Number of co-authors:44
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Pourang Irani:4Rick Komerska:4Roland Arsenault:3
Colin Ware's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Ravin Balakrishnan:108I. Scott MacKenzie:67Kellogg S. Booth:56
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Personal Homepage: ccom.unh.edu/vislab/colin_ware.html
Colin Ware is Director of the Data Visualization Research Lab. which is part of the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping at the University of New Hampshire. He is cross appointed between the Departments of Ocean Engineering and Computer Science. Ware specializes in advanced data visualization and he has a special interest in applications of visualization to Ocean Mapping. He combines interests in both basic and applied research and he has advanced degrees in both computer science (MMath, Waterloo) and in the psychology of perception (PhD,Toronto). He has published over 90 articles in scientific and technical journals and at leading conferences. Many of these relate to the use of color, texture, motion and 3D displays in information visualization. His approach is always to combine theory with practice and his publications range from rigorously scientific contributions to the Journal of Physiology and Vision Research to applications oriented articles in ACM Transactions on Graphics and IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics.
Publications by Colin Ware (bibliography)
Ware, Colin (2013): Visual Perception and Design. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/visual_perception_and_design.html
Ware, Colin, Gilman, Anne T. and Bobrow, Robert J. (2008): Visual Thinking with an Interactive Diagram. In: Stapleton, Gem, Howse, John and Lee, John (eds.) Diagrams 2008 - Diagrammatic Representation and Inference - 5th International Conference September 19-21, 2008, Herrsching, Germany. pp. 118-126. Available online
Ware, Colin (2008): Visual Thinking: for Design. Morgan Kaufmann
Increasingly, designers need to present information in ways that aid their audience's thinking process. Fortunately, results from the relatively new science of human visual perception provide valuable guidance. In Visual Thinking for Design, Colin Ware takes what we now know about perception, cognition, and attention and transforms it into concrete advice that designers can directly apply. He demonstrates how designs can be considered as tools for cognition - extensions of the viewer's brain in much the same way that a hammer is an extension of the user's hand. Experienced professional designers and students alike will learn how to maximize the power of the information tools they design for the people who use them. . Presents visual thinking as a complex process that can be supported in every stage using specific design techniques.. Provides practical, task-oriented information for designers and software developers charged with design responsibilities.. Includes hundreds of examples, many in the form of integrated text and full-color diagrams.. Steeped in the principles of "active vision," which views graphic designs as cognitive tools.
© All rights reserved Ware and/or Morgan Kaufmann
Ware, Colin (2008): Toward a Perceptual Theory of Flow Visualization. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 28 (2) pp. 6-11
Ware, Colin (2007): Patterns and Words, Logic and Narrative: What can we expect of a visual language?. In: VL-HCC 2007 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 23-27 September, 2007, Coeur dAlene, Idaho, USA. p. 11. Available online
Plumlee, Matthew D. and Ware, Colin (2006): Zooming versus multiple window interfaces: Cognitive costs of visual comparisons. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 13 (2) pp. 179-209. Available online
In order to investigate large information spaces effectively, it is often necessary to employ navigation mechanisms that allow users to view information at different scales. Some tasks require frequent movements and scale changes to search for details and compare them. We present a model that makes predictions about user performance on such comparison tasks with different interface options. A critical factor embodied in this model is the limited capacity of visual working memory, allowing for the cost of visits via fixating eye movements to be compared to the cost of visits that require user interaction with the mouse. This model is tested with an experiment that compares a zooming user interface with a multi-window interface for a multiscale pattern matching task. The results closely matched predictions in task performance times; however error rates were much higher with zooming than with multiple windows. We hypothesized that subjects made more visits in the multi-window condition, and ran a second experiment using an eye tracker to record the pattern of fixations. This revealed that subjects made far more visits back and forth between pattern locations when able to use eye movements than they made with the zooming interface. The results suggest that only a single graphical object was held in visual working memory for comparisons mediated by eye movements, reducing errors by reducing the load on visual working memory. Finally we propose a design heuristic: extra windows are needed when visual comparisons must be made involving patterns of a greater complexity than can be held in visual working memory.
