Publication statistics

Pub. period:1991-2011
Pub. count:45
Number of co-authors:61



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Paul Luff:32
Jon Hindmarsh:12
Hideaki Kuzuoka:8

 

 

Productive colleagues

Christian Heath's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Steve Benford:121
Tom Rodden:106
Abigail Sellen:81
 
 
 
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Christian Heath

Picture of Christian Heath.
Has also published under the name of:
"C. C. Heath" and "C. Heath"

Personal Homepage:
kcl.ac.uk/sspp/departments/management/people/academic/heath.aspx


Christian Heath is Professor of Work and Organisation and leads the Work, Interaction and Technology Research Centre. He specializes in video-based studies of social interaction, drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, with a particular interest in the interplay of talk, bodily conduct and the use of tools and technologies. He is currently undertaking projects on auctions and markets, medical consultations and operating theatres, and museums and galleries. These projects are funded by the UK research councils and the IST Programmes of the European Union. A number of these projects also involve the design and development of advanced technologies including for example media spaces, trust systems, and tools to interweave paper and digital documents. These projects involve close collaboration with academic, private and public sector organisations in the UK and abroad. He has published eight books and more than hundred academic articles in journals and books and is co-editor of the book series Learning and Doing (Cambridge University Press). He has held positions at the Universities of Manchester, Surrey, and Nottingham and visiting positions at various Universities and industrial research laboratories in the UK and abroad. He currently serves on various School, College and external committees including the ESRC Information and Communications Committee. He is an Academician of the Learned Societies in the Social Sciences (AcSS).

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Publications by Christian Heath (bibliography)

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2011
 
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Luff, Paul, Yamashita, Naomi, Kuzuoka, Hideaki and Heath, Christian (2011): Hands on hitchcock: embodied reference to a moving scene. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 43-52.

In this paper we report on some experiments with a high fidelity media space, t-Room, an immersive system that presents full scale, real-time images of co-participants who are in similar spaces many miles apart. Although being designed to provide a coherent environment for interaction the system introduces a number of incongruities, both in time and space. Drawing on some quasi-naturalistic experiments, where the participants were required to analyse complex data, we consider how the participants manage these incongruities. We conclude by briefly discussing the resources people utilize to produce and recognize conduct in embodied spaces.

© All rights reserved Luff et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Heath, Christian, Luff, Paul, Lehn, Dirk vom, Yamashita, Jun and Kuzuoka, Hideaki (2009): Enhancing remote participation in live auctions: an 'intelligent' gavel. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1427-1436.

Auctions, both traditional and electronic, are a pervasive social organisation for the valuation and exchange of goods and services. Despite the long-standing interest in integrating internet contributions into the more traditional auction such initiatives have remained problematic. We consider the organization of interaction of sales of fine art and antiques and develop a prototype 'intelligent' gavel system that is designed to enhance remote participation and ease the flexible ways in which internet contributions are legitimately integrated into live auctions. We present the findings of a quasi-naturalistic experiment involving the use of the system by auctioneers and its consequences for the general development of technologies to support internet participation in live co-located events.

© All rights reserved Heath et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Yamazaki, Keiichi, Yamazaki, Akiko, Okada, Mai, Kuno, Yoshinori, Kobayashi, Yoshinori, Hoshi, Yosuke, Pitsch, Karola, Luff, Paul, Lehn, Dirk vom and Heath, Christian (2009): Revealing gauguin: engaging visitors in robot guide's explanation in an art museum. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1437-1446.

Designing technologies that support the explanation of museum exhibits is a challenging domain. In this paper we develop an innovative approach -- providing a robot guide with resources to engage visitors in an interaction about an art exhibit. We draw upon ethnographical fieldwork in an art museum, focusing on how tour guides interrelate talk and visual conduct, specifically how they ask questions of different kinds to engage and involve visitors in lengthy explanations of an exhibit. From this analysis we have developed a robot guide that can coordinate its utterances and body movement to monitor the responses of visitors to these. Detailed analysis of the interaction between the robot and visitors in an art museum suggests that such simple devices derived from the study of human interaction might be useful in engaging visitors in explanations of complex artifacts.

© All rights reserved Yamazaki et al. and/or ACM Press

2008
 
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Kuzuoka, Hideaki, Pitsch, Karola, Suzuki, Yuya, Kawaguchi, Ikkaku, Yamazaki, Keiichi, Yamazaki, Akiko, Kuno, Yoshinori, Luff, Paul and Heath, Christian (2008): Effect of restarts and pauses on achieving a state of mutual orientation between a human and a robot. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 201-204.

In this paper we consider the development of a museum guide robot that has both autonomous and remotely controlled features. We focus on the capabilities such a robot could have to help focus the attention of a visitor on an object or artefact. Inspired by studies of social interaction, which investigate whether the robot could deploy "restarts" and "pauses" at certain moments in its talk to first elicit the visitor's attention/gaze towards the robot. We report an experiment where we deployed such a robot to interact with real visitors to a science museum. These experiments show that such a strategy does seem to have a significant impact on obtaining the visitor's gaze.

