Number of co-authors:17
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Jon May:4Roberto Scopigno:4Ann Blandford:3
David Duke's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Fabio Paterno:118Ann Blandford:69Laurence Nigay:67
It's really hard to design products by focus groups. A lot of times, people don't know what they want until you show it to them.
-- Steve Jobs, 1998
Read the fascinating history of Wearable Computing, told by its father, Steve Mann
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Publications by David Duke (bibliography)
Myers, Colin and Duke, David (2010): A map of the heap: revealing design abstractions in runtime structures. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Software Visualization 2010. pp. 63-72.
Visual representations of runtime software structures such as heap memory graphs can aid in debugging and help to develop program understanding. However, such structures may contain thousands of objects and have no obvious spatial organisation. If the program contains flaws the appearance of objects may well differ from the user's expectations. Navigating these graphs can be challenging to the user as the space is abstract and potentially unfamiliar. To alleviate this problem we employ a systematic approach grounded in the principles of navigational landmarks. We identify subgraphs within the heap that correspond to significant design abstractions and apply various visualization techniques to highlight and organise these structures. The aim is to provide the user with recognisable features that are linked to more familiar representations of the software. We claim that the enhanced representation can support existing memory debugging tools by providing the user with a usable 'map' of an otherwise abstract data space. The results are demonstrated using data extracted from an instrumented version of the Visualization Tool Kit (VTK), a complex and widely-used architecture for data visualization.
© All rights reserved Myers and Duke and/or ACM Press
Duke, David and Scopigno, Roberto (2007): Editorial. In Comput. Graph. Forum, 26 (4) .
Duke, David and Scopigno, Roberto (2007): Editorial. In Comput. Graph. Forum, 26 (1) .
Duke, David and Scopigno, Roberto (2006): Editorial. In Comput. Graph. Forum, 25 (2) .
Duke, David and Scopigno, Roberto (2006): Editorial. In Comput. Graph. Forum, 25 (4) .
Duke, David (2004): Linking Representation with Meaning. In: VIS 2004 - 15th IEEE Visualization 2004 Conference 10-15 October, 2004, Austin, TX, USA. p. 5.
Duke, David, Barnard, Philip J., Halper, Nick and Mellin, Mara (2003): Rendering and Affect. In Computer Graphics Forum, 22 (3) pp. 59-368.
Previous studies at the intersection between rendering and psychology have concentrated on issues such as realism and acuity. Although such results have been useful in informing development of realistic rendering techniques, studies have shown that the interpretation of images is in uenced by factors that have little to do with realism. In this paper, we summarize a series of experiments, the most recent of which are reported in a separate paper, that investigate affective (emotive) qualities of images. These demonstrate signi cant effects that can be utilized within interactive graphics, particularly via non-photorealistic rendering (NPR). We explain how the interpretation of these results requires a high-level model of cognitive information processing, and use such a model to account for recent empirical results on rendering and judgement.
© All rights reserved Duke et al. and/or Blackwell
Barnard, Philip J., May, Jon, Duke, David and Duce, David A. (2000): Systems, Interactions, and Macrotheory. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7 (2) pp. 222-262.
A significant proportion of early HCI research was guided by one very clear vision: that the existing theory base in psychology and cognitive science could be developed to yield engineering tools for use in the interdisciplinary context of HCI design. While interface technologies and heuristic methods for behavioral evaluation have rapidly advanced in both capability and breadth of application, progress toward deeper theory has been modest, and some now believe it to be unnecessary. A case is presented for developing new forms of theory, based around generic "systems of interactors." An overlapping, layered structure of macro- and microtheories could then serve an explanatory role, and could also bind together contributions from the different disciplines. Novel routes to formalizing and applying such theories provide a host of interesting and tractable problems for future basic research in HCI.
© All rights reserved Barnard et al. and/or ACM Press
Duke, David, Barnard, Philip J., Duce, David A. and May, Jon (1998): Syndetic Modelling. In Human-Computer Interaction, 13 (4) pp. 337-393.
User and system models typically are viewed as independent representations that provide complementary insights into aspects of human-computer interaction. Within system development, it is usual to see the 2 activities as separate, or at best loosely coupled, with either the design artifact or some third "mediating" expression providing the context in which the results of modelling can be related. This article proposes that formal system models can be combined directly with a representation of human cognition to yield an integrated view of human-system interaction: a syndetic model. Aspects of systems that affect usability then can be described and understood in terms of the conjoint behavior of user and computer. This article introduces and discusses, in syndetic terms, 2 scenarios with markedly different properties. We show how syndesis can provide a formal foundation for reasoning about interaction.
