Publication statistics

Pub. period:1989-2011
Pub. count:35
Number of co-authors:36



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

John Karat:20
Jinjuan Feng:7
Carolyn Brodie:6

 

 

Productive colleagues

Clare-Marie Karat's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Andrew Sears:90
Benjamin B. Beders..:70
Susan M. Dray:51
 
 
 
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Clare-Marie Karat

Has also published under the name of:
"C.-M. Karat"

Personal Homepage:
domino.research.ibm.com/comm/research.nsf/pages/d.compsci.clare-marie.html


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Publications by Clare-Marie Karat (bibliography)

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2011
 
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Karat, Clare-Marie and Karat, John (2011): Industrial HCI Research: A Personal and Professional Perspective. In Journal of Usability Studies, 7 (1) pp. 1-8.

2010
 
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Johnson, Maritza, Karat, John, Karat, Clare-Marie and Grueneberg, Keith (2010): Optimizing a policy authoring framework for security and privacy policies. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2010. p. 8.

Policies which address security and privacy are pervasive parts of both technical and social systems, and technology to enable both organizations and individuals to create and manage such policies is seen as a critical need in IT. This paper describes policy authoring as a key component to usable privacy and security systems, and advances the notions of policy templates in a policy management environment in which different roles with different skill sets are seen as important. We discuss existing guidelines and provide support for the addition of new guidelines for usable policy authoring for security and privacy systems. We describe the relationship between general policy templates and specific policies, and the skills necessary to author each of these in a way that produces high-quality policies. We also report on an experiment in which technical users with limited policy experience authored policy templates using a prototype template authoring user interface we developed.

© All rights reserved Johnson et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Sasse, M. Angela, Karat, Clare-Marie and Maxion, Roy (2009): Designing and evaluating usable security and privacy technology. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2009. p. 16.

2008
 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Hochheiser, Harry, Johnson, Jeff, Karat, Clare-Marie and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2008): CHI policy issues around the world. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 2277-2280.

While public policy is a recognized important topic within human-computer interaction, not enough attention has been paid to public policy efforts outside of the USA. We propose a panel at CHI 2008 to focus on CHI policy issues around the world. Specifically, we plan to address at least three major topics: accessibility, privacy, and voting.

© All rights reserved Lazar et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Vaniea, Kami, Karat, Clare-Marie, Gross, Joshua B., Karat, John and Brodie, Carolyn (2008): Evaluating assistance of natural language policy authoring. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2008. pp. 65-73.

The goal of the research study reported here was to investigate policy authors' ability to take descriptions of changes to policy situations and author high-quality, complete policy rules that would parse with high accuracy. As a part of this research, we investigated ways in which we could assist policy authors in writing policies. This paper presents the results of a user study on the effectiveness of providing syntax highlighting in a natural language policy authoring interface. While subjects liked the new interface, they showed no improvement in accuracy when writing rules. We discuss our results in terms of a three phase authoring process that users move through when authoring or modifying policies. We describe this process, discuss why and how our interface failed to support it and make recommendations to designers on how to better support this process.

© All rights reserved Vaniea et al. and/or ACM Press

2007
 
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Reeder, Robert W., Karat, Clare-Marie, Karat, John and Brodie, Carolyn (2007): Usability Challenges in Security and Privacy Policy-Authoring Interfaces. In: Baranauskas, Maria Cecília Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 141-155.

2006
 
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Karat, Clare-Marie, Karat, John, Brodie, Carolyn and Feng, Jinjuan (2006): Evaluating interfaces for privacy policy rule authoring. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 83-92.

Privacy policy rules are often written in organizations by a team of people in different roles. Currently, people in these roles have no technological tools to guide the creation of clear and implementable high-quality privacy policy rules. High-quality privacy rules can be the basis for verifiable automated privacy access decisions. An empirical study was conducted with 36 users who were novices in privacy policy authoring to evaluate the quality of rules created and user satisfaction with two experimental privacy authoring tools and a control condition. Results show that users presented with scenarios were able to author significantly higher quality rules using either the natural language with a privacy rule guide tool or a structured list tool as compared to an unguided natural language control condition. The significant differences in quality were found in both user self-ratings of rule quality and objective quality scores. Users ranked the two experimental tools significantly higher than the control condition. Implications of the research and future research directions are discussed.

© All rights reserved Karat et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Feng, Jinjuan, Sears, Andrew and Karat, Clare-Marie (2006): A longitudinal evaluation of hands-free speech-based navigation during dictation. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64 (6) pp. 553-569.

