne and Magee, Laura (1992): How Should Fitts' Law be Applied to Human-Computer Interaction?. In Interacting with Computers, 4 (3) pp. 289-313.

The paper challenges the notion that any Fitts' Law model can be applied generally to human computer interaction, and proposes instead that applying Fitts' Law requires knowledge of the users' sequence of movements, direction of movement, and typical movement amplitudes as well as target sizes. Two experiments examined a text selection task with sequences of controlled movements (point-click and point-drag). For the point-click sequence, a Fitts' Law model that used the diagonal across the text object in the direction of pointing (rather than the horizontal extent of the text object) as the target size provided the best fit for the pointing time data, whereas for the point-drag sequence, a Fitts' Law model that used the vertical size of the text object as the target size gave the best fit. Dragging times were fitted well by Fitts' Law models that used either the vertical or horizontal size of the terminal character in the text object. Additional results of note were that pointing in the point-click sequence was consistently faster than in the point-drag sequence, and that pointing in either sequence was consistently faster than dragging. The discussion centres around the need to define task characteristics before applying Fitts' Law to an interface design or analysis, analyses of pointing and of dragging, and implications for interface design.

© All rights reserved Gillan et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J. and Neary, Michael (1992): A Componential Model of Human Interaction with Graphs. II. Effects of the Distances among Graphical Elements. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. pp. 365-368.

Based on task analyses of people using graphs, Gillan and Lewis (1992) have developed a model that describes how people interact with graphs. The model proposes that for simple tasks (e.g., comparisons and subtraction) and common graphs (e.g., line, scatter, and bar graphs), graph users apply combinations of five component processes -- Searching for indicators, Encoding the value of indicators, performing Arithmetic Operations on the values, making Spatial Comparisons among the indicators, and Responding. The model further suggests that the combination and order of the components that the user applies depends on a user's task and the type of graph. The present research investigated two predictions from the model concerning spatial relations in a graph: (1) that response times to answer comparison questions should be sensitive to varying the distance between two indicators, but not to varying the indicator-to-axis distance, and (2) that response times to answer difference questions should be sensitive to the distance between the indicator and the y-axis, but not to the distance between the indicators. In the experiment, subjects used line and bar graphs to answer comparison and difference questions in which the appropriate distances varied systematically. The results of the research supported both predictions, thereby providing empirical validation of the model. In addition, some aspects of the model were not anticipated by the model, suggesting the need to enhance the componential model.

© All rights reserved Gillan and Neary and/or Human Factors Society

 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J. and Bias, Randolph G. (1992): The Interface between Human Factors and Design. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. pp. 443-447.

Software designers with limited knowledge of human factors often play a crucial role in the design of user interfaces. The thesis of this paper is that the field of human factors needs to be concerned with the design of interfaces between itself and the rest of the design community. We identify the mission objective for the human factors-design interface as improving the overall quality of design by enhancing communication and the transfer of knowledge. A selected set of requirements for the interface includes (1) communication, from human factors to designers, of proven and relevant design approaches, and (2) communication, from designers to human factors, of pertinent design constraints and methods of integrating human factors concerns and data into design. A discussion of concepts for the human factors-design interface describes and analyzes educational technologies (e.g., video classes and short courses), an electronic gatekeeper (a bulletin board-like system through which human factors experts and designers communicate), and design analysis software (which automatically apply human factors principles to designs).

© All rights reserved Gillan and Bias and/or Human Factors Society

1991
 
Edit | Del

Dingus, Thomas A. and Gillan, Douglas J. (1991): The Thesis Simulation: An Approach for Teaching Research Skills in a Remote, Non-Thesis Program. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. pp. 505-507.

Remote education at both the undergraduate and graduate levels is becoming increasingly popular. With advances in technology (utilizing satellite uplinks, VCR compatible video production facilities and computer conferencing), high-quality, flexible, remote education is now feasible. However, particularly at the graduate level, achieving the ultimate goal of providing the same educational opportunities off-campus as on-campus is not a simple process. For example, providing research skill development is difficult in the remote education environment. In human factors, such skill development can not be easily overlooked or under-emphasized since many available career opportunities require significant research efforts. Traditionally, a large portion of research skill is developed during the conduct of a thesis project. Unfortunately, many remote students are not in a position to fulfill thesis requirements with out significant tenure (up to one year) on campus. Such requirements can preclude many students from pursuing a graduate education in the field of their choice. The current paper describes an approach (dubbed "the thesis simulation") for providing research skill development opportunities, to the greatest extent possible, to remote students in a non-thesis, remote human factors program.

© All rights reserved Dingus and Gillan and/or Human Factors Society

1990
 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J. and Breedin, Sarah D. (1990): Designers' Models of the Human-Computer Interface. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 391-398.