© All rights reserved Kuzuoka et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Luff, Paul, Heath, Christian and Svensson, Marcus Sanchez (2008): Discriminating Conduct: Deploying Systems to Support Awareness in Organizations. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 24 (4) pp. 410-436.

Alongside the emergence of the use of fieldwork studies for design there has been a discussion on how best these studies can inform system development. Concerns have been expressed as to whether their most appropriate contribution is a list of requirements or design recommendations. This article explores a recurrent issue that has emerged from fieldwork studies in Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, awareness, and with respect to a particular system development project discusses some of the implications for the development and deployment of one particular kind of technology -- image recognition systems -- in particular, organizational settings. In the setting in question -- surveillance centers or operations rooms -- staff utilize a range of practices to maintain awareness. Rather than extending field studies so that they can better assist design, it may be considered how workplace studies can contribute to a respecification of key concepts, like awareness, that are critical to an understanding of how technologies are used and deployed in everyday environments.

© All rights reserved Luff et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

2007
 
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Lehn, Dirk vom, Hindmarsh, Jon, Luff, Paul and Heath, Christian (2007): Engaging constable: revealing art with new technology. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1485-1494.

Museums increasingly deploy new technologies to enhance visitors' experience of their exhibitions. They primarily rely on touch-screen computer systems, PDAs and digital audio-guides. Tate Britain recently employed two innovative systems in one of their major exhibitions of John Constable's work; a gestural interface and a touch-screen panel, both connected to large projection screens. This paper reports on the analysis of video-recordings and field observations of visitors' action and interaction. It explores how people interact with and around the systems, how they configure the space around the installation and how they examine and discover their properties. It suggests that designers of interfaces and installations developed for museum exhibitions face particular challenges, such as the transparency of the relationship between people's actions and the system' response, the provision of opportunities for individual and collaborative experiences and the interweaving of technological and aesthetic experiences.

© All rights reserved Lehn et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Luff, Paul, Adams, Guy, Bock, Wolfgang, Drazin, Adam, Frohlich, David M., Heath, Christian, Herdman, Peter, King, Heather, Linketscher, Nadja, Murphy, Rachel, Norrie, Moira C. and Sellen, Abigail (2007): Augmented Paper: Developing Relationships between Digital Content and Paper. In: (ed.). "The Disappearing Computer: Interaction Design, System Infrastructures and Applications for Smart Environments, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 4500". Springer

 
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Svensson, Marcus Sanchez, Heath, Christian and Luff, Paul (2007): Instrumental action: the timely exchange of implements during surgical operations. In: Proceedings of the Tenth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2007. pp. 41-60.

In this paper we analyse an apparently simple collaborative activity, that of passing an implement from one person to another. The particular case we consider is surgical operations where nurses and surgeons routinely pass instruments to one another. Through fine-grained analysis of specific instances we address, the preparatory work engaged in prior to passing, the ways in which the layout of artefacts is organised with respect to the temporal ordering of the activity, and how this arrangement can be reconfigured in the light of problems and circumstances that arise in an operation. We examine how passing an implement is finely shaped within the course of its articulation with regard to emerging actions of the participants. We suggest that an analysis of fine details of seemingly simple activities with objects may have implications for our understanding of collaborative work, and a one or two key concepts that have informed the design of advanced solutions.

© All rights reserved Svensson et al. and/or Springer

2006
 
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Luff, Paul, Heath, Christian, Kuzuoka, Hideaki, Yamazaki, Keiichi and Yamashita, Jun (2006): Handling documents and discriminating objects in hybrid spaces. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 561-570.

Clarified descriptions of technology and fragments including changes to figures. Added points concerning the scope of the technology the conception of sequence and clarified the requirement regarding redundancy. Revised descriptions of fragments in an attempt to make these less dense Corrected several typographic errors including those mentioned by the reviewers' gesture.

© All rights reserved Luff et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Fraser, Mike, Hindmarsh, Jon, Best, Katie, Heath, Christian, Biegel, Greg, Greenhalgh, Chris and Reeves, Stuart (2006): Remote Collaboration Over Video Data: Towards Real-Time e-Social Science. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 15 (4) pp. 257-279.

The design of distributed systems to support collaboration among groups of scientists raises new networking challenges that grid middleware developers are addressing. This field of development work, 'e-Science', is increasingly recognising the critical need of understanding the ordinary day-to-day work of doing research to inform design. We have investigated one particular area of collaborative social scientific work -- the analysis of video data. Based on interviews and observational studies, we discuss current practices of social scientific work with digital video in three areas: Preparation for collaboration; Control of data and application; and Annotation configurations and techniques. For each, we describe how these requirements feature in our design of a distributed video analysis system as part of the MiMeG project: our security policy and distribution; the design of the control system; and providing freeform annotation over data. Finally, we review our design in light of initial use of the software between project partners; and discuss how we might transform the spatial configuration of the system to support annotation behaviour.

© All rights reserved Fraser et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

2005
 
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Hindmarsh, Jon, Heath, Christian, Lehn, Dirk vom and Cleverly, Jason (2005): Creating Assemblies in Public Environments: Social Interaction, Interactive Exhibits and CSCW. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 14 (1) pp. 1-41.

