Number of co-authors:53
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Paul Luff:4Margaret Wilson:4Ali al-Azzawi:4
David M. Frohlich's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Abigail Sellen:81Moira C. Norrie:69Andrew Monk:68
Civilization advances by extending the number of important operations which we can perform without thinking of them.
-- Alfred North Whitehead
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David M. Frohlich
Has also published under the name of:
"David M Frohlich"
Personal Homepage: dwrc.surrey.ac.uk/people-professorfrohlich.shtml
Current place of employment: University of Surrey
David Frohlich is Director of Digital World Research Centre at the University of Surrey and Professor of Interaction Design. He joined the Centre in January 2005 to establish a new research agenda on user-centred innovation for the consumer market. Current work includes a mixture of PhD, Industrial and Research Council projects on future photography, future literacy and future communication technologies. He also teaches a new MSc module on Interaction Design for the Department of Computing.
Publications by David M. Frohlich (bibliography)
Frohlich, David M. and Sarvas, Risto (2011): HCI and innovation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 713-728.
The user-centered design (UCD) process in HCI has recently been criticized for not delivering breakthrough innovations in technology. In this paper we consider this critique through a literature review and two case studies of innovation. Our conclusions suggest that there is nothing wrong with the attitude of user-centered design which has probably been present in all major innovations down the centuries. Rather, the practice of UCD in HCI lacks attention to business factors and long term uptake of technology in society. This compromises its impact on products and should be incorporated into the study of HCI itself.
© All rights reserved Frohlich and Sarvas and/or their publisher
Frohlich, David M., Rachovides, Dorothy, Riga, Kiriaki, Bhat, Ramnath, Frank, Maxine, Edirisinghe, Eran, Wickramanayaka, Dhammike, Jones, Matt and Harwood, Will (2009): StoryBank: mobile digital storytelling in a development context. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1761-1770.
Mobile imaging and digital storytelling currently support a growing practice of multimedia communication in the West. In this paper we describe a project which explores their benefit in the East, to support non-textual information sharing in an Indian village. Local audiovisual story creation and sharing activities were carried out in a one month trial, using 10 customized cameraphones and a digital library of stories represented on a village display. The findings show that the system was usable by a cross-section of the community and valued for its ability to express a mixture of development and community information in an accessible form. Lessons for the role of HCI in this context are also discussed.
© All rights reserved Frohlich et al. and/or ACM Press
Frohlich, David M., Bhat, Ramnath, Jones, Matt, Lalmas, Mounia, Frank, Maxine, Rachovides, Dorothy, Tucker, Roger C. F. and Riga, Kiriaki (2009): Democracy, Design, and Development in Community Content Creation: Lessons From the StoryBank Project. In Information Technologies & International Development, 5 (4) pp. 19-36.
Mobile and Web 2.0 technology have the very real potential to democratize the creation and sharing of multimedia content in developing communities, even beyond the levels currently seen in community radio and television. In this article, we report the findings of an exercise to test this potential in partnership with a Budikote village in southern India. We show how a system called StoryBank supported the creation of short digital stories on a text-free camera phone, and how these stories could be shared through a community repository and touch-screen display. Despite the success of a field trial in which 137 stories were created and shared over a one-month period, various technical and social factors meant that the devices and content were more hierarchically managed and controlled than expected. The implications of these experiences for rural development and community-centered design are discussed.
© All rights reserved Frohlich et al. and/or USC Annenberg Press
Oleksik, Gerard, Frohlich, David M., Brown, Lorna M. and Sellen, Abigail (2008): Sonic interventions: understanding and extending the domestic soundscape. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1419-1428.
This paper presents a new study of the role, importance and meaning of sound in the home. Drawing on interview data and sound recordings gathered from seven households, this study offers fresh insight into the ways in which the domestic soundscape is managed and understood. The data revealed that household members engaged in a wide variety of sound management practices to monitor and control the real-time flow of sonic information throughout the home. They also showed that families were sometimes surprised and delighted by the ability to record fragments of the soundscape for later use. These findings suggest a number of roles for technology in enhancing the domestic soundscape and its associated behaviors, which we present here in the form of example sonic interventions created in a design workshop at the end of the project.
© All rights reserved Oleksik et al. and/or ACM Press
Durrant, Abigail, Taylor, Alex S., Taylor, Stuart, Molloy, Mike, Sellen, Abigail, Frohlich, David M., Gosset, Phil and Swan, Laurel (2008): Speculative devices for photo display. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 2297-2302.