Despite a reported recognition accuracy rate of 98%, speech recognition technologies have yet to be widely adopted by computer users. When considering hands-free use of speech-based solutions, as is the case for individuals with physical impairments that interfere with the use of traditional solutions such as a mouse, the considerable time required to complete basic navigation tasks presents a significant barrier to adoption. Several solutions were proposed to improve navigation efficiency based on the results of a previous study. In the current study, a longitudinal experiment was conducted to investigate the process by which users learn to use hands-free speech-based navigation in the context of large vocabulary, continuous dictation tasks as well the efficacy of the proposed solutions. Due to the influence initial interactions have on the adoption of speech-based solutions, the current study focused on these critical, initial, interactions of individuals with no prior experience using speech-based dictation solutions. Our results confirm the efficacy of the solutions proposed earlier while providing valuable insights into the strategies users employ when using speech-based navigation commands as well as design decisions that can influence these patterns.

© All rights reserved Feng et al. and/or Academic Press

 
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Brodie, Carolyn A., Karat, Clare-Marie and Karat, John (2006): An empirical study of natural language parsing of privacy policy rules using the SPARCLE policy workbench. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2006. pp. 8-19.

Today organizations do not have good ways of linking their written privacy policies with the implementation of those policies. To assist organizations in addressing this issue, our human-centered research has focused on understanding organizational privacy management needs, and, based on those needs, creating a usable and effective policy workbench called SPARCLE. SPARCLE will enable organizational users to enter policies in natural language, parse the policies to identify policy elements and then generate a machine readable (XML) version of the policy. In the future, SPARCLE will then enable mapping of policies to the organization's configuration and provide audit and compliance tools to ensure that the policy implementation operates as intended. In this paper, we present the strategies employed in the design and implementation of the natural language parsing capabilities that are part of the functional version of the SPARCLE authoring utility. We have created a set of grammars which execute on a shallow parser that are designed to identify the rule elements in privacy policy rules. We present empirical usability evaluation data from target organizational users of the SPARCLE system and highlight the parsing accuracy of the system with the organizations' privacy policies. The successful implementation of the parsing capabilities is an important step towards our goal of providing a usable and effective method for organizations to link the natural language version of privacy policies to their implementation, and subsequent verification through compliance auditing of the enforcement logs.

© All rights reserved Brodie et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Karat, Clare-Marie, Brodie, Carolyn and Karat, John (2006): Usable privacy and security for personal information management. In Communications of the ACM, 49 (1) pp. 56-57.

2005
 
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Feng, Jinjuan, Karat, Clare-Marie and Sears, Andrew (2005): How productivity improves in hands-free continuous dictation tasks: lessons learned from a longitudinal study. In Interacting with Computers, 17 (3) pp. 265-289.

Speech recognition technology continues to improve, but users still experience significant difficulty using the software to create and edit documents. The reported composition speed using speech software is only between 8 and 15 words per minute [Proc CHI 99 (1999) 568; Universal Access Inform Soc 1 (2001) 4], much lower than people's normal speaking speed of 125-150 words per minute. What causes the huge gap between natural speaking and composing using speech recognition? Is it possible to narrow the gap and make speech recognition more promising to users? In this paper we discuss users' learning processes and the difficulties they experience as related to continuous dictation tasks using state of the art Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) software. Detailed data was collected for the first time on various aspects of the three activities involved in document composition tasks: dictation, navigation, and correction. The results indicate that navigation and error correction accounted for big chunk of the dictation task during the early stages of interaction. As users gained more experience, they became more efficient at dictation, navigation and error correction. However, the major improvements in productivity were due to dictation quality and the usage of navigation commands. These results provide insights regarding the factors that cause the gap between user expectation with speech recognition software and the reality of use, and how those factors changed with experience. Specific advice is given to researchers as to the most critical issues that must be addressed.

© All rights reserved Feng et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Karat, John, Karat, Clare-Marie, Brodie, Carolyn and Feng, Jinjuan (2005): Privacy in information technology: Designing to enable privacy policy management in organizations. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 63 (1) pp. 153-174.

As information technology continues to spread, we believe that there will be an increasing awareness of a fundamental need to address privacy concerns, and that doing so will require an understanding of policies that govern information use accompanied by development of technologies that can implement such policies. The research reported here describes our efforts to design a system which facilitates privacy policy authoring, implementation, and compliance monitoring. We employed a variety of user-centered design methods with 109 target users across the four steps of the research reported here. This case study highlights the work of identifying organizational privacy requirements, iteratively designing and validating a prototype with target users, and conducting laboratory tests to guide specific design decisions to meet the needs of providing flexible privacy enabling technologies. Each of the four steps in our work is identified and described, and directions for future work in privacy are suggested.