This paper examines the use of a series of three low tech interactive assemblies that have been exhibited by the authors in a range of fairs, expositions and galleries. The paper does not present novel technical developments, but rather uses the low tech assemblies to help scope out the design space for CSCW in museums and galleries and to investigate the ways in which people collaboratively encounter and explore technological exhibits in museums and galleries. The bulk of the paper focuses on the analysis of the use of one interactive installation that was exhibited at the Sculpture, Objects and Functional Art (SOFA) Exposition in Chicago, USA. The study uses audio-visual recordings of interaction with and around the work to consider how people, in and through their interaction with others, make sense of an assembly of traditional objects and video technologies. The analysis focuses on the organised practices of assembly and how assembling the relationship between different parts of the work is interactionally accomplished. The analysis is then used to develop a series of design sensitivities to inform the development of technological assemblies to engender informal interaction and sociability in museums and galleries.

© All rights reserved Hindmarsh et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Bannon, Liam J., Benford, Steve, Bowers, John and Heath, Christian (2005): Hybrid design creates innovative museum experiences. In Communications of the ACM, 48 (3) pp. 62-65.

 
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Lehn, Dirk vom and Heath, Christian (2005): Accounting for new technology in museum exhibitions. In International Journal of Arts Management, 7 (3) pp. 11-21.

Museums of fine and decorative art are increasingly introducing computer-based interpretation devices such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and information kiosks into their exhibitions. Museum managers hope that such new technology will help raise visitor numbers, attract new audiences and enhance visitors' experience of exhibits. Yet we know little about whether museums' investment in digital resources is "paying off." Conventional accounting methods and techniques largely assess whether investment in exhibitions leads to higher visitor numbers and increased revenue, but ignore the museum's agenda and mission. Studies of visitor behaviour and learning focus on whether visitors attend exhibitions but largely lack methods to examine the quality of the museum experience. This paper is intended to contribute to debates about the adequacy of methods favoured in financial accounting and visitor studies to assess investment in new technology in museum exhibitions. It draws on two cases to explore how PDAs and information kiosks influence the ways in which visitors examine and experience exhibits. The findings are used to assess the deployment of new technology in exhibitions, to provide practical information for managers and designers who plan and develop such technologies for art museums, and to show how ethnographic and video-based methods can contribute to current practice in museum accounting.

© All rights reserved Lehn and Heath and/or HEC - Montr√©al - Chair of Arts Management

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
2004
 
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Kuzuoka, Hideaki, Yamazaki, Keiichi, Yamazaki, Akiko, Kosaka, Jun'ichi, Suga, Yasuko and Heath, Christian (2004): Dual ecologies of robot as communication media: thoughts on coordinating orientations and projectability. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 183-190.

The aim of our study is to investigate systems for supporting remote instruction via a mobile robot. In the real world, instructions are typically given through words and body orientations such as head movements, which make it possible to project others' actions. Projectability is an important resource in organizing multiple actions among multiple participants in co-ordination with one another. It can likewise be said that in the case of robot-human collaboration, it is necessary to design a robot's head so that a local participant can project the robot's (and remote person's) actions. GestureMan is a robot that is designed to support such projectability properties. It is argued that a remote controlled mobile robot, designed as a communication medium, makes relevant dual ecologies: ecology at a remote (robot operator's) site and at a local participant's (robot's) site. In order to design a robot as a viable communication medium, it is essential to consider how these ecologies can be mediated and supported.

© All rights reserved Kuzuoka et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kuzuoka, Hideaki, Kosaka, Jun'ichi, Yamazaki, Keiichi, Suga, Yasuko, Yamazaki, Akiko, Luff, Paul and Heath, Christian (2004): Mediating dual ecologies. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 477-486.

In this paper we investigated systems for supporting remote collaboration using mobile robots as communication media. It is argued that the use of a remote-controlled robot as a device to support communication involves two distinct ecologies: an ecology at the remote (instructor's) site and an ecology at the operator's (robot) site. In designing a robot as a viable communication medium, it is essential to consider how these ecologies can be mediated and supported. In this paper, we propose design guidelines to overcome the problems inherent in dual ecologies, and describe the development of a robot named GestureMan-3 based on these guidelines. Our experiments with GestureMan-3 showed that the system supports sequential aspects of the organization of communication.

© All rights reserved Kuzuoka et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Luff, Paul, Heath, Christian, Norrie, Moira, Signer, Beat and Herdman, Peter (2004): Only touching the surface: creating affinities between digital content and paper. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 523-532.

Despite the wide-ranging recognition that paper remains a pervasive resource for human conduct and collaboration, there has been uncertain progress in developing technologies to bridge the paper-digital divide. In this essay we discuss the design of a technology that interweaves developments in new materials, electronics and software, and seeks to provide a cheap and accessible solution to creating new affinities between digital content, in whatever form, and ordinary paper. The technology and its design draws from a broad range of field studies, including research in classrooms and museums. These delineate the requirements and considerations that inform solutions to enhancing paper whilst preserving its integrity. The paper also discusses a naturalistic experiment, an evaluation in a museum, where we assessed the technology and the solution. We also chart the progressive development of this solution and the ways in which seemingly simple actions and issues became reconstituted as highly complex technical and analytic problems.

