Number of co-authors:31
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Denise Nicholson:4Sae Schatz:2Katelyn Procci:2
Clint Bowers's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Eduardo Salas:47Florian Jentsch:33Denise Nicholson:16
Design can be art. Design can be aesthetics. Design is so simple, that's why it is so complicated.
-- Paul Rand, 1997
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Publications by Clint Bowers (bibliography)
Strater, Laura, Clamann, Michael, Kaber, David, Meglan, Dwight, Procci, Katelyn, Bowers, Clint, Andrews, Anya, Ericson, Jonathan, Warren, William H. and Balakrishnan, Bimal (2012): Me and My VE. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 2512-2516.
Virtual environments, simulations and serious games are increasingly being employed for research, training, education, evaluation, and various business endeavors. This session will describe and demonstrate some of the diverse uses for virtual environments (VEs) in an alternate demonstration format. The session will begin with demonstrators providing a brief description of their VE, and how they've used it to answer a critical research question or address a unique need, including a video demonstration of the VE in action. After these introductions, all demonstrations will be set up around the room, and session attendees can move around the room for more direct interaction with both the demonstrations and the demonstrators. The objective of the session is to provoke ideas among the attendees for how VEs, simulations and serious games can help address their research, training, education, evaluation or business needs.
© All rights reserved Strater et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Procci, Katelyn and Bowers, Clint (2011): An Examination of Flow and Immersion in Games. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting 2011. pp. 2183-2187.
The valid assessment of engagement a player of serious games experiences is vital if future research is to focus on the role such a state has in improving learning outcomes. Researchers have attempted to do so by quantifying aspects of flow and immersion. Both constructs are distinctly defined in the literature yet feature a great amount of overlap when applied to the gaming domain to the point where they are often used to describe one-another. This work seeks to examine the ways in which these two constructs converge when assessed by two commonly-used measures, the Dispositional Flow State Scale (DFS-2) and the Immersive Tendencies Questionnaire (ITQ). Not only did we find a surprising lack of conceptual overlap between flow and immersion in this domain using these specific measures, the results suggested that the use of the DFS-2 and ITQ may not be adequate for use in the gaming domain. This pilot study reveals the necessity for a line of research further examining these two constructs and their measurement in gaming.
© All rights reserved Procci and Bowers and/or HFES
Vogel-Walcutt, Jennifer J., Fiore, Stephen, Bowers, Clint and Nicholson, Denise (2009): Embedding Metacognitive Prompts During SBT to Improve Knowledge Acquisition. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 1939-1943.
Changes in battlefield dynamics increasingly require trainees to acquire the rich and deep knowledge necessary to make decisions in complex, novel situations. We investigate how metacognitive prompts during training may support this need by enhancing the acquisition and application of knowledge within a scenario-based training context. The data suggest differential outcomes are dependent upon the type of assessment, with metacognitive supported training producing benefits to measures of knowledge acquisition but hindering performance in a transfer task. These results are discussed in the context of variations in metacognition training and how differing forms of knowledge acquisition are required to better understand the impact of training.
© All rights reserved Vogel-Walcutt et al. and/or their publisher
Schatz, Sae, Bowers, Clint and Nicholson, Denise (2009): Advanced Situated Tutors: Design, Philosophy, and a Review of Existing Systems. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 1944-1948.
"Situated tutors" combine intelligent, adaptive instructional technology with a simulated environment that allows trainees to explore the context, knowledge, applications, and social interactions inherent in the real-world equivalent. However, the situated tutor construct is, as yet, only superficially described. Thus, this paper seeks to add to the academic conceptualization of situated tutors by clearly defining these systems and their features. We go on to define "advanced situated tutors" as the most robust class of situated tutors, and then give examples of such systems.
© All rights reserved Schatz et al. and/or their publisher
Martin, Glenn, Schatz, Sae, Bowers, Clint, Hughes, Charles E., Fowlkes, Jennifer and Nicholson, Denise (2009): Automatic Scenario Generation through Procedural Modeling for Scenario-Based Training. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 1949-1953.
