Publication statistics

Pub. period:1983-2008
Pub. count:25
Number of co-authors:34



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Peter G. Polson:9
Scott D. Wood:4
David Meyer:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

David E. Kieras's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Bonnie E. John:64
James D. Foley:49
Peter G. Polson:46
 
 
 
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David E. Kieras

Picture of David E. Kieras.
Has also published under the name of:
"David Kieras"

Personal Homepage:
http://web.eecs.umich.edu/~kieras/

David Kieras is a Professor in the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at the University of Michigan. He received a BA in Psychology from Rice University in 1969 and a PhD in Experimental Psychology from the University of Michigan in 1974. After a two-year R.K. Mellon Post-Doctoral Fellowship at Carnegie-Mellon, he joined the Psychology Department as Assistant Professor at the University of Arizona. In 1984, he moved to the University of Michigan where he also holds a joint appointment in the Department of Psychology. His primary general research field is applied and theoretical cognitive psychology, with specific interests in human-computer interaction, cognitive simulation modeling, human performance, complex human learning, and natural language processing. His research has been supported by ONR, ARPA, NASA, IBM, and NYNEX Science and Technology. His research approach is to construct computational models for the cognitive processes involved in tasks that have practical importance, validate the models against empirical data, and prepare them for practical application. His current research focuses on developing the theory, techniques, and tools for analyzing and evaluating usability in HCI, especially with the GLEAN tool for GOMS modeling, and on the EPIC advanced cognitive architecture for human performance modeling.

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Publications by David E. Kieras (bibliography)

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2008
 
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Douglass-Olberg, Connie, Farkas, David, Steehouder, MichaŽl, Karreman, Joyce, Kieras, David E., Roesler, Axel, Dalal, Ninad, Baker, Ryan and Brunet, David (2008): The new face of procedural content: a real world approach. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3495-3500.

This paper describes a large-scale project to improve the effectiveness of knowledge base (KB) articles on a support website in solving problems experienced by novice to intermediate computer users. The project encompasses the structure of the content, the quality of the writing and graphics, and the user interface presentation. In addition, we are developing guidelines intended for the designers and writers of new KB articles. We leveraged product knowledge, research findings, and extensive experience in user support to develop and empirically test three prototypes. Preliminary test results show

© All rights reserved Douglass-Olberg et al. and/or ACM Press

2007
 
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Butler, Keith A., Zhang, Jiajie, Esposito, Chris, Bahrami, Ali, Hebron, Ron and Kieras, David E. (2007): Work-centered design: a case study of a mixed-initiative scheduler. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 747-756.

We present the case study of a complex, mixed-initiative scheduling system to illustrate Work-Centered Design (WCD), a new approach for the design of information systems. WCD is based on theory of distributed cognition and extends established user-centered methods with abstract task modeling, using innovative techniques for work ontology and top-level algorithms to capture the logic of a human-computer interaction paradigm. WCD addresses a long-standing need for more effective methods of function allocation. The illustrating case study succeeded on a large, difficult problem for aircraft scheduling where prior expensive attempts failed. The new system, called Solver, reduces scheduling labor from 9 person-days a week to about 1 person-hour. These results were obtained from the first user test, demonstrating notable effectiveness of WCD. Further, the value of Solver's higher quality schedules is far-reaching. WCD extends HCI methods to fill an important need for technical problem-solving systems.

© All rights reserved Butler et al. and/or ACM Press

2004
 
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Kieras, David E. and Santoro, Thomas P. (2004): Computational GOMS modeling of a complex team task: lessons learned. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 97-104.

This paper presents the lessons learned when a computational GOMS modeling tool was used to evaluate user interface concepts and team structure designs for a new class of military shipboard workstations. The lessons are both encouraging and cautionary: For example, computational GOMS models scaled well to a large and complex task involving teams of users. Interruptability and working memory constructs had to be added to conventional GOMS model concepts. However, two surprises emerged: First, the non-psychological aspects of the model construction were the practical bottleneck. Second, user testing data in this domain were difficult to collect and lacked definition, meaning that the model provided a better characterization of the design details than the user testing data. Included in these lessons are recommendations for future model applications and modeling methodology development.

© All rights reserved Kieras and Santoro and/or ACM Press

2001
 
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Kieras, David E., Meyer, David and Ballas, James (2001): Towards Demystification of Direct Manipulation: Cognitive Modeling Charts the Gulf of Execution. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 128-135.

Direct manipulation involves a large number of interacting psychological mechanisms that make the performance of a given interface hard to predict on intuitive or informal grounds. This paper applies cognitive modeling to explain the subtle effects produced by using a keypad versus a touchscreen in a performance-critical laboratory task.

© All rights reserved Kieras et al. and/or ACM Press

1999
 
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Hornof, Anthony J. and Kieras, David E. (1999): Cognitive Modeling Demonstrates How People Use Anticipated Location Knowledge of Menu Items. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 410-417.