© All rights reserved Luff et al. and/or ACM Press

2003
 
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Luff, Paul, Heath, Christian, Kuzuoka, Hideaki, Hindmarsh, Jon, Yamazaki, Keiichi and Oyama, Shinya (2003): Fractured Ecologies: Creating Environments for Collaboration. In Human-Computer Interaction, 18 (1) pp. 51-84.

It is increasingly recognized that social interaction and collaboration rely on the participants' abilities to access and use a range of resources including objects and artifacts from within the immediate environment. In recent years, system support for remote collaboration has begun to address this issue, and we have witnessed the emergence of a number of technologies designed to provide remote participants with access to (features of) each others' environment. In this article we examine the use of one such system, an innovative mixed media environment designed to enable participants to refer to and point at objects and artifacts within each other's remote environment. The article addresses the ways in which participants use the system to undertake various collaborative activities and discusses the problems and issues that emerge, for the participants' themselves, in coordinating action with and through objects. We then consider these issues with regard to interaction and collaboration in more conventional environments such as work settings, and we discuss the ways in which the interpretation and production of action are inextricably embedded within the immediate environment, an environment of action that is inadvertently fractured in even this more sophisticated media space.

© All rights reserved Luff et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

2002
 
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Schmidt, Kjeld, Heath, Christian and Rodden, Tom (2002): Preface. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 11 (3) pp. 3-4.

 
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Heath, Christian, Svensson, Martin, Hindmarsh, Jon, Luff, Paul and Lehn, Dirk vom (2002): Configuring Awareness. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 11 (3) pp. 317-347.

The concept of awareness has become of increasing importance to both social and technical research in CSCW. The concept remains however relatively unexplored, and we still have little understanding of the ways in which people produce and sustain 'awareness' in and through social interaction with others. In this paper, we focus on a particular aspect of awareness, the ways in which participants design activities to have others unobtrusively notice and discover, actions and events, which might otherwise pass unnoticed. We consider for example how participants render visible selective aspects of their activities, how they encourage others to notice features of the local milieu, and how they encourage others to become sensitive to particular events. We draw examples from different workplaces, primarily centres of coordination; organisational environments which rest upon the participants' abilities to delicately interweave a complex array of highly contingent, yet interdependent activities.

© All rights reserved Heath et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Hindmarsh, Jon, Heath, Christian, Lehn, Dirk vom and Cleverly, Jason (2002): Creating assemblies: aboard the Ghost Ship. In: Churchill, Elizabeth F., McCarthy, Joe, Neuwirth, Christine and Rodden, Tom (eds.) Proceedings of the 2002 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. pp. 156-165.

This paper examines the use of an interactive artwork that was designed by members of the research team and exhibited at the Sculpture, Objects and Functional Art (SOFA) Exposition in Chicago, USA. The paper uses audio-visual recordings of interaction with and around the work to consider how people encounter and make sense of an assembly of traditional objects and video technologies. The analysis of action and interaction is used to develop a series of 'design sensitivities' to inform the development of technological assemblies to engender informal interaction and sociability in museums and galleries.

© All rights reserved Hindmarsh et al. and/or ACM Press

2001
 
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Koleva, Boriana, Taylor, Ian, Benford, Steve, Fraser, Mike, Greenhalgh, Chris, Schnadelbach, Holger, Lehn, Dirk vom, Heath, Christian and Adams, Matt (2001): Orchestrating a Mixed Reality Performance. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 38-45.

A study of a professional touring mixed reality performance called Desert Rain yields insights into how performers orchestrate players' engagement in an interactive experience. Six players at a time journey through an extended physical and virtual set. Each sees a virtual world projected onto a screen made from a fine water spray. This acts as a traversable interface, supporting the illusion that performers physically pass between real and virtual worlds. Live and video-based observations of Desert Rain, coupled with interviews with players and the production team, have revealed how the performers create conditions for the willing suspension of disbelief, and how they monitor and intervene in the players experience without breaking their engagement. This involves carefully timed performances and "off-face" and "virtual" interventions. In turn, these are supported by the ability to monitor players' physical and virtual activity through asymmetric interfaces.

© All rights reserved Koleva et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Heath, Christian, Luff, Paul, Kuzuoka, Hideaki and Yamazaki, K. (2001): Creating coherent environments for collaboration. In: Ecscw 2001 - Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 16-20 September, 2001, Bonn, Germany. pp. 119-138.

2000
 
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Luff, Paul and Heath, Christian (2000): The Collaborative Production of Computer Commands in Command and Control. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 52 (4) pp. 669-699.