An experiment investigated the organization of declarative knowledge about the human computer interface (HCI). Two groups of experts in user interface design (human factors experts and software experts), and a control group sorted HCI concepts into categories. The data were transformed into measures of dissimilarity and analyzed using (1) hierarchical cluster analysis and (2) Pathfinder, a program that generates network representations of the data. Both expert groups had greater numbers of clusters, more elaborate clusters, and better organized networks than did the controls. The two expert groups differed with respect to the clustering of concepts related to display coding and software. The Pathfinder networks for the two expert groups differed in organization, with human factors experts' networks consisting of highly interrelated subnetworks and software experts networks consisting of central nodes and fewer, less interconnected subnetworks. The networks also differed in the number of concepts linked with such concepts as graphics, natural language, function keys, and speech recognition. The discussion focuses on (1) specific differences in cognitive models between HCI experts and novices and between different types of experts, and (2) the role of cognitive models in HCI design and in communications within a multidisciplinary design team.

© All rights reserved Gillan and Breedin and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J., Holden, Kritina, Adam, Susan, Rudisill, Marianne and Magee, Laura (1990): How Does Fitts' Law Fit Pointing and Dragging?. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 227-234.

Two experiments examined selecting text using a movement sequence of pointing and dragging. Experiment 1 showed that, in the Point-Drag sequence, the pointing time was related to the pointing distance but not to the width of the text to be selected; in contrast, pointing time was related to both the pointing distance and the width of the text in the Point-Click sequence. Experiment 2 demonstrated that both the pointing and dragging times for the Point-Drag sequence were sensitive to the height of the text that was selected. The discussion of the results centers around the application of Fitts' Law to pointing and dragging in a point-drag sequence, proposing that the target for pointing is the leftmost edge of the text to be selected, and the target for dragging is the rightmost edge of the text.

© All rights reserved Gillan et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
1989
 
Edit | Del

Rudisill, Marianne and Gillan, Douglas J. (1989): Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 55-56.

 
Edit | Del

Gillan, Douglas J., Lewis, Robert and Rudisill, Marianne (1989): Models of User Interactions with Graphical Interfaces: I. Statistical Graphs. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 375-380.

Three models of human interactions with computer-displayed statistical graphics were developed and tested in an experiment which examined users' speed and accuracy on identification and comparison questions using 17 graph types. The results indicated that response time and accuracy were influenced by the perceptual and informational complexity of the graph, as well as the relation between the figure and axes, (Model 1); by the physical elements of the graph -- points, lines, and areas (Model 2); and by the data-ink ratio and data density (Model 3). The discussion focuses on the development of a single integrated model of interactions with graphics.

© All rights reserved Gillan et al. and/or ACM Press

1988
 
Edit | Del

Desaulniers, David R., Gillan, Douglas J. and Rudisill, Marianne (1988): The Effects of Format in Computer-Based Procedure Displays. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. pp. 291-295.

Two experiments were conducted to investigate display variables likely to influence the effectiveness of computer-based procedure displays. In Experiment 1, procedures were presented in three formats, Text, Extended-Test, and Flowchart. Text and Extended-Text are structured prose formats which differ in the spatial density of presentation. The Flowchart format differs from the Text format in both syntax and spatial representation. Subjects were required to use the procedures to diagnose a hypothetical system anomaly. The results indicate that performance was most accurate with the Flowchart format. Although overall completion times did not differ significantly across formats, the Flowchart format required significantly less time for step implementation. In Experiment 2, procedure window size was varied (6-line, 12-line, and 24-line) in addition to procedure format. In the six line window condition, Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1. Procedures in the Flowchart format were completed with greater accuracy than procedures in either of the test formats. As predicted, completion times for Flowchart procedures decreased with increasing window size; however, accuracy of performance decreased substantially. Implications for the design of computer-based procedure displays are discussed.

© All rights reserved Desaulniers et al. and/or Human Factors Society

1987
 
Edit | Del

Smith, Randy L. and Gillan, Douglas J. (1987): Human-Telerobot Interactions: Information, Control, and Mental Models. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 31st Annual Meeting 1987. pp. 806-810.

NASA is currently working on the Space Station which will be a permanently manned orbiting space laboratory when it becomes operational in the mid 1990's. A part of the Space Station will be a teleoperated robot (telerobot) with arms for grasping and manipulation, feet for holding onto objects, and television cameras for visual feedback. The objective of the work described in this paper is to develop the requirements and specifications for the user-telerobot interface and to determine through research and testing that the interface results in efficient system operation. The focus of the development of the user-telerobot interface is on the information required by the user, user inputs, and design of the control workstation. Closely related to both the information required by the user and the user's control of the telerobot is the user's mental model of the relation of the control inputs and the telerobot's actions.

© All rights reserved Smith and Gillan and/or Human Factors Society

 
Add publication
Show list on your website
 
 

Join our community and advance:

Your
Skills

Your
Network

Your
Career

 
Join our community!
 
 
 

Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/douglas_j__gillan.html