This research presents cognitive models of a person selecting an item from a familiar, ordered, pull-down menu. Two different models provide a good fit with human data and thus two different possible explanations for the low-level cognitive processes involved in the task. Both models assert that people make an initial eye and hand movement to an anticipated target location without waiting for the menu to appear. The first model asserts that a person knows the exact location of the target item before the menu appears, but the model uses nonstandard Fitts' law coefficients to predict mouse pointing time. The second model asserts that a person would only know the approximate location of the target item, and the model uses Fitts' law coefficients better supported by the literature. This research demonstrates that people can develop considerable knowledge of locations in a visual task environment, and that more work regarding Fitts' law is needed.

© All rights reserved Hornof and Kieras and/or ACM Press

 
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Kieras, David E. and Polson, Peter G. (1999): An Approach to the Formal Analysis of User Complexity. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 51 (2) pp. 405-434.

A formal approach to analysing the user complexity of interactive systems or devices is described, based on theoretical results from cognitive psychology. The user's knowledge of how to use a system to accomplish the various tasks is represented in a procedural notation that permits quantification of the amount and complexity of the knowledge required and the cognitive processing load involved in using a system. Making a system more usable can be accomplished by altering its design until the knowledge is adequately simplified. By representing the device behaviour formally as well, it is possible to simulate the user-device interaction to obtain rigorous measures of user complexity.

© All rights reserved Kieras and and/or Academic Press

1997
 
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Kieras, David E. and Meyer, David (1997): An Overview of the EPIC Architecture for Cognition and Performance With Application to Human-Computer Interaction. In Human-Computer Interaction, 12 (4) pp. 391-438.

EPIC (Executive Process-Interactive Control) is a cognitive architecture especially suited for modeling human multimodal and multiple-task performance. The EPIC architecture includes peripheral sensory-motor processors surrounding a production-rule cognitive processor and is being used to construct precise computational models for a variety of human-computer interaction situations. We briefly describe some of these models to demonstrate how EPIC clarifies basic properties of human performance and provides usefully precise accounts of performance speed.

© All rights reserved Kieras and Meyer and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Kieras, David E., Wood, Scott D. and Meyer, David (1997): Predictive Engineering Models Based on the EPIC Architecture for a Multimodal High-Performance Human-Computer Interaction Task. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 4 (3) pp. 230-275.

Engineering models of human performance permit some aspects of usability of interface designs to be predicted from an analysis of the task, and thus they can replace to some extent expensive user-testing data. We successfully predicted human performance in telephone operator tasks with engineering models constructed in the EPIC (Executive Process-Interactive Control) architecture for human information processing, which is especially suited for modeling multimodal, complex tasks, and has demonstrated success in other task domains. Several models were constructed on an a priori basis to represent different hypotheses about how operators coordinate their activities to produce rapid task performance. The models predicted the total time with useful accuracy and clarified some important properties of the task. The best model was based directly on the GOMS analysis of the task and made simple assumptions about the operator's task strategy, suggesting that EPIC models are a feasible approach to predicting performance in multimodal high-performance tasks.

© All rights reserved Kieras et al. and/or ACM Press

1996
 
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John, Bonnie E. and Kieras, David E. (1996): Using GOMS for User Interface Design and Evaluation: Which Technique?. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 3 (4) pp. 287-319.

Since the seminal book, The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction, the GOMS model has been one of the few widely known theoretical concepts in human-computer interaction. This concept has spawned much research to verify and extend the original work and has been used in real-world design and evaluation situations. This article synthesizes the previous work on GOMS to provide an integrated view of GOMS models and how they can be used in design. We briefly describe the major variants of GOMS that have matured sufficiently to be used in actual design. We then provide guidance to practitioners about which GOMS variant to use for different design situations. Finally, we present examples of the application of GOMS to practical design problems and then summarize the lessons learned.

© All rights reserved John and Kieras and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Usability Evaluation: [/encyclopedia/usability_evaluation.html]


 
 
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John, Bonnie E. and Kieras, David E. (1996): The GOMS Family of User Interface Analysis Techniques: Comparison and Contrast. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 3 (4) pp. 320-351.

Since the publication of The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction, the GOMS model has been one of the most widely known theoretical concepts in HCI. This concept has produced several GOMS analysis techniques that differ in appearance and form, underlying architectural assumptions, and predictive power. This article compares and contrasts four popular variants of the GOMS family (the Keystroke-Level Model, the original GOMS formulation, NGOMSL, and CPM-GOMS) by applying them to a single task example.

© All rights reserved John and Kieras and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

User Interface Design Adaptation: [/encyclopedia/user_interface_design_adaptation.html]


 
1995
 
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Kieras, David E., Wood, Scott D. and Meyer, David (1995): Predictive Engineering Models Using the EPIC Architecture for a High-Performance Task. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 11-18.