The division of labour, in its turn, implies interaction; for it consists not in the sheer difference of one man's kind of work from that another, but in the fact that the different tasks and accomplishments are parts of a whole to whose product all, in some degree, contribute. And wholes, in the human social realm as in the rest of the biological and in the physical realm, have their essence in interaction. Work as social interaction is the central theme of sociological and social psychological study of work. Hughes (1958) In an interaction with a computer the user receives information that is output by the computer, and responds by providing input to the computer - the user's output becomes the computer's input and vice versa. Dix, Finlay, Abowd and Beale (1993, p. 11) In this paper, we examine the details of the use of a computer system in situ. Drawing from recent developments in the social sciences, we adopt an analytic orientation that is distinctive from much current work in human-computer interaction and cognitive engineering. Rather than focusing on a circumscribed activity of an individual at a computer system, we explore how the production of computer-based activities is sensitive to the ongoing work and interaction of the participants in the setting. The study utilizes materials including fieldwork and audio-visual recordings to explore how one particular technology is used, a system for automatically controlling trains on an urban transportation system. We focus on the "uses" of this system, a fairly conventional command-and-control system, in the Control Room, and examine how the technology is immersed within the action and interaction of the participants. In particular, we explore how the entry of commands into the system by one controller is coordinated with the conduct of colleagues, and how their conduct is inextricably embedded in their colleague's use of the system. It also reveals how the activities of controllers are managed from moment to moment, so that a division of labour emerges through the course of their interaction. Although in drawing upon naturalistic materials, this study contributes to the growing corpus of "workplace studies" within the field of computer-supported cooperative work, by examining the details of computer-based activities it continues the tradition within human-computer interaction of being concerned with the detailed use of technologies. Indeed, the emerging distinction between the two fields, one considered as focusing on matters associated with the individual "user", and the other on the "group", may be false.

© All rights reserved Luff and Heath and/or Academic Press

 
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Luff, Paul, Heath, Christian and Jirotka, Marina (2000): Surveying the Scene: Technologies for Everyday Awareness and Monitoring in Control Rooms. In Interacting with Computers, 13 (2) pp. 193-228.

Recent technologies to support collaborative work have sought, in various ways, to enhance an individual's awareness of another's activities. Through a range of diverse technologies developers have endeavoured to provide users with capabilities that allow them to monitor, either passively or actively, what others are doing. In this paper we aim to examine awareness by analysing a setting where one of the responsibilities of the staff is to oversee, through a set of technologies, a complex environment in order to monitor the various spaces and locations in the local domain, the individuals who move through these spaces, and the events that occur in it. We outline the resources they utilise to make sense of what personnel see on the screens and to initiate collaborative action with colleagues. We conclude by discussing how such analyses can inform the design of novel systems which aim to support awareness and monitoring of environments. More critically we draw on this study to reconsider the conception of awareness utilised within Computer Supported Cooperative Work and other fields where technological solutions are being proposed to support individuals to monitor, whether peripherally or not, locations, activities and other individuals in digital environments.

© All rights reserved Luff et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Hindmarsh, Jon, Fraser, Mike, Heath, Christian, Benford, Steve and Greenhalgh, Chris (2000): Object-Focused Interaction in Collaborative Virtual Environments. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7 (4) pp. 477-509.

This paper explores and evaluates the support for object-focused interaction provided by a desktop Collaborative Virtual Environment. An experimental "design" task was conducted, and video recordings of the participants' activities facilitated an observational analysis of interaction in, and through, the virtual world. Observations include: problems due to "fragmented" views of embodiments in relation to shared objects; participants compensating with spoken accounts of their actions; and difficulties in understanding others' perspectives. Implications and proposals for the design of CVEs drawn from these observations are: the use of semidistorted views to support peripheral awareness; more explicit or exaggerated representations of actions than are provided by pseudohumanoid avatars; and navigation techniques that are sensitive to the actions of others. The paper also presents some examples of the ways in which these proposals might be realized.

© All rights reserved Hindmarsh et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Luff, Paul, Hindmarsh, Jon and Heath, Christian (eds.) (2000): Workplace Studies: Recovering Work Practice and Informing System Design. Cambridge University Press

This important new book brings together key researchers in Europe and the United States to discuss critical issues in the study of the workplace and to outline recent developments in the field. The collection is divided into two parts. Part I contains a number of detailed case studies that not only provide an insight into the issues central to workplace studies but also some of the problems involved in carrying out such research. Part II focuses on the interrelationship between workplace studies and the design of new technologies.

© All rights reserved Luff et al. and/or Cambridge University Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 
1999
 
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Fraser, Mike, Benford, Steve, Hindmarsh, Jon and Heath, Christian (1999): Supporting Awareness and Interaction through Collaborative Virtual Interfaces. In: Zanden, Brad Vander and Marks, Joe (eds.) Proceedings of the 12th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 07 - 10, 1999, Asheville, North Carolina, United States. pp. 27-36.