© All rights reserved Plumlee and Ware and/or ACM Press
Ware, Colin, Arsenault, Roland, Plumlee, Matthew and Wiley, David (2006): Visualizing the Underwater Behavior of Humpback Whales. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 26 (4) pp. 14-18
House, Donald H., Bair, Alethea and Ware, Colin (2005): On the Optimization of Visualizations of Complex Phenomena. In: 16th IEEE Visualization Conference VIS 2005 23-28 October, 2005, Minneapolis, MN, USA. p. 12. Available online
House, Donald H., Interrante, Victoria, Laidlaw, David H., II, Russell M. Taylor and Ware, Colin (2005): Design and Evaluation in Visualization Research. In: 16th IEEE Visualization Conference VIS 2005 23-28 October, 2005, Minneapolis, MN, USA. p. 117. Available online
Sweet, Graeme and Ware, Colin (2004): View direction, surface orientation and texture orientation for perception of surface shape. In: Graphics Interface 2004 May 17-19, 2004, London, Ontario, Canada. pp. 97-106. Available online
Textures are commonly used to enhance the representation of shape in non-photorealistic rendering applications such as medical drawings. Textures that have elongated linear elements appear to be superior to random textures in that they can, by the way they conform to the surface, reveal the surface shape. We observe that shape following hache marks commonly used in cartography and copper-plate illustration are locally similar to the effect of the lines that can be generated by the intersection of a set of parallel planes with a surface. We use this as a basis for investigating the relationships between view direction, texture orientation and surface orientation in affording surface shape perception. We report two experiments using parallel plane textures. The results show that textures constructed from planes more nearly orthogonal to the line of sight tend to be better at revealing surface shape. Also, viewing surfaces from an oblique view is much better for revealing surface shape than viewing them from directly above.
© All rights reserved Sweet and Ware and/or their publisher
Ware, Colin (2004): Information Visualization: Perception for Design, 2nd Ed. San Francisco, Morgan Kaufman
Arsenault, Roland and Ware, Colin (2004): The Importance of Stereo and Eye Coupled Perspective for Eye-Hand Coordination in Fish Tank VR. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 13 (5) pp. 549-559.
Komerska, Rick and Ware, Colin (2004): A Study of Haptic Linear and Pie Menus in a 3D Fish Tank VR Environment. In: HAPTICS 2004 - 12th International Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems 27-28 March, 2004, Chicago, IL, USA. pp. 224-231. Available online
Irani, Pourang and Ware, Colin (2004): The Effect of a Perceptual Syntax on the Learnability of Novel Concepts. In: IV 2004 - 8th International Conference on Information Visualisation 14-16 July, 2004, London, UK. pp. 308-314. Available online
Dorner, Ralf and Ware, Colin (2004): Visual interactive stimuli techniques: interactive tools for exploring data using behavioral animation. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 15 (2) pp. 161-181. Available online
Komerska, Rick and Ware, Colin (2004): Haptic State-Surface Interactions. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 24 (6) pp. 52-59
Ware, Colin (2003): Design as Applied Perception. In: Carroll, John M. (ed.). "HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks". San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman Publisherspp. 11-25
Bartram, Lyn, Ware, Colin and Calvert, Tom W. (2003): Moticons:: detection, distraction and task. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58 (5) pp. 515-545.
In this paper, we describe an empirical investigation of the utility of
several perceptual properties of motion in information-dense displays applied
to notification. Notification relates to awareness and how dynamic information
is communicated from the system to the user. Key to a notification technique is
how easily the notification is detected and identified. Our initial studies
show that icons with simple motions, termed moticons, are effective coding
techniques for notification and in fact are often better detected and
identified than colour and shape codes, especially in the periphery. A
subsequent experiment compared the detection and distraction effects of
different motion types in several task conditions. Our results reveal how
different attributes of motion contribute to detection, identification and
distraction and provide initial guidelines on how motion codes can be designed
to support awareness in information-rich interfaces while minimizing unwanted
side effects of distraction and irritation.
