Number of co-authors:22
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Peggy Wu:3Raja Parasuraman:2Vanessa Vakili:1
Christopher A. Miller's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Raja Parasuraman:26Mark T. Maybury:23Angel R. Puerta:18
To design an easy-to-use interface, pay attention to what users do, not what they say. Self-reported claims are unreliable, as are user speculations about future behavior.
-- Jakob Nielsen
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Christopher A. Miller
Publications by Christopher A. Miller (bibliography)
Miller, Christopher A., Shaw, Tyler, Emfield, Adam, Hamell, Joshua, deVisser, Ewart, Parasuraman, Raja and Musliner, David (2011): Delegating to Automation: Performance, Complacency and Bias Effects under Non-Optimal Conditions. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting 2011. pp. 95-99.
We have advocated adaptable automation approaches -- those in which the human retains the role of instructing and tasking -- and specifically have used the metaphor of a sports team's "playbook". Several prior experiments have shown benefits to flexible play calling, so the present work focuses on performance in "non-optimal play environments" (NOPEs) where the defined plays are a poor fit resulting in a need to either modify them dynamically (provide additional instruction) or to abandon play-level automation and resort to more manual levels of control. We might expect that prolonged play usage under optimal conditions would result in automation complacency effects and even loss of training. In two reported experiments, we find little evidence for complacency effects and, instead, show that having access to plays sometimes provides benefits even during NOPE intervals where they were not (directly) useful.
© All rights reserved Miller et al. and/or HFES
Miller, Christopher A., Ott, Tammy, Wu, Peggy and Vakili, Vanessa (2010): Politeness Effects in Directive Compliance: Effects with Power and Social Distance. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 487-491.
We present a theory of perceived politeness and its sociological functions derived from the work of Brown and Levinson (1987) and then extend that theory toward a cognitive model of politeness and its effects on human decision making. We then report the results of an experiment in which participants' directive compliance behaviors and attitudes are examined under conditions varying the amount of politeness or rudeness used and the power or familiarity relationship between the participant and the directive giver. Results show significant impacts of politeness on a variety of directive compliance behaviors, and show accuracy for predicting the relationship of Social Distance on perceived politeness and directive compliance. Predictions about the role of Power relationships were generally not as effective.
© All rights reserved Miller et al. and/or HFES
Miller, Christopher A., Rye, Jeffrey M. and Wu, Peggy (2010): Reasoning about Information Needs vs. Information Conveyed: Computational Design, Evaluation and Consistency Analysis. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 640-644.
We previously developed a core representation for computationally comparing the information an operator needs to perform a task and the information provided by a user interface. This representation is based on information theoretic properties, thus it can be applied to a wide variety of work domains and information and display types. In prior work, we used this capability to dynamically and automatically reconfigure cockpit displays for military cockpits. More recently, we adapted this approach to the task of evaluating and critiquing display format designs for NASA's space operations. The representation and reasoning approach generalizes well to describing information types in procedural domains and the tool can analyze sets of display formats for sets of procedures, propose format improvements against a procedure set, project how changes to procedures will affect the suitability of existing formats, and project how changes to formats will improve or reduce their suitability for given procedures. Most recently, we have proposed extensions to evaluate and support "configuration consistency" of interfaces, within a system over time, across systems and even across vehicles and their associated work domains.
© All rights reserved Miller et al. and/or HFES
Miller, Christopher A., Wu, Peggy, Engstrom, Eric, Rye, Jeff, Ferguson-Walter, Kimberly and Schreckenghost, Debra (2009): A Multi-model Aid for Interface Design (MAID): Helping Designers Reason about Information Match. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 1497-1501.
We previously developed a core representation for describing the information a human needs to perform a task and the information provided by a user interface. This representation is highly abstract and is based on information theoretic properties, thus it can be applied to a wide variety of work domains and information and display types. Since information need and information conveyed are described in the same numerical scales, it is straightforward to compute a degree of match between them. In prior work, we used this capability to dynamically and automatically reconfigure cockpit displays for military cockpits. In recent work, however, we adapted this approach to the task of evaluating and critiquing display format designs to support procedure execution in the context of NASA's space operations. The representation and reasoning approach generalizes well to describing information types in procedural domains. The resulting tool can be used to (a) analyze a proposed display format for a given task, (b) propose a format for a given task, (c) project how changes to a procedure will affect the suitability of a previous format, and (d) project how changes to a format will improve or reduce its suitability for a given procedure.
© All rights reserved Miller et al. and/or their publisher
Miller, Christopher A. (2004): Introduction. In Communications of the ACM, 47 (4) pp. 30-34.
Parasuraman, Raja and Miller, Christopher A. (2004): Trust and etiquette in high-criticality automated systems. In Communications of the ACM, 47 (4) pp. 51-55.
Miller, Christopher A. (2000): Intelligent User Interfaces for Correspondence Domains: Moving IUIs Off the Desktop. In: Lieberman, Henry (ed.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2000 January 9-12, 2000, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. pp. 181-186.