Engineering models of human performance permit some aspects of usability of interface designs to be predicted from an analysis of the task, and thus can replace to some extent expensive user testing data. Human performance in telephone operator tasks was successfully predicted using engineering models constructed in the EPIC (Executive Process-Interactive Control) architecture for human information-processing, which is especially suited for modeling multimodal, complex tasks. Several models were constructed on an a priori basis to represent different hypotheses about how users coordinate their activities to produce rapid task performance. All of the models predicted the total task time with useful accuracy, and clarified some important properties of the task.

© All rights reserved Kieras et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kieras, David E., Wood, Scott D., Abotel, Kasem and Hornof, Anthony J. (1995): GLEAN: A Computer-Based Tool for Rapid GOMS Model Usability Evaluation of User Interface Designs. In: Robertson, George G. (ed.) Proceedings of the 8th annual ACM symposium on User interface and software technology November 15 - 17, 1995, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. pp. 91-100.

Engineering models of human performance permit some aspects of usability of interface designs to be predicted from an analysis of the task, and thus can replace to some extent expensive user testing data. The best developed such tools are GOMS models, which have been shown to be accurate and effective in predicting usability of the procedural aspects of interface designs. This paper describes a computer-based tool, GLEAN, that generates quantitative predictions from a supplied GOMS model and a set of benchmark tasks. GLEAN is demonstrated to reproduce the results of a case study of GOMS model application with considerable time savings over both manual modeling as well as empirical testing.

© All rights reserved Kieras et al. and/or ACM Press

1994
 
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Byrne, Michael D., Wood, Scott D., Sukaviriya, Piyawadee, Foley, James D. and Kieras, David E. (1994): Automating Interface Evaluation. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 232-237.

One method for user interface analysis that has proven successful is formal analysis, such as GOMS-based analysis. Such methods are often criticized for being difficult to learn, or at the very least an additional burden for the system designer. However, if the process of constructing and using formal models could be automated as part of the interface design environment, such models could be of even greater value. This paper describes an early version of such a system, called USAGE (the UIDE System for semi-Automated GOMS Evaluation). Given the application model necessary to drive the UIDE system, USAGE generates an NGOMSL model of the interface which can be "run" on a typical set of user tasks and provide execution and learning time estimates.

© All rights reserved Byrne et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Gong, Richard and Kieras, David E. (1994): A Validation of the GOMS Model Methodology in the Development of a Specialized, Commercial Software Application. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 351-357.

A formal GOMS model approach was applied to the design and evaluation of the user interface for a specialized, commercial software application. This approach was able to identify significant usability problems embedded in the procedures by which users interact with the interface. A redesign of the interface based on the GOMS approach resulted in a 46% reduction in learning time and a 39% reduction in execution time during a formal evaluation, differences predicted by the GOMS analysis. Corrections to the GOMS time

© All rights reserved Gong and Kieras and/or ACM Press

1992
 
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Kieras, David E. (1992): Diagrammatic Displays for Engineered Systems: Effects on Human Performance in Interacting with Malfunctioning Systems. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 36 (6) pp. 861-895.

Computer graphics displays make it possible to display both the topological structure of a system in the form of a schematic diagram and information about its current state using color-coding and animation. Such displays should be especially valuable as user interfaces for decision support systems and expert systems for managing complex systems. This report describes three experiments on the cognitive aspects of such displays. Two experiments involved both fault diagnosis and system operation using a very simple artificial system; one involved a complex real system in a fault diagnosis task. The major factors of interest concerned the topological content of the display -- principally, the extent to which the system structural relationships were visually explicit, and the availability and visual presentation of state information. Displays containing a topologically complete diagram presenting task-relevant state information at the corresponding point on the diagram appear to be superior to displays that violate the principles. A short set of guidelines for the design of such displays is listed.

© All rights reserved Kieras and/or Academic Press

1991
 
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Kieras, David E. (1991): Cashing in the Chips: Applying Cognitive Theory to Human Factors. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. p. 434.

1990
 
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Butler, Keith A., Kieras, David E., Thomas, John C., Price, Chuck and Allen, Thomas (1990): Collaboration for Technology Transfer -- or "How Do So Many Promising Ideas Get Lost?. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 349-351.

 
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Bovair, Susan, Kieras, David E. and Polson, Peter G. (1990): The Acquisition and Performance of Text-Editing Skill: A Cognitive Complexity Analysis. In Human-Computer Interaction, 5 (1) pp. 1-48.