© All rights reserved Bartram et al. and/or Academic Press
Irani, Pourang and Ware, Colin (2003): Diagramming information structures using 3D perceptual primitives. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 10 (1) pp. 1-19. Available online
The class of diagrams known collectively as node-link diagrams are used extensively for many applications, including planning, communications networks, and computer software. The defining features of these diagrams are nodes, represented by a circle or rectangle connected by links usually represented by some form of line or arrow. We investigate the proposition that drawing three-dimensional shaded elements instead of using simple lines and outlines will result in diagrams that are easier to interpret. A set of guidelines for such diagrams is derived from perception theory and these collectively define the concept of the geon diagram. We also introduce a new substructure identification task for evaluating diagrams and use it to test the effectiveness of geon diagrams. The results from five experiments are reported. In the first three experiments geon diagrams are compared to Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams. The results show that substructures can be identified in geon diagrams with approximately half the errors and significantly faster. The results also show that geon diagrams can be recalled much more reliably than structurally equivalent UML diagrams. In the final two experiments geon diagrams are compared with diagrams having the same outline but not constructed with shaded solids. This is designed to specifically test the importance of using 3D shaded primitives. The results also show that substructures can be identified much more accurately with shaded components than with 2D outline equivalents and remembered more reliably. Implications for the design of diagrams are discussed.
© All rights reserved Irani and Ware and/or ACM Press
Komerska, Rick and Ware, Colin (2003): Haptic Task Constraints fo 3D Interaction. In: HAPTICS 2003 - 11th International Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems 22-23 March, 2003, Los Angeles, CA, USA. pp. 270-277. Available online
Ware, Colin (2003): Thinking with Visualization. In: InfoVis 2003 - 9th IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 20-21 October, 2003, Seattle, WA, USA. . Available online
Plumlee, Matthew and Ware, Colin (2003): An evaluation of methods for linking 3D views. In: SI3D 2003 2003. pp. 193-201
Kosara, Robert, Healey, Christopher G., Interrante, Victoria, Laidlaw, David H. and Ware, Colin (2003): User Studies: Why, How, and When?. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 23 (4) pp. 20-25
Laramee, Robert S. and Ware, Colin (2002): Rivalry and interference with a head-mounted display. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 9 (3) pp. 238-251. Available online
Perceptual factors that affect monocular, transparent (a.k.a "see-thru") head-mounted displays include binocular rivalry, visual interference, and depth of focus. We report the results of an experiment designed to evaluate the effects of these factors on user performance in a table look-up task. Two backgrounds were used. A dynamic moving background was provided by a large screen TV and an untidy bookshelf was used to provide a complex static background. With the TV background large effects were found attributable to both rivalry and visual interference. These two effects were roughly additive. Smaller effects were found with the bookshelf. In conclusion we suggest that monocular transparent HMDs may be unsuitable for use in visually dynamic environments. However when backgrounds are relatively static, having a transparent display may be preferable to having an opaque display.
© All rights reserved Laramee and Ware and/or ACM Press
Komerska, Rick, Ware, Colin and Plumlee, Matthew (2002): Haptic Interface for Center-of-Workspace Interaction. In: HAPTICS 2002 - Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems 2002 2002. pp. 352-353. Available online
Bartram, Lyn, Ware, Colin and Calvert, Tom W. (2001): Moving Icons: Detection and Distraction. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 157-165.
Irani, Pourang, Tingley, Maureen and Ware, Colin (2001): Using Perceptual Syntax to Enhance Semantic Content in Diagrams. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 21 (5) pp. 76-85
Ware, Colin (2000): Information Visualization: Perception for Design. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers
Arsenault, Roland and Ware, Colin (2000): Eye-Hand Co-Ordination with Force Feedback. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 408-414. Available online
The term Eye-hand co-ordination refers to hand movements controlled with visual feedback and reinforced by hand contact with objects. A correct perspective view of a virtual environment enables normal eye-hand co-ordination skills to be applied. But is it necessary for rapid interaction with 3D objects? A study of rapid hand movements is reported using an apparatus designed so that the user can touch a virtual object in the same place where he or she sees it. A Fitts tapping task is used to assess the effect of both contact with virtual objects and real-time update of the centre of perspective based on the user's actual eye position. A Polhemus tracker is used to measure the user's head position and from this estimate their eye position. In half of the conditions, head tracked perspective is employed so that visual feedback is accurate while in the other half a fixed eye-position is assumed. A Phantom force feedback device is used to make it possible to touch the targets in selected conditions. Subjects were required to change their viewing position periodically to assess the importance of correct perspective and of touching the targets in maintaining eye-hand co-ordination, The results show that accurate perspective improves performance by an average of 9% and contact
© All rights reserved Arsenault and Ware and/or ACM Press
Irani, Pourang and Ware, Colin (2000): Diagrams Based on Structural Object Perception. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 2000 2000. pp. 61-67.