The Intelligent User Interfaces (IUIs) conference has grown to become the premier venue for presenting research on the applications of artificial intelligence to human interface design and operation. There is, however, a serious limitation to the IUI conference as it has existed to date. The vast majority of the work which has been presented and discussed at the previous IUI conferences has concerned what might be called "desktop" applications. That is, things an average person would do sitting at a desktop PC connected to the Web -- applications which involve web browsing, library search, document preparation, etc. Such applications are fascinating and challenging, but they represent only a portion of the full body of work going on under the general heading of intelligent user interfaces. There is a long history of 'off the desktop' IUIs -- far longer, in fact, than that of 'desktop' IUIs -- and much ongoing research in this field which bears interesting similarities and differences to the type of work typically reported at IUI. The purpose of this panel will be to introduce IUI participants to this alternate body of research and to, hopefully, begin the process of expanding the focus of the IUI conference so that it fully reflects the range of research being done in IUIs.
© All rights reserved Miller and/or ACM Press
Miller, Christopher A. and Hannen, Matthew D. (1999): User Acceptance of an Intelligent User Interface: A Rotorcraft Pilot's Associate Example. In: Maybury, Mark T. (ed.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 1999 January 5-8, 1999, Redondo Beach, California, USA. pp. 109-116.
The U.S. Army's Rotorcraft Pilot's Associate (RPA) program is developing an advanced, intelligent "associate" system for flight demonstration in a future attack/scout helicopter. A significant RPA component is the intelligent user interface known as the Cockpit Information Manager (CIM). This paper describes the high level architecture of the CIM, with emphasis on its pilot-perceptible behaviors: Crew Intent Estimation, Page Selection, Symbol Selection/Declutter, Intelligent Window Location, Automated Pan and Zoom, and Task Allocation. We then present the subjective results of recent full mission simulation studies using the CIM to illustrate pilots' attitudes toward these behaviors and their perceived effectiveness.
© All rights reserved Miller and Hannen and/or ACM Press
Miller, Christopher A., Pelican, Michael and Goldman, Robert (1999): A High-Level "Tasking" Interface for Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicles. In: Maybury, Mark T. (ed.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 1999 January 5-8, 1999, Redondo Beach, California, USA. p. 197.
Miller, Christopher A. (1999): Bridging the Information Transfer Gap: Measuring Goodness of Information Fit. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 10 (4) pp. 523-558.
Miller, Christopher A., Corker, Kevin M., Maybury, Mark T. and Puerta, Angel R. (1997): Computational Approaches to Interface Design: What Works, What Doesn't, What Should and What Might. In: Moore, Johanna D., Edmonds, Ernest and Puerta, Angel R. (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 1997 January 6-9, 1997, Orlando, Florida, USA. pp. 123-126.
Tools which make use of computational processes -- mathematical, algorithmic and/or knowledge-based -- to perform portions of the design, evaluation and/or construction of interfaces have become increasingly available and powerful. Nevertheless, there is little agreement as to the appropriate role for a computational tool to play in the interface design process. Current tools fall into broad classes depending on which portions, and how much, of the design process they automate. The purpose of this panel is to view and generalize about computational approaches developed to date, discuss the tasks which for which they are suited, and suggest methods to enhance their utility and acceptance. Panel participants represent a wide diversity of application domains and methodologies. This should provide for lively discussion about implementation approaches, accuracy of design decisions, acceptability of representational tradeoffs and the optimal role for a computational tool to play in the interface design process.
© All rights reserved Miller et al. and/or ACM Press
Miller, Christopher A. and Morton, Blaise (1994): A Singular Value Decomposition Approach to Information Presentation Format Optimization. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. pp. 85-89.
Glass cockpits pose a novel problem in Information Presentation Format (IPF) optimization since they invariably carry more formats than they can present any given time. In addition to optimizing individual formats and the static layout of sets of formats for information presentation, designers must now concern themselves with optimizing the overall set of formats from which a subset is drawn for presentation at any given time. Fortunately, quantitative knowledge representations and reasoning techniques, deriving primarily from research in the Pilot's Associate programs, enable the use of sophisticated mathematical analysis techniques for addressing this problem quickly and easily. We present initial work on the use of Singular Value Decomposition techniques for analyzing the "fit" between the information presenting capabilities of a set of IPFs and the information needs of a set of piloting tasks and show how this technique can be used to provide design recommendations for the global set of IPFs available for presentation in the cockpit.
© All rights reserved Miller and Morton and/or Human Factors Society
Miller, Christopher A. and Larson, Raymond (1992): An Explanatory and "Argumentative" Interface for a Model-Based Diagnostic System. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 43-52.
That intelligent systems need an explanatory capability if they are to aid or support human users has long been understood. A system which can justify its decisions generally obtains improved user trust, greater accuracy in use and offers embedded training potential. Extensive work has been done to provide rule-based systems with explanatory interfaces, but little has been done to provide the same benefits for model-based systems. We develop an approach to organizing the presentation of large amounts of model-based data in an interactive format patterned after a model of human-human explanatory and argumentative discourse. Portions of this interface were implemented for Honeywell's model-based Flight Control Maintenance and Diagnostic System (FCMDS). We conclude that sufficient information exists in a model-based system to provide a wide range of explanation types, and that, the discourse approach is a convenient, powerful and broadly applicable method of organizing and controlling information exchange involving this data.
© All rights reserved Miller and Larson and/or ACM Press
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