Number of co-authors:9
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Wendy E. Mackay:1Steve M. Easterbrook:1Tara Qavi:1
David Wastell's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Wendy E. Mackay:61John Bowers:41Steve M. Easterbro..:24
Computer programs emerge as the outcome of complex human processes of cognition, communication and negotiation, which serve to establish the meaningful embedding of the computer system in its intended use context.
-- Floyd, 1992, p. 24
Read the fascinating history of Wearable Computing, told by its father, Steve Mann
Read Steve's chapter !
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
Publications by David Wastell (bibliography)
Qavi, Tara and Wastell, David (2000): 'Open Access for All?' A Study of the Employment Service's Touch-Screen Kiosks from the Perspective of Disabled Job Seekers. In: Emiliani, Pier Luigi and Stephanidis, Constantine (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th ERCIM Workshop on User Interfaces for All October 25-26, 2000, Florence, Italy. p. 14.
The UK Employment Service launched an initiative in 1996 to introduce touch-screen kiosks in job centres as an alternative to the traditional vacancy display boards. The system itself is called 'Open Access', as it enables job seekers to gather sufficient information regarding vacancies to allow them to contact employers directly, independent of any assistance from job centre staff. Since the duty to make 'reasonable adjustments' under the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 came into effect in October 1999, service providers such as the Employment Service have been required to enable full access to its services for disabled people. This study focuses upon the usability of the Open Access system with emphasis on the perspective of disabled users. Using a mixed methodology which combined interviews, questionnaires and cognitive walkthroughs, data was collected from a sample of disabled and non-disabled job seekers. From this data, both generic and disability-specific usability issues were identified. These findings are discussed in detail and implications for kiosk design are addressed, in particular to take greater account of the needs of disabled users as well as improving the general level of service provision.
© All rights reserved Qavi and Wastell and/or The European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics - ERCIM
Martin, David, Bowers, John and Wastell, David (1997): The Interactional Affordances of Technology: An Ethnography of Human-Computer Interaction in an Ambulance Control Centre. In: Thimbleby, Harold, O'Conaill, Brid and Thomas, Peter J. (eds.) Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XII August, 1997, Bristol, England, UK. pp. 263-281.
This paper reports an ethnography of ambulance dispatch work in a large UK metropolitan region. The interplay between control centre ecology, usage of a computerised dispatch system, and cooperative work of control personnel is analysed. The methods by which a 'working division of labour' is sustained to effectively manage dispatch in the face of high workload and manifold contingency are explicated, and contrasted with methods employed by workers in other control room settings known from the literature. The implications of the study for system improvement and for several emphases in HCI research (including discussions of 'affordances') are explored.
© All rights reserved Martin et al. and/or Springer Verlag
Wastell, David and Newman, Michael (1996): Stress, Control and Computer System Design: A Psychophysiological Field Study. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 15 (3) pp. 183-192.
The stressful nature of computer-based work is often highlighted in the research literature. In this study, we argue that a well designed computer system should realize the twin aims of enhancing performance and lowering stress. This paper reports on a psychophysiological field study of the implementation of a command-and-control system in an ambulance service. The evaluation revealed both improvements in operator performance and a reduction in stress levels. In particular, it was found that computer support reduced both systolic blood pressure and subjective anxiety during conditions of peak workload. These findings are discussed in terms of Turner and Karasek's integrated model of the relationships between computer system design, task performance and well-being. The success of the computer system was attributed to the support that it gave operators; by enhancing their degree of control it enabled them to cope better in a highly demanding work environment. The study shows that psychophysiological techniques have a valuable role to play in system design/evaluation; and more generally, that systems development methodologies should take greater account of applied psychological research, especially in areas such as stress.
© All rights reserved Wastell and and/or Taylor and Francis
Sanger, Colston, Gilbert, Nigel, Wastell, David, Mackay, Wendy E. and Easterbrook, Steve M. (1992): CSCW: Power, Control, Conflict. In: Monk, Andrew, Diaper, Dan and Harrison, Michael D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VII August 15-18, 1992, University of York, UK. pp. 481-483.
Wastell, David (1991): Physiological Measurement of Cognitive Load During Interaction with Process Control Displays. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1991. pp. 228-232.
Cognitive load is an important issue in user interface design, yet it has been largely finessed in HCI, despite the availability of a range of methods for measuring mental workload developed in cognate domains. This paper illustrates the use of a popular physiological metric (heart rate variance, HV) to index workload in a process control task. Highly suggestive intra-task correlations between HV and behaviour are found which confirm the promise of HV as an index cognitive load and argue for its application in user interface design, especially where man-machine performance is critical.
© All rights reserved Wastell and/or Elsevier Science
Wastell, David (1990): Mental Effort and Task Performance: Towards a Psychophysiology of Human Computer Interaction. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 107-112.
Empirical methods play an important role in the science of HCI. The limitations of introspective and behavioural techniques are discussed, using mental workload as an example. The case is argued for a psychophysiological approach to the study of HCI (i.e. the interlocking study of behaviour, experience and bodily processes), adducing as evidence two field studies in which physiological measures played a decisive role. A laboratory study is described in which a physiological measure of mental effort is used to resolve the confounding of effort and cognitive demands inherent in performance measures of workload. The psychophysiological perspective broadens the scope of HCI to include such issues as stress and job design. The paper concludes with a discussion of the possible influence of psychophysiological thinking upon the design of systems for supporting co-operative work.
© All rights reserved Wastell and/or North-Holland
Maresh, Janet and Wastell, David (1990): Process Modelling and CSCW: An Application of IPSE Technology to Medical Office Work. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 849-852.
An Integrated Process Support Environment (IPSE) refers to a work environment (typically software development) in which the cooperative activities of men and machines are coordinated by a computer system according to a formally defined schema. In this paper we demonstrate the use of the process modelling language PML (developed in the Alvey-supported IPSE 2.5 project) to represent the cooperative structure of work underlying the administration of hospital outpatients activity. The semantics of PML and the methodology of process modelling are discussed and consideration is given to the implications of IPSE technology for the design of office systems.
© All rights reserved Maresh and Wastell and/or North-Holland
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