In this paper, we describe three purposefully provocative, digital photo display technologies designed for home settings. The three devices have been built to provoke questions around how digital photographs might be seen and interacted with in novel ways. They are also intended for speculation about the expressive resources afforded by digital technologies for displaying photos. It is hoped interactions with the devices will help researchers and designers reflect on new design possibilities. The devices are also being deployed as part of ongoing home-oriented field research.
© All rights reserved Durrant et al. and/or ACM Press
al-Azzawi, Ali, Wilson, Margaret and Frohlich, David M. (2008): User Experience Constructs for Media Devices. In: Personal Construct Psychology Conference June 29-July 1, 2008, London. .
User experience (UX) is a notion that has increasingly been featured in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), product-design and business literature over the last decade. A Personal Construct Theory (PCT) approach is described for the purpose of exploring and understanding the UX. This paper contributes to the current debate about the nature of UX as applied to interactive media devices (Hassenzahl 2004). Here we develop a new perspective of UX as a complex psychological construct, subject to competing influences from visible object properties such as shape and colour, and invisible object associations such as perceived ease of use and brand. PCT methodology is used to examine such constructs based on a card sorting procedure (Canter, Brown, and Groat 1985), overcoming some of the documented problems with Repertory Grid (Fallman 2006), such as reliance on linear constructs and verbalisation.
The multiple sorting procedure (MSP) teamed with Multidimensional Scalogram Analysis (MSA) is used here to investigate the way 36 participants think and feel about the experience of technology, in the form of MP3 players. Applying this method to life size pictures of 35 MP3 players printed on separate cards, resulted in eleven basic constructs for thinking about these devices based on their appearance alone. These were: Screen, Size, Controls, Shape, Colour, Aesthetics, Brand, Design, Functions, Usability and Convenience. Also, based on the MSA, four main groups of devices were identified: Standard (portrait orientation), Horizontal oriented, Curved, and Other/Odd shaped. The results also suggest that aesthetics may not correlate directly with preference. Participants tended to evaluate the players holistically, applying similar categorisations to free-sorts, beauty-sorts and preference-sorts. This involved a common polarisation between modern and post-modern forms as they have been found to apply to architectural styles (Wilson 1996).
The MSP been applied to many areas of applied psychology, including environmental, forensic (Canter and Ioannou 2004), and organisational psychology (Wilson and Canter 1993). The present application extends this repertoire to HCI and elucidates a number of factors relevant to technology and design.
© All rights reserved al-Azzawi et al. and/or their publisher
al-Azzawi, Ali, Frohlich, David M. and Wilson, Margaret (2008): User Experience: A Multiple Sorting Method based on Personal Construct Theory. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. .
A multiple card-sorting task is described for the purpose of exploring and understanding the User Experience. This method is part of a Personal Construct Theory approach, and is validated with experimental data that show insight into how users conceptualise their experience with MP3 players, as represented by photographs. This approach allows access to users’ constructs and categories, which enables access to their subjective meanings and experience.
© All rights reserved al-Azzawi et al. and/or ACM Press
Lalmas, Mounia, Bhat, Ramnath, Frank, Maxine, Frohlich, David M. and Jones, Matt (2007): Bridging the digital divide: understanding information access practices in an indian village community. In: Proceedings of the 30th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2007. pp. 741-742.
For digital library and information retrieval technologies to provide solutions for bridging the digital divide in developing countries, we need to understand the information access practices of remote and often poor communities in these countries. We must understand the information needs of these communities, and the best means to provide them access to relevant information. To this end, we investigated the current information access practices in an Indian village.
© All rights reserved Lalmas et al. and/or ACM Press
Luff, Paul, Adams, Guy, Bock, Wolfgang, Drazin, Adam, Frohlich, David M., Heath, Christian, Herdman, Peter, King, Heather, Linketscher, Nadja, Murphy, Rachel, Norrie, Moira C. and Sellen, Abigail (2007): Augmented Paper: Developing Relationships between Digital Content and Paper. In: (ed.). "The Disappearing Computer: Interaction Design, System Infrastructures and Applications for Smart Environments, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 4500". Springer
al-Azzawi, Ali, Frohlich, David M. and Wilson, Margaret (2007): Beauty constructs for MP3 players. In CoDesign International Journal of CoCreation in Design and the Arts, 3 (0) pp. 59-74.