This paper explores interfaces to virtual environments supporting multiple users. An interface to an environment allowing interaction with virtual artefacts is constructed, drawing on previous proposals for 'desktop' virtual environments. These include the use of Peripheral Lenses to support peripheral awareness in collaboration; and extending the ways in which users' actions are represented for each other. Through a qualitative analysis of a design task, the effect of the proposals is outlined. Observations indicate that, whilst these designs go some way to re-constructing physical co-presence in terms of awareness and interaction through the environment, some issues remain. Notably, peripheral distortion in supporting awareness may cause problematic interactions with and through the virtual world; and extended representations of actions may still allow problems in re-assembling the composition of others' actions. We discuss the potential for: designing representations for distorted peripheral perception; and explicitly displaying the course of action in object-focused interaction.

© All rights reserved Fraser et al. and/or ACM Press

1998
 
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Reynard, Gail, Benford, Steve, Greenhalgh, Chris and Heath, Christian (1998): Awareness Driven Video Quality of Service in Collaborative Virtual Environments. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, JoŽlle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 464-471.

We extend previous work on texture mapping video streams into virtual environments by introducing awareness driven video QoS. This uses movements within a shared virtual world to activate different video services. In turn, these services have different settings for underlying QoS parameters such as frame-rate, resolution and compression. We demonstrate this technique through a combined conferencing/ mediaspace application which uses awareness driven video for facial expressions and for views into remote physical environments. We reflect on the issues of spatial consistency, privacy, seamless shifts in mutual involvement and making underlying QoS mechanisms more visible, malleable and flexible.

© All rights reserved Reynard et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hindmarsh, Jon, Fraser, Mike, Heath, Christian, Benford, Steve and Greenhalgh, Chris (1998): Fragmented Interaction: Establishing Mutual Orientation in Virtual Environments. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 217-226.

This paper explores and evaluates the support for object-focused collaboration provided by a desktop Collaborative Virtual Environment. The system was used to support an experimental 'design' task. Video recordings of the participants' activities facilitated an observational analysis of interaction in, and through, the virtual world. Observations include: problems due to fragmented views of embodiments in relation to shared objects; participants compensating with spoken accounts of their actions; and difficulties in understanding others' perspectives. Design implications include: more explicit representations of actions than are provided by pseudo-humanoid embodiments; and navigation techniques that are sensitive to the actions of others.

© All rights reserved Hindmarsh et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Luff, Paul and Heath, Christian (1998): Mobility in Collaboration. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 305-314.

This paper explores an issue that has received little attention within CSCW -- the requirements to support mobility within collaboration activities. By examining three quite different settings each with differing technological support, we reveal ways in which mobility can feature in collaborative work. A focus on such activities may, on the one hand, suggest enhancements to the current support offered for collaborative work and, on the other, suggest a reconsideration of the requirements for mobile and other related technologies.

© All rights reserved Luff and Heath and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Koschmann, Timothy, Anderson, Anne, Hall, Rogers, Heath, Christian, LeBaron, Curtis, Olson, Judith S. and Suchman, Lucy A. (1998): Six Readings of a Single Text: A Videoanalytic Session. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 407-409.

The purpose of this special session will be to illuminate some of the possible ways in which we, as observers and researchers, can come to understand collaboration and how it is achieved within the context of joint activity. Historically, collaboration has been studied in a variety of ways, both quantitative and qualitative, drawing on the research traditions of both the psychological and the social (i.e., Anthropology, Sociology, Linguistics, Communications) sciences. Our goal here is to highlight some of these methodological differences while at the same time demonstrating how different approaches can each contribute to a richer and more fully elaborated view of the collaborative process. In preparation for this session six researchers with extensive experience in studying collaboration were asked to analyze a common piece of data -- a pre-selected segment of videotaped interaction. Each will summarize their findings followed by a discussion intended to highlight the complementarities and incommensurabilities among the six analyses.

© All rights reserved Koschmann et al. and/or ACM Press

1996
 
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Heath, Christian and Luff, Paul (1996): Documents and Professional Practice: 'Bad' Organizational Reasons for 'Good' Clinical Records. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 354-363.

Despite the widespread introduction of information technology into primary health care within the United Kingdom, medical practitioners continue to use the more traditional paper medical record often alongside the computerised system. The resilience of the paper document is not simply a consequence of an impoverished design, but rather a product of the socially organised practices and reasoning which surround the use of the record within day to day consultative work. The practices that underpin the use of the medical records may have a range of important implications, not only for the general design of systems to support collaborative work, but also for our conceptions of 'writers', 'readers', 'objects' and 'records' utilised in those designs.

© All rights reserved Heath and Luff and/or ACM Press

1995
 
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Heath, Christian, Luff, Paul and Sellen, Abigail (1995): Reconsidering the Virtual Workplace: Flexible Support for Collaborative Activity. In: Marmolin, Hans, Sundblad, Yngve and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 95 - Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 11-15 September, 1995, Stockholm, Sweden. pp. 83-99.

Despite the substantial corpus of research concerned with the design and development of media space, the virtual workplace has failed to achieve its early promise. In this paper, we suggest that a number of problems which have arisen with the design and deployment of media space, derive from their impoverished concept of collaborative work. Drawing from our own studies of video connectivity, coupled with analyses of work and interaction in real-world settings, we consider ways in which we might reconfigure media space in order to provide more satisfactory support for collaboration in organisational environments.