© All rights reserved Karat et al. and/or Academic Press

 
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Dray, Susan M., Karat, Clare-Marie, Rosenberg, Daniel, Siegel, David A. and Wixon, Dennis (2005): Is ROI an effective approach for persuading decision-makers of the value of user-centered design?. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1168-1169.

This panel examines the utility and effectiveness of various ways of making the business case for user-centered design (UCD). Most of the discussion in our field has assumed that measuring and demonstrating ROI for usability is the key to this effort. However, experience shows that the most brilliant ROI analysis may not win the day in the real world of business. Our panelists range from people who claim that ROI is an important persuasive tool as long as the communication about ROI is happening within a healthy business relationship, to people who claim that a focus on ROI can actually be destructive. We also explore the idea that there are important business contexts where ROI simply does not fit. Through the presentations by the panelists and through discussion of a business case scenario, we explore some alternatives to ROI in making the business case for user-centered design.

© All rights reserved Dray et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Bederson, Benjamin B., Hochheiser, Harry, Johnson, Jeff and Karat, Clare-Marie (2005): Making an impact in your community: HCI and US public policy. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2041-2042.

 
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Karat, John, Karat, Clare-Marie, Brodie, C. and Feng, J. (2005): Designing Natural Language and Structured Entry Methods for Privacy Policy Authoring. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT05: Human-Computer Interaction 2005. pp. 671-684.

As information technology continues to spread, we believe that there will be an increasing awareness of a fundamental need to seriously consider privacy concerns, and that doing so will require an understanding of policies that govern information use accompanied by development of technologies that can implement such policies. The research reported here describes our efforts to design a system which facilitates effective privacy policy authoring, implementation, and compliance monitoring. We employed a variety of user-centered design methods with 109 target users across the four steps of the research reported here. This case study highlights our work to iteratively design and validate a prototype with target users, and presents a laboratory evaluation aimed at providing early support for specific design decisions to meet the needs of providing flexible privacy enabling technologies. This paper highlights our work to include natural language and structured entry methods for policy authoring.

© All rights reserved Karat et al. and/or Springer Verlag

 
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Brodie, Carolyn, Karat, Clare-Marie, Karat, John and Feng, Jinjuan (2005): Usable security and privacy: a case study of developing privacy management tools. In: Proceedings of the 2005 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2005. pp. 35-43.

Privacy is a concept which received relatively little attention during the rapid growth and spread of information technology through the 1980's and 1990's. Design to make information easily accessible, without particular attention to issues such as whether an individual had a desire or right to control access to and use of particular information was seen as the more pressing goal. We believe that there will be an increasing awareness of a fundamental need to address privacy concerns in information technology, and that doing so will require an understanding of policies that govern information use as well as the development of technologies that can implement such policies. The research reported here describes our efforts to design a privacy management workbench which facilitates privacy policy authoring, implementation, and compliance monitoring. This case study highlights the work of identifying organizational privacy requirements, analyzing existing technology, on-going research to identify approaches that address these requirements, and iteratively designing and validating a prototype with target users for flexible privacy technologies.

© All rights reserved Brodie et al. and/or ACM Press

2004
 
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Karat, Clare-Marie, Blom, Jan O. and Karat, John (eds.) (2004): Designing Personalized User Experiences in eCommerce. Springer-Verlag

2003
 
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Sears, Andrew, Feng, Jinhuan, Oseitutu, Kwesi and Karat, Clare-Marie (2003): Hands-Free, Speech-Based Navigation During Dictation: Difficulties, Consequences, and Solutions. In Human-Computer Interaction, 18 (3) pp. 229-257.

Speech recognition technology continues to improve, but users still experience significant difficulty using the software to create and edit documents. In fact, a recent study confirmed that users spent 66% of their time on correction activities and only 33% on dictation. Of particular interest is the fact that one third of the users' time was spent simply navigating from one location to another. In this article, we investigate the efficacy of hands-free, speech-based navigation in the context of dictation-oriented activities. We provide detailed data regarding failure rates, reasons for failures, and the consequences of these failures. Our results confirm that direction-oriented navigation (e.g., Move up two lines) is less effective than target-oriented navigation (e.g. Select target). We identify the three most common reasons behind the failure of speech-based navigation commands: recognition errors, issuing of invalid commands, and pausing in the middle of issuing a command. We also document the consequences of failed speech-based navigation commands. As a result of this analysis, we identify changes that will reduce failure rates and lessen the consequences of some remaining failures. We also propose a more substantial set of changes to simplify direction-based navigation and enhance the target-based navigation. The efficacy of this final set of recommendations must be evaluated through future empirical studies.