Ware, Colin and Rose, Jeff (1999): Rotating Virtual Objects with Real Handles. In ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 6 (2) pp. 162-180. Available online
Times for virtual object rotations reported in the literature are of the order of 10 seconds or more and this is far longer than it takes to manually orient a "real" object, such as a cup. This is a report of a series of experiments designed to investigate the reasons for this difference and to help design interfaces for object manipulation. The results suggest that two major factors are important. Having the hand physically in the same location as the virtual object being manipulated is one. The other is based on whether the object is being rotated to a new, randomly determined orientation, or is always rotated to the same position. Making the object held in the hand have the same physical shape as the object being visually manipulated was not found to be a significant factor. The results are discussed in the context of interactive virtual environments.
© All rights reserved Ware and Rose and/or ACM Press
Ware, Colin (1998): Perception and Data Visualization: The Foundations of Experimental Semiotics. In: Graphics Interface 98 June 18-20, 1998, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 92-98.
Parker, Greg, Franck, Glenn and Ware, Colin (1998): Visualization of Large Nested Graphs in 3D: Navigation and Interaction. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 9 (3) pp. 299-317.
Ware, Colin and Lowther, Kathy (1997): Selection using a One-Eyed Cursor in a Fish Tank VR Environment. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 4 (4) pp. 309-322. Available online
This study investigates the use of a 2D cursor presented to one eye for target selection in Fish Tank VR and other stereo environments. It is argued that 2D selection of 3D objects should be less difficult than 3D selection. Vision research concerning binocular rivalry and the tendency we have to project images onto surfaces suggests that this mode of viewing will not seem particularly unnatural. A Fitts' Law experiment was done to directly compare target acquisition with a one-eyed 2D cursor and target acquisition using a 3D cursor. In both cases we used the same input device (Polhemus Fastrak) so that the device lag and gain parameters were exactly matched. The results show a large improvement in target acquisition time using the 2D cursor. The practical implications of this is that the 2D selection method using a one-eyed cursor in preferable to the 3D selection method. Theoretical implications relate to methods for extending Fitts' Law from the one-dimensional task for which it was designed to 2D and 3D tasks. We conclude that the existing approaches to this problem are not adequate.
© All rights reserved Ware and Lowther and/or ACM Press
Ware, Colin and Fleet, Daniel J. (1997): Context Sensitive Flying Interface. In: SI3D 1997 1997. pp. 127-130,193
Ware, Colin (1995): Dynamic Stereo Displays. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 310-316. Available online
Based on a review of the facts about human stereo vision, a case is made that the stereo processing mechanism is highly flexible. Stereopsis seems to provide only local additional depth information, rather than defining the overall 3D geometry of a perceived scene. New phenomenological and experimental evidence is presented to support this view. The first demonstration shows that kinetic depth information dominates stereopsis in a depth cue conflict. Experiment 1 shows that dynamic changes in effective eye separation are not noticed if they occur over a period of a few seconds. Experiment 2 shows that subjects who are given control over their effective eye separation, can comfortably work with larger than normal eye separations when viewing a low relief scene. Finally, an algorithm is presented for the generation of dynamic stereo images designed to reduce the normal eye strain that occurs due to the mis-coupling of focus and vergence cues.
© All rights reserved Ware and/or ACM Press
Ware, Colin and Balakrishnan, Ravin (1994): Reaching for Objects in VR Displays: Lag and Frame Rate. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 1 (4) pp. 331-356. Available online
This article reports the results from three experimental studies of reaching behavior in a head-coupled stereo display system with a hand-tracking subsystem for object selection. It is found that lag in the head-tracking system is relatively unimportant in predicting performance, whereas lag in the hand-tracking system is critical. The effect of hand lag can be modeled by means of a variation on Fitts' Law with the measured system lag introduced as a multiplicative variable to the Fitts' Law index of difficulty. This means that relatively small lags can cause considerable degradation in performance if the targets are small. Another finding is that errors are higher for movement in and out of the screen, as compared to movements in the plane of the screen, and
© All rights reserved Ware and Balakrishnan and/or ACM Press
Ware, Colin and Balakrishnan, Ravin (1994): Target acquisition in fish tank VR: The effects of lag and frame rate. In: Graphics Interface 94 May 18-20, 1994, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 1-7.
Franck, Glenn and Ware, Colin (1994): Representing Nodes and Arcs in 3D Networks. In: VL 1994 1994. pp. 189-190.