Kieras and Polson (1985) proposed an approach for making quantitative predictions on ease of learning and ease of use of a system, based on a production system version of the goals, operators, methods, and selection rules (GOMS) model of Card, Moran, and Newell (1983). This article describes the principles for constructing such models and obtaining predictions of learning and execution time. A production rule model for a simulated text editor is described in detail and is compared to experimental data on learning and performance. The model accounted well for both learning and execution time and for the details of the increase in speed with practice. The relationship between the performance model and the Keystroke-Level Model of Card et al. (1983) is discussed. The results provide strong support for the original proposal that production rule models can make quantitative predictions for both ease of learning and ease of use.

© All rights reserved Bovair et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

1988
 
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Foltz, Peter W., Davies, Susan, Polson, Peter G. and Kieras, David E. (1988): Transfer Between Menu Systems. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 107-112.

This paper investigates whether changes in the user/computer dialogue structure will affect the performance of users who are familiar with an earlier version of the product. Quantitative predictions using the Kieras and Polson (1985) production system model were derived to test whether changing the lexical attributes and structure of a popular menu-driven word-processor would permit transfer of existing knowledge of the word-processor to a new version. The results show that changes to the dialogue structure of the menu-system are not detrimental, while changes to the lexical attributes of the menus will hinder user performance.

© All rights reserved Foltz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Foltz, Peter W., Davies, Susan E., Polson, Peter G. and Kieras, David E. (1988): Transfer between Similar Menu Systems. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 19 (3) pp. 63-65.

1987
 
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Bennett, John, Lorch, Douglas J., Kieras, David E. and Polson, Peter G. (1987): Developing a User Interface Technology for Use in Industry. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 21-26.

We are developing a user interface technology to address ease of learning and ease of use concerns on the user side of the interface during the design process. Modelling the user how-to-do-it knowledge required by a design is one step toward development of such a technology. We report on an evolving methodology that is intended to give developers early warning indications of potential usability problems that may arise from a set of design decisions.

© All rights reserved Bennett et al. and/or North-Holland

 
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Polson, Peter G., Bovair, Susan and Kieras, David E. (1987): Transfer between text editors. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 27-32.

1985
 
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Polson, Peter G. and Kieras, David E. (1985): A Quantitative Model of the Learning and Performance of Text Editing Knowledge. In: Borman, Lorraine and Curtis, Bill (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 85 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1985, San Francisco, California. pp. 207-212.

A model of manuscript editing, implemented as a simulation program, is described in this paper. The model provides an excellent, quantitative description of learning, transfer, and performance data from two experiments on text editing methods. Implications of the underlying theory for the design process are briefly discussed.

© All rights reserved Polson and Kieras and/or ACM Press

 
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Kieras, David E. and Polson, Peter G. (1985): An Approach to the Formal Analysis of User Complexity. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 22 (4) pp. 365-394.

A formal approach to analysing the user complexity of interactive systems or devices is described, based on theoretical results from cognitive psychology. The user's knowledge of how to use a system to accomplish the various tasks is represented in a procedural notation that permits quantification of the amount and complexity of the knowledge required and the cognitive processing load involved in using a system. Making a system more usable can be accomplished by altering its design until the knowledge is adequately simplified. By representing the device behaviour formally as well, it is possible to simulate the user-device interaction to obtain rigorous measures of user complexity.

© All rights reserved Kieras and and/or Academic Press

1983
 
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Kieras, David E. and Polson, Peter G. (1983): A Generalized Transition Network Representation for Interactive Systems. In: Smith, Raoul N., Pew, Richard W. and Janda, Ann (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 83 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conferenc December 12-15, 1983, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 103-106.

A general method for describing the behavior of an interactive system is presented which is based on transition networks generalized enough to describe even very complex systems easily, as shown by an example description of a word processor. The key feature is the ability to easily describe hierarchies of modes or states of the system. The representation system is especially valuable as a design tool when used in a simulation of a proposed user interface. In order to characterize the interaction between a user and a system, an explicit and formal representation of the behavior of the system itself is needed. To be of value in the design of user interfaces, the representation should be independent of the actual implementation of the system, but also reflect the structural properties of the system's behavior, such as its hierarchical form, the possible modes, and the consistent patterns of interaction. At the same time, the presentation must be easy to define and understand. This paper presents a representation notation with these properties.

© All rights reserved Kieras and and/or ACM Press

 
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URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/david_e__kieras.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1983-2008
Pub. count:25
Number of co-authors:34



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Peter G. Polson:9
Scott D. Wood:4
David Meyer:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

David E. Kieras's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Bonnie E. John:64
James D. Foley:49
Peter G. Polson:46
 
 
 
Jul 23

Men have become the tools of their tools.

-- Henry David Thoreau

 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

Kumar and Herger 2013: Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software...
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger

 
Start reading

Whitworth and Ahmad 2013: The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities...
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad

 
Start reading

Soegaard and Dam 2013: The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed....
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam

 
Start reading
 
 

Help us help you!