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Publications by Don Chaffin (bibliography)
Nayar, Narinder, Badler, Norman, Carrier, Robert, Chaffin, Don, Liu, Yili, Duncan, Jerry, Nelson, Cynthia, Obergefell, Louise, Smith, Barry and Roebuck, John A. (1995): State of the Art and Current Activities in Human Modelling Technology. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting 1995. pp. 516-518.
Computer-based human modelling technology has been in existence since the early 1980s. However, most earlier human models were either hard to use or lacked appealing graphics. With rapid developments in 3D computer graphics, it is now possible to interactively manipulate and analyze human models in a virtual environment. This coupled with growing user interest has spurred rapid development and use of human modelling and simulation.
© All rights reserved Nayar et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Peacock, Brian, Orr, Gary, Chaffin, Don, Leamon, Tom and Radwin, Rob (1995): The Philosophy of Ergonomics Standards. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting 1995. p. 678.
The panel will include speakers from Government (Gary Orr), Academia (Don Chaffin), Insurance (Tom Leamon), the HF&ES (Rob Radwin), Industry (Brian Peacock, Panel Chair), the Legal Profession (TBD) and Labor (TBD) After a hectic few years the promised OSHA ergonomics standard has been relegated to the back burner. Various sets of material were distributed, including a draft proposed standard along with extensive appendices. Much has been said and written regarding the scientific basis, the economic implications and the legal ramifications of the standard. Many other attempts have also been made to produce material that represents the general opinion of the profession, including ANSI Z365, the State of California and British Columbia. The issue of standards will not go away and it is probably appropriate at this time to step back and discuss some philosophical issues associated with standards. Operational concepts: * Ergonomics is broader in content and application than the prevention of acute and cumulative trauma disorders and so a standard should adopt a more specific title such as a Musculo Skeletal Disorder Prevention Standard. * Programmatic Guidelines should describe the general content of ergonomics activity such as Job Analysis, Hazard (or Error) Reduction, Training, Medical (or Risk) Management, Record Keeping and Reporting. * Performance Requirements should refer to specific outcome measures such as injury / illness incidence and severity, productivity, product quality and indications of motivation such as attendance. * Design Specifications should take the form of quantitative statements regarding systems, products, processes and environments. * Standards should include probabilistic statements such as target population selection and training characteristics and levels (percentiles) of accommodation, risk or protection. * Physical (mental) work should be optimized, not minimized. * Classical "reductionist" science in this area will always require interpolation or extrapolation before being of value in standards With these concepts in mind, each of the panelists will address the following questions: 1. Is there sufficient need for a standard because of the level of outcomes (such as occupationally induced cumulative trauma)? 2. Is there sufficient scientific evidence relating "doses" and responses to form the basis of a standard? 3. Is our profession being fairly criticized because of our failure to reach agreement on standards? 4. Should a standard take the form of programmatic guidelines, performance requirements or design specifications? 5. What levels of accommodation / protection are appropriate for work standards and to what extent should standards assume certain levels of population selection and training? 6. Following the analogy of the recent changes in vehicular speed limits, should the issue of standards be left to the individual states? 7. How can consensus be achieved?
© All rights reserved Peacock et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Zhang, Xudong, Liu, Yili and Chaffin, Don (1994): Frame of Reference in Posture Specification for Computer-Aided Ergonomic Analysis. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. pp. 290-294.
An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the congruency between the reference frame adopted to perceive and record postures and the one employed in a computer-aided ergonomics software on human posture specification performance. The role that the interface can play in enhancing the congruency was also investigated. The subjects were presented with the photographs of a working posture, and were required to manipulate the human stick figures generated by the ergonomics software to match the posture in the photographs. The experiment showed that the congruency played a significant role in facilitating the performance of posture specification for ergonomic analysis. It also demonstrated a clear advantage of using a 3-D humanoid display to improve the congruency when it is not achievable in the pre-analysis posture data-collection. Implications for ergonomic job analysis and ergonomics software design are discussed.
© All rights reserved Zhang et al. and/or Human Factors Society
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