This paper contributes to the current debate about the nature of beauty and aesthetics as they apply to interactive products. Current disagreement centres around the question of whether beauty should be viewed as a continuous property of objects or as a rare emotional response to object encounters (Hassenzahl 2004, Frohlich 2004). Here we develop a new perspective of beauty as a complex psychological construct, subject to competing influences from visible object properties such as shape and colour, and invisible object associations such as perceived ease of use and brand. We introduce a new methodology for examining such constructs based on a card sorting procedure, and use it to show how 36 participants think about the beauty of 35 MP3 players. One implication is that beauty may not correlate directly with preference. We also found that participants tended to evaluate the players holistically, applying similar categorisations to free sorts, beauty sorts and preference sorts. This involved a common polarisation between modern and post-modern forms as they have been found to apply to architectural styles (Wilson 1996).
© All rights reserved al-Azzawi et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
al-Azzawi, Ali, Wilson, Margaret and Frohlich, David M. (2006): Users' First impressions of MP3 players. In: First International Symposium on Culture Creativity and Interaction Design CCID September 12, 2006, London. .
In this study we explore the dimensions of the first impressions made by users as they sort photographs of MP3 players. We collected data using a Multiple Sorting Procedure, the data was then analysed using Multidimensional Scalogram Analysis. We have found that simple, user-defined, concepts such as colour and shape played a prominent role at this stage of interaction with the product. We also explored what users saw as “Kinds of Beauty” and found four main types; Average, Quirky, Shapely and Elegant. This study has focused on eliciting the users’ own conceptualisations and categorisations.
© All rights reserved al-Azzawi et al. and/or their publisher
Tallyn, Ella, Frohlich, David M., Linketscher, Nadja and Signer, Beat (2005): Using Paper to Support Collaboration in Educational ActivitiesUsing Paper to Support Collaboration in Educational Activities. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning May 30-June 4, 2005, Taipai, Taiwan. pp. 672-676.
This paper describes findings from a pilot study that compared the collaborative use by children of three different media formats: a paper book, a CD-ROM in a standard PC set-up, and a paper booklet augmented with digital content. These findings show how the book’s ergonomics provide a flexible and easily accessible interface which engenders fluid collaboration between pairs of children. These qualities are also observed when children work with the augmented paper booklet. The value of digital content is demonstrated in a participatory design activity, where we find how digital media can 'bring to life' the information presented on paper. In contrast to developments focused narrowly on new technologies, this study presents evidence for the use and value of paper, and paper augmented with digital media, in educational settings.
© All rights reserved Tallyn et al. and/or their publisher
Frohlich, David M. (2004): Beauty as a Design Prize. In Human-Computer Interaction, 19 (4) pp. 359-366.
Frohlich, David M., Kuchinsky, Allan, Pering, Celine, Don, Abbe and Ariss, Steven (2002): Requirements for photoware. In: Churchill, Elizabeth F., McCarthy, Joe, Neuwirth, Christine and Rodden, Tom (eds.) Proceedings of the 2002 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. pp. 166-175.
Eleven PC-owning families were interviewed at home about their use of
conventional and digital photos. They also completed photo diaries and recorded
photo-sharing conversations that occurred spontaneously over a three month
period after the in-home interviews. From an analysis of the resulting
materials we illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of past and present
technology for photo sharing. These allow us to prioritise user requirements
for a range of future photo-sharing technologies or 'photoware'.
© All rights reserved Frohlich et al. and/or ACM Press
Frohlich, David M., Dray, Susan M. and Silverman, Amy (2001): Breaking Up is Hard to Do: Family Perspectives on the Future of the Home PC. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 54 (5) pp. 701-724.
Industry analysts currently disagree about the future of domestic computing. Some predict increasing sales of home PCs while others predict the break-up of the PC into a variety of information appliances. In this paper, we report a study of home PC use which illuminates this issue from the perspective of existing PC-owning families. Eleven PC-owning families from the Boston area were interviewed at home about their current PC use, their attitudes to computers and the location of technology in their homes. We found that the general-purpose nature of the home PC offers something for everybody in the household, and quickly becomes an established part of family life. Indeed, it was so popular in the households we visited that it had resulted in widespread competition for PC time, and had caused parents to worry about how best to control PC and internet access and influence. These behaviours and concerns led adults and children to express quite different preferences for relocating their computing experience around the house. However in both cases the needs were for better access to multifunctional extensions of the main PC. The implications of these findings for home PC and appliance evolution are discussed.