© All rights reserved Duke et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Blandford, Ann and Duke, David (1997): Integrating User and Computer System Concerns in the Design of Interactive Systems. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 46 (5) pp. 653-679.
In any design process, there are different perspectives that need to be accommodated. For the design of interactive systems, two of these are that of the computer system designer and that of the end user. The focus of this paper is on tools or notations to support the integration of these different perspectives -- in particular, system modelling and theory-based user modelling. There are few established techniques for doing such integration; those that there are generally involve a loose coupling between the description of the system and that of the user, or are skewed towards one or other of these viewpoints. Recently, techniques that deal with the system and user more symmetrically have emerged. We focus, in particular, on techniques that have been developed and investigated within a large European project, Amodeus. These allow the analyst to explore properties of the conjoint system, and to investigate how the properties of the interaction relate to those of the individual agents. However, there is a trade-off, which can be characterized as increased power to critique a design being offset against reduced generality in the design perspectives that can be considered using the technique. We argue that while such techniques require a high initial investment, technological advances make the need for such integrated approaches urgent. We consider what resources each class of technique demands and what kinds of results each yields.
© All rights reserved Blandford and and/or Academic Press
Bellotti, Victoria, Blandford, Ann, Duke, David, MacLean, Allan, May, Jon and Nigay, Laurence (1996): Interpersonal Access Control in Computer-Mediated Communications: A Systematic Analysis of the Design Space. In Human-Computer Interaction, 11 (4) pp. 357-432.
Certain design projects raise difficult user-interface problems that are not easily amenable to designers' intuition or rapid prototyping due to their novelty, conceptual complexity, and the difficulty of conducting appropriate user studies. Interpersonal access control in computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems is just such a problem. We describe a collection of systematic theory-based analyses of a system prototype that inherited its control mechanism from two preexisting systems. We demonstrate that the collective use of system and user modeling techniques provides insight into this complex design problem and enables us to examine the implications of design decisions for users and implementation. The analyses identify a number of weaknesses in the prototype and are used to propose ways of making substantive refinements to improve its simplicity and appropriateness for two tasks: altering one's accessibility and distinguishing between who can make what kinds of connections. We conclude with a discussion of some critical issues that are relevant for CMC systems, and reflect on the process of applying formal human-computer interaction (HCI) techniques in informal, exploratory design contexts.
© All rights reserved Bellotti et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Shum, Simon Buckingham, Blandford, Ann, Duke, David, Good, Jason, May, Jon, Paterno, Fabio and Young, Richard (1996): Multidisciplinary Modelling for User-Centred System Design: An Air-Traffic Control Case Study. In: Sasse, Martina Angela, Cunningham, R. J. and Winder, R. L. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XI August, 1996, London, UK. pp. 201-219.
This paper reports work investigating how user and system modelling techniques can be integrated to support the design of advanced interactive systems, and how such modelling can be effectively communicated to design practitioners in order to evaluate their potential. We describe a large scale modelling exercise concerning a flight sequencing tool for air-traffic controllers. We outline the kinds of system and user analysis possible with the different modelling techniques, and the approach used to integrate and communicate the modelling analyses to the system's designers. We then discuss the value of these techniques against several key criteria. The designers evaluated the modelling positively in many respects, including a commitment to explore further how user modelling can be integrated with their formal methods. We conclude that the scenario of HCI modellers working in collaboration with designers is feasible, and has analytic power.
© All rights reserved Shum et al. and/or Springer Verlag
Duke, David, Faconti, G. and Massink, M. (1996): Synchronisation and Delay in a Formal Model of User Cognition. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the 2nd ERCIM Workshop on User Interfaces for All November 7-8, 1996, Prague, Czech Republic. p. 19.
This work is part of a syndetic approach to the evaluation of the usability of interaction devices that takes into account the cognitive resources needed to use a device to perform particular tasks. In the syndetic approach both a cognitive model and a model of system behaviour are specified and brought together within a single framework in order to investigate their relations. The ICS model is such a cognitive model of human information processing. In this model the human information processing is depicted as a number of independent cognitive processes that cooperate by means of exchanging mental representations of the observed environment. The style in which the model is described is close to a data flow style, which is also one of the formal approaches used within Computer Science for the specification of systems behaviour. In this paper we present a data flow oriented representation of a simplified version of the ICS model in which we study the synchronisation and delay of the streams of representations owing through the model. The data flow approach is shown to give particularly interesting possibilities to investigate the consequences of a relative difference in speed between the information processing of the human and the change of the environment in which (s)he is working.
© All rights reserved Duke et al. and/or The European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics - ERCIM
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