Ware, Colin and Franck, Glenn (1994): Viewing a Graph in a Virtual Reality Display is Three Times as Good as 2D Diagram. In: VL 1994 1994. pp. 182-183.
Ware, Colin, Arthur, Kevin and Booth, Kellogg S. (1993): Fish Tank Virtual Reality. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 37-42. Available online
The defining characteristics of what we call "Fish Tank Virtual Reality" are a stereo image of a three dimensional (3D) scene viewed on a monitor using a perspective projection coupled to the head position of the observer. We discuss some of the relative merits of this mode of viewing as compared to head mounted stereo displays. In addition, we report the experimental investigation of the following variables: 1) whether or not the perspective view is coupled to the actual viewpoint of the observer, 2) whether stereopsis is employed. Experiment 1 involved the subjective comparison of pairs of viewing conditions and the results suggest that head coupling may be more important than stereo in yielding a strong impression of three dimensionality. Experiment 2 involved subjects tracing a path from a leaf of a 3D tree to the correct root (there were two trees intermeshed). The error rates ranged from 22% in the pictorial display, to 1.3% in the head coupled stereo display. The error rates for stereo alone and head coupling alone were 14.7% and 3.2% respectively. We conclude that head coupling is probably more important than stereo in 3D visualization and that head coupling and stereo combined provide an important enhancement to monitor based computer graphics.
© All rights reserved Ware et al. and/or ACM Press
Arthur, Kevin, Booth, Kellogg S. and Ware, Colin (1993): Evaluating 3D Task Performance for Fish Tank Virtual Worlds. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 11 (3) pp. 239-265. Available online
"Fish tank virtual reality" refers to the use of a standard graphics workstation to achieve real-time display of 3D scenes using stereopsis and dynamic head-coupled perspective. Fish tank VR has a number of advantages over head-mounted immersion VR which makes it more practical for many applications. After discussing the characteristics of fish tank VR, we describe a set of three experiments conducted to study the benefits of fish tank VR over a traditional workstation graphics display. These experiments tested user performance under two conditions: (a) whether or not stereoscopic display was used and (b) whether or not the perspective display was coupled dynamically to the positions of a user's eyes. Subjects using a comparison protocol consistently preferred head coupling without stereo over stereo without head coupling. Error rates in a tree-tracing task similar to one used by Sollenberger and Milgram showed an order of magnitude improvement for head-coupled stereo over a static (nonhead-coupled) display, and the benefits gained by head coupling were more significant than those gained from stereo alone. The final experiment examined two factors that are often associated with human performance in virtual worlds: the lag (or latency) in receiving and processing tracker data and the rate at which frames are updated. For the tree-tracing task, lag had a larger impact on performance than did frame update rate, with lag having a multiplicative effect on response time. We discuss the relevance of these results for the display of complex 3D data and highlight areas requiring further study.
© All rights reserved Arthur et al. and/or ACM Press
MacKenzie, I. Scott and Ware, Colin (1993): Lag As a Determinant of Human Performance in Interactive Systems. In: Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI 93 1993. pp. 488-493.
Ware, Colin (1993): The Foundations of Experimental Semiotics: a Theory of Sensory and Conventional Representation. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 4 (1) pp. 91-100
Ware, Colin and Knight, William (1992): Orderable Dimensions of Visual Texture Useful for Data Display: Orientation, Size, and Contrast. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 203-209. Available online
Vision research relating to the human perception of texture is briefly reviewed with a view to arriving at the principal dimensions of visual texture useful for data display. The conclusion is that orientation, size (1/spatial frequency), and contrast (amplitude) are the primary orderable dimensions of texture. Data displayed using these texture parameters will be subject to similar distortions to those found when color is used. Textures synthesized using Gabor function primitives can be modulated along the three primary dimensions. Some preliminary results from a study using Gabor functions to modulate luminance are presented which suggest that: perceived texture size difference are approximately logarithmic, a 5% change in texton size is detectable 50% of the time, and large perceived size differences are do not predict small (just noticeable) size differences.
© All rights reserved Ware and Knight and/or ACM Press
Ware, Colin, Bonner, Joseph, Knight, William and Cater, Rod (1992): Moving Icons as a Human Interrupt. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 4 (4) pp. 341-348.