© All rights reserved Frohlich et al. and/or Academic Press
Frohlich, David M., Chilton, Kathy and Drew, Paul (1997): Remote Homeplace Communication: What is It Like and How Might We Support It?. In: Thimbleby, Harold, O'Conaill, Brid and Thomas, Peter J. (eds.) Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XII August, 1997, Bristol, England, UK. pp. 133-153.
We introduce the study of homeplace communication as being relevant to the design of new communication technology for the home market. After reviewing current approaches to the field, we go on to describe the nature of remote homeplace communication over the telephone, based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of 315 household telephone calls. The findings are contrasted with aspects of workplace communication and used to identify 7 user requirements for support. We conclude with recommendations for future basic and applied research in the area.
© All rights reserved Frohlich et al. and/or Springer Verlag
Daly-Jones, Owen, Monk, Andrew, Frohlich, David M., Geelhoed, Erik and Loughran, Steve (1997): Multimodal Messages: The Pen and Voice Opportunity. In Interacting with Computers, 9 (1) pp. 1-25.
Analyses of the costs and benefits of asynchronous communication, and the complementary properties of writing and speech, are used to predict that messages containing both writing and speech will be more communicative than either medium alone. Two experimental studies of asynchronous messaging are presented. Both experiments examine the use of pen-and-voice messages, that is voice messages attached to 'scribbled', i.e., uninterpreted text. The control conditions were voice messages alone, equivalent to an answerphone, and scribbled messages alone, equivalent to a fax. In Experiment 1 the visual component of the pen-and-voice messages was static, in Experiment 2 users could record short 'movies' including speech and pen movements over a document surface. Users showed a significant preference for the pen-and-voice messages in both experiments. In Experiment 2 half the number of pen-and-voice messages were required to achieve the same task performance as in the control conditions. It is concluded that dynamic pen-and-voice messages have considerable potential advantages over current single medium asynchronous communication facilities such as fax, answerphone, voicemail and e-mail.
© All rights reserved Daly-Jones et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Frohlich, David M., Thomas, Peter, Hawley, Mike and Hirade, Kenkichi (1997): The future of personal technologies. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 1 (1) .
Frohlich, David M., Drew, Paul and Monk, Andrew (1994): Management of Repair in Human-Computer Interaction. In Human-Computer Interaction, 9 (3) pp. 385-425.
This article reports an investigation of the initiation and management of repair in human-computer interaction from a conversation-analytic perspective. It describes some ways in which pairs of novice users deal with what they see as "trouble" in the operation of a multiwindow database system called Sales and Marketing Information (SAMi). A typical sequence has the character of a user request followed by a pause or computer granting, leading to user repair in initial or third position. Three components of repair are identified: The user attempts to get the computer to undo a previous granting, redo a previous request, or grant a new request. Some common ways in which these components are combined, ordered, and performed are illustrated with reference to transcripts of actual sequences of recorded interaction. The relevance of these findings for design is discussed, together with the future potential of the approach that generated them.
© All rights reserved Frohlich et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Frohlich, David M. (1993): The History and Future of Direct Manipulation. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 12 (6) pp. 315-329.
The earliest interactive computer systems were based on a conversational mode of interaction in which user and computer communicated through the exchange of linguistic utterances. Since the advent of 'direct manipulation' technology there has been a tendency to develop and promote an alternative mode of interaction, based on the user's manipulation of computer-displayed objects. This paper reviews recent developments in the implementation and understanding of direct manipulation interfaces. These point to various limitations in manipulative interaction which might be overcome through the selective reintroduction of conversational interaction. A new philosophy of graceful interaction is suggested to accommodate these developments in which directness is said to be a property of both action and language based systems. A number of practical guidelines are offered to reduce the incidence of clumsy manipulation.
© All rights reserved Frohlich and/or Taylor and Francis
Ankrah, Anne, Frohlich, David M. and Gilbert, G. Nigel (1990): Two Ways to Fill a Bath, With and Without Knowing It. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 73-78.