© All rights reserved Heath et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Jirotka, Marina, Heath, Christian and Luff, Paul (1995): Ethnography by Video for Requirements Capture. In: Second IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering 1995 March 27 - 29, 1995, York, England. pp. 190-193.

1994
 
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Heath, Christian, Jirotka, Marina, Luff, Paul and Hindmarsh, Jon (1994): Unpacking collaboration: the interactional organisation of trading in a city dealing room. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 3 (2) pp. 147-165.

It is has been widely recognised that whilst CSCW has led to a number of impressive technological developments, examples of successful applications remain few. In part, this may be due to our relative ignorance of the organisation of real world, cooperative activity. Focusing on share trading in a securities house in the City of London, we explore the interactional organisation of particular tasks and the ways in which dealers interweave individual and collaborative activity. These observations suggest ways in which we might reconsider a number of central concepts in CSCW and begin. to draw design implications from naturalistic studies of work and interaction.

© All rights reserved Heath et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

1993
 
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Gaver, William W., Sellen, Abigail, Heath, Christian and Luff, Paul (1993): One is Not Enough: Multiple Views in a Media Space. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 335-341.

Media spaces support collaboration, but the limited access they provide to remote colleagues' activities can undermine their utility. To address this limitation, we built an experimental system in which four switchable cameras were deployed in each of two remote offices, and observed participants using the system to collaborate on two tasks. The new views allowed increased access to task-related artifacts; indeed, users preferred these views to more typical "face-to-face" ones. However, problems of establishing a joint frame of reference were exacerbated by the additional complexity, leading us to speculate about more effective ways to expand access to remote sites.

© All rights reserved Gaver et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Heath, Christian, Jirotka, Marina, Luff, Paul and Hindmarsh, Jon (1993): Unpacking Collaboration: The Interactional Organisation of Trading in a City Dealing Room. In: Michelis, Giorgio De, Simone, Carla and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 93 - Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 1993. pp. 155-170.

It is increasingly recognised that whilst CSCW has led to a number of impressive technological developments, examples of successful applications remain few. In part, this may be due to our relative ignorance of the organisation of real world, cooperative activity. Focusing on share trading in a securities house in the City of London, we explore the interactional organisation of particular tasks and the ways in which dealers interweave individual and collaborative activity. These observations suggest ways in which we might reconsider a number of central concepts in CSCW and begin to draw design implications from naturalistic studies of work and interaction.

© All rights reserved Heath et al. and/or Kluwer

 
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Anderson, R. J., Heath, Christian, Luff, Paul and Moran, Thomas P. (1993): The Social and the Cognitive in Human-Computer Interaction. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 38 (6) pp. 999-1016.

Of late, designers of interactive systems and other exponents of HCI have expressed an increased interest in the contribution which Social Science might make to design. Using recent discussions of "distributed cognition" as our stalking horse, we show that a strategy of simple annexation or incorporation is unlikely to realize the value which the Social Sciences might contribute. Such value will not be derived by a "filling out" of design requirements through the addition of social dimensions to cognitive ones. Rather, it will take the form of a re-appraisal of deep-seated distinctions such as that between the social and the cognitive. In the context of some on-going work at EuroPARC, we examine the possibilities which this re-appraisal might offer. We conclude with a review of the implications of this kind of re-appraisal for the design of interactive systems.

© All rights reserved Anderson et al. and/or Academic Press

 
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Greatbatch, David, Luff, Paul, Heath, Christian and Campion, Peter (1993): Interpersonal Communication and Human-Computer Interaction: An Examination of the Use of Computers in Medical Consultations. In Interacting with Computers, 5 (2) pp. 193-216.

The paper examines the relationship between human-computer interaction and interpersonal communication in general practice consultations. Drawing on detailed analyses of video recordings of consultations conducted by four doctors in an inner city medical practice, we describe how patients recurrently coordinate their actions with visible and audible aspects of the doctors' use of a computer. We then suggest that this linkage between computer use and communicative conduct raises important conceptual, methodological and substantive issues for the fields of both HCI and CSCW. Some potential implications for the design of human computer interactions and for the development of CSCW systems are outlined.

© All rights reserved Greatbatch et al. and/or Elsevier Science

1992
 
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Luff, Paul, Heath, Christian and Greatbatch, David (1992): Tasks-in-Interaction: Paper and Screen Based Documentation in Collaborative Activity. In: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work November 01 - 04, 1992, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 163-170.

Drawing on field studies of three, real world, organisational environments, namely an architectural practice, a medical centre and the Control Rooms on London Underground, this paper explores the ways in which personnel use paper and screen based documentation to support synchronous and asynchronous collaborative activity. It discusses how collaboration involves a complex configuration of co-participation by personnel in a range of activities, ranging from seemingly individual tasks to mutually focussed, real time cooperation. By addressing the ways in which personnel manage collaboration and interactionally organise a range of activities, we discuss the ways in which paper and screen based media provide rather distinctive support for cooperation. These observations form the basis for some suggestions concerning requirements for CSCW systems.