This report describes an experiment designed to test the use of simple linear motion as an attention-getting device for computer displays. The experiment involved two tasks: a primary task that required the typed transcription of a document onto a computer screen, and a secondary task that involved detecting and responding to a moving icon signal. The icon consisted of a rectangular bar that grew and shrank in an oscillatory fashion, as the top edge ascended and descended. The amplitude and the velocity of motion were varied systematically and the effect on response time was measured. The results from this secondary task show that there is an inverse relation between the velocity of the moving icon and the response time. No effect was found for amplitude. The speed of the responses suggests that simple motion is an effective attention-getting device for events in the periphery of the visual field.
© All rights reserved Ware et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Chapman, Dale and Ware, Colin (1992): Manipulating the Future: Predictor Based Deedback for Velocity Control in Virtual Environment Navigation. In: SI3D 1992 1992. pp. 63-66
Ware, Colin and Slipp, Leonard (1991): Using Velocity Control to Navigate 3D Graphical Environments: A Comparison of Three Interfaces. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. pp. 300-304.
Three velocity control interfaces to three dimensional virtual environments are compared. The interface devices are: a six degree of freedom position sensor, a six degree of freedom isometric joystick, and a conventional mouse in conjunction with a soft control panel displayed on the monitor. In each interface the devices are used to control velocity, and all make use of a quadratic function to map the input to the viewpoint velocity. We use two structured exploration tasks to assess the usability of the different interfaces. In the first task an interviewing technique is used in conjunction with an exploration task which involved examining widely spaced details of the 3D scene. The second task is designed to reveal how well users can interact at different scales using the different devices. Subjects are required to navigate through a tube which varies over four orders of magnitude in size. The results show that subject's behavior is highly constrained by the local size of the tube: they maintained a constant velocity relative to the local size of the tube. They also showed differences in the effectiveness of the different devices in determining traversal rate that the positioning device and the control panel were about equally effective for fast navigation, and both are better than the isometric joystick.
© All rights reserved Ware and Slipp and/or Human Factors Society
Ware, Colin and Cowan, William B. (1990): The RGYB Color Geometry. In ACM Transactions on Graphics, 9 (2) pp. 226-232.
Guitard, Richard and Ware, Colin (1990): A Color Sequence Editor. In ACM Transactions on Graphics, 9 (3) pp. 338-341.
Ware, Colin (1990): Using hand position for virtual object placement. In The Visual Computer, 6 (5) pp. 245-253. Available online
Ware, Colin and Baxter, Curtis (1989): Bat Brushes: On the Uses of Six Position and Orientation Parameters in a Paint Program. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 155-160.
A geometry is described for converting hand position and orientation into six useful variables for computer input. The application is that of controlling form and color in an experimental computer "paint" program. We find that the most easily controlled parameters of hand placement are x, y and z cartesian coordinates and a twist parameter which approximates the wrist action that occurs when a dial is turned. The two remaining parameters are horizontal and vertical wrist rotations. In order to capture these it is necessary to correct for the rotation about the elbow which naturally occurs when the hand is translated. However, these two parameters are difficult to control independently of hand translations. Computer paint "brushes" are described which allow the real-time control of size, color and position on the screen using the hand parameters described.
© All rights reserved Ware and Baxter and/or ACM Press
Yang, Siew Hong and Ware, Colin (1989): ESCIM: A system for the investigation of meaningful motion. In: Graphics Interface 89 June 19-23, 1989, London, Ontario, Canada. pp. 9-13.
Fowler, David and Ware, Colin (1989): Strokes for representing univariate vector field maps. In: Graphics Interface 89 June 19-23, 1989, London, Ontario, Canada. pp. 249-253.
Limoges, Serge, Ware, Colin and Knight, William (1989): Displaying correlations using position motion point size or point colour. In: Graphics Interface 89 June 19-23, 1989, London, Ontario, Canada. pp. 262-265.
Lethbridge, Timothy and Ware, Colin (1989): A simple heuristically-based method for expressive Stimulus-Response animation. In Computers & Graphics, 13 (3) pp. 297-303
Ware, Colin and Jessome, Danny R. (1988): Using the BAT: A six dimensional mouse for object placement. In: Graphics Interface 88 June 6-10, 1988, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. pp. 119-124.
Ware, Colin and Mikaelian, Harutune H. (1987): An evaluation of an eye tracker as a device for computer input. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 183-188.
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