It is generally thought that direct manipulation interfaces are those based on some clear metaphor for interaction which encourages the user to draw an analogy between the machine and some familiar situation. In this paper we challenge this view by showing how it is possible to vary metaphor and directness of manipulation independently in interface design, and that the influence of these factors on usability is not simple. We report findings from an experiment in which 40 users were presented with the same process control task through four different interfaces incorporating different combinations of the two factors. The task was based on the familiar situation of filling a bath.
© All rights reserved Ankrah et al. and/or North-Holland
Frohlich, David M. and Luff, Paul (1989): Conversational Resources for Situated Action. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 253-258.
Suchman (1987) has recently drawn attention to the situated nature of human social action and its implications for the design of interactive computer systems. In particular, she has highlighted the shortcomings of globally managing human computer dialogues by matching user actions to some idealised plan for carrying out a task. In this paper we outline a scheme for the local management of dialogues based on the findings of conversation analysis. The scheme makes available a variety of communicative resources to both user and system, including the ability to give and take turns at talk, to initiate and carry out repair work, and to continue or change the topic of conversation. An implementation of the scheme in a welfare rights Advice System is described.
© All rights reserved Frohlich and Luff and/or ACM Press
Frohlich, David M. and Luff, Paul (1989): Some Lessons from an Exercise in Specification. In Human-Computer Interaction, 4 (2) pp. 121-147.
Formulating precise descriptions of human-computer interactions is a prerequisite for the principled design, implementation, and evaluation of interactive systems. This article reports an exercise in interaction specification using Foley and Van Dam's (1982) multilayered method of documenting the design of a user-computer interface. The specification was used to communicate the intended behaviour of a Forms Helper system from a design team to an implementation team. The ease with which the interaction could be represented at each of Foley and Van Dam's four levels of abstraction is discussed, and recommendations are made for improving the method in places where its guidance was unclear or inadequate. The value of the method is examined prior to a discussion of the potential role of such specifications in the design and development cycle.
© All rights reserved Frohlich and Luff and/or Taylor and Francis
Frohlich, David M. and Luff, Paul (1988): Some Lessons from an Exercise in Specification Using Foley and Van Dam's Interface Specification Method. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 20 (1) p. 63.
Formulating precise descriptions of human-computer interactions is a prerequisite for the principled design, implementation and evaluation of interactive systems. This poster reports an exercise in interaction specification using Foley and Van Dam's (1982) multi-layered method of documenting the design of a user-computer interface. The specification was used to communicate the intended behaviour of a Forms Helper system from a design team to an implementation team. The ease with which the interaction could be represented at each of Foley and Van Dam's four levels of abstraction is discussed, and recommendations are made for improving the method in places where its guidance was unclear or inadequate. The value of the specification to the implementors of the system is examined prior to a discussion of the potential role of such specifications in the design and development cycle. The main conclusions of the exercise are as follows. The power of the method for expressing system behaviour was lacking at the semantic and syntactic levels, and checking the specification for consistency was difficult between levels. However, with regard to the understandability of the specification our impression is that the multi-layered descriptions worked well as a vehicle for communication. In general, the specification was precise enough to allow the complete Forms Helper system to be implemented from it. The fact that it could be produced from a description of the interaction alone indicates that for certain systems at least, the Foley and Van Dam method of interface documentation can serve as a means of interactive system specification.
© All rights reserved Frohlich and Luff and/or ACM Press
Frohlich, David M., Crossfield, L. P. and Gilbert, G. N. (1985): Requirements for an Intelligent Form-Filling Interface. In: Johnson, Peter and Cook, Stephen (eds.) Proceedings of the Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers I August 17-20, 1985, University of East Anglia. pp. 102-116.
Although forms have been used as an alternative to menu selection and command language interfaces, their full potential for aiding human-computer interaction has rarely been realised. Most form interfaces at present provide little support to the user other than straightforward data type checking and some static help facilities that are displayed upon request. In this paper, the scope for improving the support provided to users of form-filling interfaces is identified by analogy to the support required by form-fillers in general. Some findings from the work on paper form-filling and design are reviewed, in relation to the comprehension of questions, the representation of answers and form navigation. A preliminary design for a Forms Helper system is then described. This illustrates the kind of knowledge which must be represented in any system which is to provide intelligent assistance to users of form-filling interfaces.
© All rights reserved Frohlich et al. and/or Cambridge University Press
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