© All rights reserved Luff et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Heath, Christian and Luff, Paul (1992): Media Space and Communicative Asymmetries: Preliminary Observations of Video-Mediated Interaction. In Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (3) pp. 315-346.

Despite the growing interest in using audio-visual technologies to support communication and collaborative work among individuals in different locations, we still have relatively little understanding of the organization of video-mediated interaction. In the following article, we discuss some findings of recent research concerning interpersonal communication in a sophisticated multimedia office environment. Based on the detailed naturalistic analysis of individuals collaborating on various tasks during their day-to-day working lives, we explore the extent to which the media space provides a satisfactory means for interpersonal communication and ordinary sociability. In particular, the research suggests that audio-visual technology introduces certain asymmetries into interpersonal communication that can transform the impact of visual and vocal conduct. These communicative asymmetries may be consequential for the design and implementation of audio-visual infrastructures used to support informal sociability and collaborative work.

© All rights reserved Heath and Luff and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Heath, Christian and Luff, Paul (1992): Collaboration and control: Crisis management and multimedia technology in London Underground Line Control Rooms. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1 (1) pp. 69-94.

Despite technical advances over the past few years in the area of systems support for cooperative work there is still relatively little understanding of the organisation of collaborative activity in real world, technologically supported, work environments. Indeed, it has been suggested that the failure of various technological applications may derive from their relative insensitivity to ordinary work practice and situated conduct. In this paper we discuss the possibility of utilising recent developments within sociology, in particular the naturalistic analysis of organisational conduct and social interaction, as a basis for the design and development of tools and technologies to support collaborative work. Focussing on the Line Control Rooms in London Underground, a complex multimedia environment in transition, we begin to explicate the tacit work practices and procedures whereby personnel systematically communicate information to each other and coordinate a disparate collection of tasks and activities. The design implications of these empirical observations, both for Line Control Room and technologies to support cooperative work, are briefly discussed.

© All rights reserved Heath and Luff and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 Cited in the following chapter:

Ethnography: [/encyclopedia/ethnography.html]


 
1991
 
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Heath, Christian and Luff, Paul (1991): Disembodied Conduct: Communication Through Video in a Multi-Media Office Environment. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 99-103.

In the following paper we discuss some findings of recent research concerning the organisation of video mediated communication in collaborative work in a dispersed, multi-media office environment. Based on the detailed, naturalistic analysis of video-recordings of individuals collaborating on various tasks through audio-visual links, we describe the ways in which the technology transforms nonverbal and verbal conduct, introducing certain asymmetries into the social interaction between users. It is argued that such communicative asymmetries may facilitate, rather than hinder, certain forms of collaborative work and provide a foundation for the emergence of new forms of sociability in the work place. What of the hands? We require, promise, call, dismiss, threaten, pray, supplicate, deny, refuse, interrogate, admire, number, confess, repent, confound, blush, doubt, instruct, admire, number, confess, repent, confound, blush, doubt, instruct, command, incite, encourage, swear, testify, accuse, condemn, absolve, abuse, despise, defy, flatter, applaud, bless, humiliate, mock, reconcile, recommend, exalt, entertain, congratulate, complain, grieve, despair, wonder, exclaim, .... There is not a motion that does not speak and in an intelligible language without discipline, and a public language that everyone understands. Montaigne 1952 pp. 215-216

© All rights reserved Heath and Luff and/or ACM Press

 
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Heath, Christian and Luff, Paul (1991): Collaborative Activity and Technological Design: Task Coordination in London Underground Control Rooms. In: Bannon, Liam, Robinson, Mike and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 91 - Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work September 24-27, 1991, Amsterdam, Netherlands. .

 
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Heath, Christian and Luff, Paul (1991): Collaborative Activity and Technological Design: Task Coordination in London Underground Control Rooms. In: Bannon, Liam, Robinson, Mike and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 91 - Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work September 24-27, 1991, Amsterdam, Netherlands. pp. 65-80.

Despite technical advances in CSCW over the past few years we still have relatively little understanding of the organisation of collaborative activity in real world, technologically supported, work environments. Indeed, it has been suggested that the failure of various technological applications may derive from its relative insensitivity to ordinary work practice and situated conduct. In this paper we discuss the possibility of utilising recent developments within social science, and in particular the naturalistic analysis of organisational conduct and interpersonal communication, as a basis for the design and development of tools and technologies to support collaborative work. Focussing on the Line Control Rooms on London Underground, a complex multimedia environment in transition, we begin to explicate the informal work practices and procedures whereby personnel systematically communicate information and coordinate a disparate collection of tasks and activities. These empirical investigations form the foundation to the design of new tools to support collaborative work in Line Control Rooms; technologies which will be sensitive to the ordinary conduct and practical skills of organisational personnel in the London Underground.

© All rights reserved Heath and Luff and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/christian_heath.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1991-2011
Pub. count:45
Number of co-authors:61



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Paul Luff:32
Jon Hindmarsh:12
Hideaki Kuzuoka:8

 

 

Productive colleagues

Christian Heath's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Steve Benford:121
Tom Rodden:106
Abigail Sellen:81
 
 
 
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