© All rights reserved Sears et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

2001
 
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Karat, Clare-Marie, Pinhanez, C., Karat, John, Arora, R. and Vergo, J. (2001): Less Clicking, More Watching: Results of the Iterative Design and Evaluation of Entertaining Web Experiences. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 455-463.

 
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Sears, Andrew, Karat, Clare-Marie, Oseitutu, Kwesi, Karimullah, Azfar and Feng, Jinjuan (2001): Productivity, satisfaction, and interaction strategies of individuals with spinal cord injuries and traditional users interacting with speech recognition software. In Universal Access in the Information Society, 1 (1) pp. 4-15.

Speech recognition is an important technology that is becoming increasingly effective for dictation-oriented activities. While recognition accuracy has increased dramatically in recent years, recent studies confirm that traditional computer users are still faster using a keyboard and mouse and spend more time correcting errors than dictating. Further, as these users become more experienced they frequently adopt multimodal strategies that require the keyboard and mouse when correcting errors. While speech recognition can be a convenient alternative for traditional computer users, it can be a powerful tool for individuals with physical disabilities that limit their ability to use a keyboard and mouse. However, research into the performance, satisfaction, and usage patterns of individuals with physical disabilities has not been reported. In this article, we report on a study that provides initial insights into the efficacy of existing speech recognition systems with respect to individuals with physical disabilities. Our results confirm that productivity does not differ between traditional users and those with physical disabilities. In contrast, numerous differences were observed when users rated their satisfaction with the system and when usage patterns were analyzed.

© All rights reserved Sears et al. and/or Springer Verlag

 
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Oseitutu, Kwesi, Feng, Jinjuan, Sears, Andrew and Karat, Clare-Marie (2001): Speech recognition for data entry by individuals with spinal cord injuries. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) HCI International 2001 - Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 5-10, 2001, New Orleans, USA. pp. 402-406.

2000
 
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Karat, John, Karat, Clare-Marie and Ukelson, Jacob P. (2000): The human element: affordances, motivation, and the design of user interfaces. In Communications of the ACM, 43 (8) pp. 49-51.

1999
 
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Karat, Clare-Marie, Halverson, Christine, Karat, John and Horn, Daniel (1999): Patterns of Entry and Correction in Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition Systems. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 568-575.

A study was conducted to evaluate user performance and satisfaction in completion of a set of text creation tasks using three commercially available continuous speech recognition systems. The study also compared user performance on similar tasks using keyboard input. One part of the study (Initial Use) involved 24 users who enrolled, received training and carried out practice tasks, and then completed a set of transcription and composition tasks in a single session. In a parallel effort (Extended Use), four researchers used speech recognition to carry out real work tasks over 10 sessions with each of the three speech recognition software products. This paper presents results from the Initial Use phase of the study along with some preliminary results from the Extended Use phase. We present details of the kinds of usability and system design problems likely in current systems and several common patterns of error correction that we found.

© All rights reserved Karat et al. and/or ACM Press

1998
 
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Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Joëlle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California.

 
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Karat, Clare-Marie (1998): Guaranteeing Rights for the User. In Communications of the ACM, 41 (12) pp. 29-31.

1997
 
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Karat, John and Karat, Clare-Marie (1997): Future Ethics. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 29 (1) pp. 4-6.

 
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Karat, Clare-Marie (1997): Report on the Financial Status of ACM SIGCHI. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 29 (1) pp. 79-80.

1996
 
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Karat, John and Karat, Clare-Marie (1996): Perspectives on Design and Internationalization. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 28 (1) pp. 39-40.

1993
 
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Karat, John and Karat, Clare-Marie (1993): Understanding the International Community and Their Concerns. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 25 (2) p. 7.

 
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Karat, John and Karat, Clare-Marie (1993): A Human Interface Society Abroad. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 25 (4) p. 12.

1992
 
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Karat, Clare-Marie, Campbell, Robert and Fiegel, Tarra (1992): Comparison of Empirical Testing and Walkthrough Methods in User Interface Evaluation. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 397-404.