We discuss our current efforts at developing automatic scenario generation software. We begin by explaining the rationale, and then review successful previous efforts. We discuss the lessons-learned from the past work, and the conceptual pieces that are required to generate operationally-valid scenarios that support effective training. We then present the conceptual design of our scenario generation approach, which uses novel procedural modeling approaches to ensure operational and training requirements are adequately met.
© All rights reserved Martin et al. and/or their publisher
Bowers, Clint, Salas, Eduardo and Jentsch, Florian (2006): Creating high-tech teams: Practical guidance on work performance and technology. Washington, DC, APA Books
Stanney, Kay, Samman, Shatha, Reeves, Leah, Hale, Kelly, Buff, Wendi, Bowers, Clint, Goldiez, Brian, Nicholson, Denise and Lackey, Stephanie (2004): Functional Optical Brain Imaging Using Near-Infrared During Cognitive Tasks. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 17 (2) pp. 229-257?.
As technology advances, systems are increasingly able to provide more information than a human operator can process accurately. Thus, a challenge for designers is to create interfaces that allow operators to process the optimal amount of data. It is herein proposed that this may be accomplished by creating multimodal display systems that augment or switch modalities to maximize user information processing. Such a system would ultimately be informed by a user's neurophysiological state. As a first step toward that goal, relevant literature is reviewed and a set of preliminary design guidelines for multimodal information systems is suggested.
© All rights reserved Stanney et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Jentsch, Florian G., Tait, Tamara, Navarro, Guillermo and Bowers, Clint (1995): Differential Effects of Feedback as a Function of Task Distribution in Teams. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting 1995. pp. 1273-1277.
Variables affecting the outcome of cooperative team efforts have garnered increased research attention in recent years. Of these variables, feedback may have one of the greatest effects. Questions, however, remain about what kind of feedback to give and to whom. Previous research has indicated that team members maximize those tasks for which they are given feedback. These gains appear to occur at the expense of other tasks for which no feedback is provided and sometimes result in reduced overall team performance. The current experiment investigated the differential effects of feedback in triads with different task distributions. The results of the study indicated that feedback given to team members who had to complete two tasks simultaneously resulted in tradeoffs: Team members optimized that task for which they received feedback, sometimes at the expense of the competing task. When the team members receiving feedback had no competing tasks, these tradeoffs did not occur. In contrast, feedback in this setup appeared to potentially improve performance not only on the task for which feedback was given, but on the competing task as well. A possible explanation is that in these cases, feedback reduced the communication and coordination demands and freed team resources that could be used to improve other tasks.
© All rights reserved Jentsch et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Thornton, Coleen, Braun, Curt, Bowers, Clint and Morgan, Jr. Ben B. (1992): Automation Effects in the Cockpit: A Low-Fidelity Investigation. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. pp. 30-34.
The effects of automation and task difficulty on flight performance, subjective and objective workload, and a problem solving task were investigated in a low fidelity flight simulator. Forty-eight, two-person crews flew two forty-five minute scenarios that required the crew to select and obtain relief supplies for delivery to a disaster site. Two levels of automation (i.e., presence or absence of an autopilot) and two levels of task difficulty (i.e., presence or absence of wind and turbulence) were combined to yield a 2 x 2 design. Twenty-four crews performed in both levels of automation and one level of task difficulty. Results indicated that although crews in the automated condition reported less subjective workload, only one of the three measures of flight performance was affected by automation. In contrast, objective workload, as measured by performance of a secondary task, was increased for the pilot in the automated condition. In addition, under high task difficulty, problem solving was worse in the automated condition than in the manual condition. The results are discussed in terms of their support of earlier hypothesized effects of automation in the cockpit.
© All rights reserved Thornton et al. and/or Human Factors Society
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