We investigated the relative effectiveness of empirical usability testing and individual and team walkthrough methods in identifying usability problems in two graphical user interface office systems. The findings were replicated across the two systems and show that the empirical testing condition identified the largest number of problems, and identified a significant number of relatively severe problems that were missed by the walkthrough conditions. Team walkthroughs achieved better results than individual walkthroughs in some areas. About a third of the significant usability problems identified were common across all methods. Cost-effectiveness data show that empirical testing required the same or less time to identify each problem when compared to walkthroughs.

© All rights reserved Karat et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Karat, Clare-Marie and Karat, John (1992): Some Dialogue on Scenarios. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 24 (4) p. 7.

1990
 
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Karat, Clare-Marie (1990): Cost-Benefit Analysis of Iterative Usability Testing. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 351-356.

A methodology for computing the value of iterative usability work is presented using data from a series of three usability tests of a software application. The cost-benefit analysis methodology provides software development managers a basis for making pragmatic decisions about human factors work. The projected dollar value of the reduction in end user time on an application task based on data from the first to the third test is compared to the costs of the usability work. The analysis of initial end user application use shows a two dollar return on every dollar invested in usability project activities and highlights sources of additional savings. Two methodological techniques employed during the iterative usability testing are highlighted and the decision process concerning use of these techniques for human factors, software development schedule, and economic reasons is discussed.

© All rights reserved Karat and/or North-Holland

 
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Karat, Clare-Marie (1990): Cost-Benefit Analysis of Usability Engineering Techniques. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 839-843.

A methodology for computing the value of iterative usability work is presented using data from a series of three usability tests of each of two software applications. The cost-benefit analysis methodology provides software development managers a basis for making pragmatic decisions about human factors work. The projected dollar value of the reduction in end user time on an application task based on data from the first to the third test is compared to the costs of the usability work. The analysis shows a 2:1 dollar savings-to-cost ratio for a relatively small development project and a 100:1 savings-to-cost ratio for a large development project. Sources of additional savings are examined. Methodological techniques employed during the iterative usability testing are highlighted and the tradeoffs concerning use of these techniques for human factors, software development schedule, and economic reasons are discussed. Cost-benefit analysis is one of several mechanisms that generate product management support for human factors work and may facilitate a better understanding of the value of incorporating human factors work in software development.

© All rights reserved Karat and/or Human Factors Society

1989
 
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Karat, Clare-Marie (1989): Iterative Usability Testing of a Security Application. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. pp. 273-277.

This paper reports the results of three iterative usability tests of a security application as it evolved through the application development process and highlights the use of several methodological techniques: 1) reusable color foil prototypes of application panels as an alternative to developing online prototypes during short development cycles, 2) field tests as a complement to laboratory tests, 3) iterative testing of an evolving prototype, and 4) analysis of dollar value of usability work. The techniques used represent an attempt to apply usability engineering to system design (Whiteside, Bennett, and Holtzblatt; 1988) and to provide management with a dollar value estimate of human factors work (Mantei, 1988). Significant improvements in end user performance and satisfaction occurred across the three iterative tests (field prototype test, laboratory prototype test, and laboratory integration test) conducted across 7 months with 27 participants. The product usability objective was met during the third test. By using the reusable foil prototypes of the interface panels, usability staff were able to efficiently and effectively identify problems, make design changes, and retest the panels. The field test furnished unique data necessary to understanding end user issues. Iterative testing provided the opportunity to test the impact of changes made to the interface and a reliability check on previous results. The methodology for computing the value of usability work provided a feasible way of analyzing the cost benefit of the human factors work.

© All rights reserved Karat and/or Human Factors Society

 
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Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/clare-marie_karat.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1989-2011
Pub. count:35
Number of co-authors:36



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

John Karat:20
Jinjuan Feng:7
Carolyn Brodie:6

 

 

Productive colleagues

Clare-Marie Karat's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Andrew Sears:90
Benjamin B. Beders..:70
Susan M. Dray:51
 
 
 
Jul 12

To design an easy-to-use interface, pay attention to what users do, not what they say. Self-reported claims are unreliable, as are user speculations about future behavior.

-- Jakob Nielsen

 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

Kumar and Herger 2013: Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software...
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger

 
Start reading

Whitworth and Ahmad 2013: The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities...
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad

 
Start reading

Soegaard and Dam 2013: The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed....
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam

 
Start reading
 
 

Help us help you!