Publication statistics

Pub. period:1998-2012
Pub. count:35
Number of co-authors:40



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Stefan Bttcher:8
Gordon V. Cormack:6
Azin Ashkan:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

Charles L. A. Clarke's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Susan Dumais:74
Ryen W. White:59
Jamie Callan:47
 
 
 

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Charles L. A. Clarke

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http://plg.uwaterloo.ca/~claclark/

 

Publications by Charles L. A. Clarke (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Smucker, Mark D. and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2012): Time-based calibration of effectiveness measures. In: Proceedings of the 35th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2012. pp. 95-104. Available online

Many current effectiveness measures incorporate simplifying assumptions about user behavior. These assumptions prevent the measures from reflecting aspects of the search process that directly impact the quality of retrieval results as experienced by the user. In particular, these measures implicitly model users as working down a list of retrieval results, spending equal time assessing each document. In reality, even a careful user, intending to identify as much relevant material as possible, must spend longer on some documents than on others. Aspects such as document length, duplicates and summaries all influence the time required. In this paper, we introduce a time-biased gain measure, which explicitly accommodates such aspects of the search process. By conducting an appropriate user study, we calibrate and validate the measure against the TREC 2005 Robust Track test collection. We examine properties of the measure, contrasting it to traditional effectiveness measures, and exploring its extension to other aspects and environments. As its primary benefit, the measure allows us to evaluate system performance in human terms, while maintaining the simplicity and repeatability of system-oriented tests. Overall, we aim to achieve a clearer connection between user-oriented studies and system-oriented tests, allowing us to better transfer insights and outcomes from one to the other.

© All rights reserved Smucker and Clarke and/or ACM Press

 
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Raveendran, Gobaan and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2012): Lightweight contrastive summarization for news comment mining. In: Proceedings of the 35th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2012. pp. 1103-1104. Available online

We develop and discuss a news comment miner that presents distinct viewpoints on a given theme or event. Given a query, the system uses metasearch techniques to find relevant news articles. Relevant articles are then scraped for both article content and comments. Snippets from the comments are sampled and presented to the user, based on theme popularity and contrastiveness to previously selected snippets. The system design focuses on being quicker and more lightweight than recent topic modelling approaches, while still focusing on selecting orthogonal snippets.

© All rights reserved Raveendran and Clarke and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Ashkan, Azin and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2011): On the informativeness of cascade and intent-aware effectiveness measures. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2011. pp. 407-416. Available online

The Maximum Entropy Method provides one technique for validating search engine effectiveness measures. Under this method, the value of an effectiveness measure is used as a constraint to estimate the most likely distribution of relevant documents under a maximum entropy assumption. This inferred distribution may then be compared to the actual distribution to quantify the "informativeness" of the measure. The inferred distribution may also be used to estimate values for other effectiveness measures. Previous work focused on traditional effectiveness measures, such as average precision. In this paper, we extend the Maximum Entropy Method to the newer cascade and intent-aware effectiveness measures by considering the dependency of the documents ranked in a results list. These measures are intended to reflect the novelty and diversity of search results in addition to the traditional relevance. Our results indicate that intent-aware measures based on the cascade model are informative in terms of both inferring actual distribution and predicting the values of other retrieval measures.

© All rights reserved Ashkan and Clarke and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Itakura, Kelly Y. and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2010): A framework for BM25F-based XML retrieval. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2010. pp. 843-844. Available online

We evaluate a framework for BM25F-based XML element retrieval. The framework gathers contextual information associated with each XML element into an associated field, which we call a characteristic field. The contents of the element and the contents of the characteristic field are then treated as distinct fields for BM25F weighting purposes. Evidence supporting this framework is drawn from both our own experiments and experiments reported in related work.

© All rights reserved Itakura and Clarke and/or their publisher

 
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Lafreniere, Benjamin, Bunt, Andrea, Whissell, John S., Clarke, Charles L. A. and Terry, Michael (2010): Characterizing large-scale use of a direct manipulation application in the wild. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Graphics Interface 2010. pp. 11-18. Available online

Examining large-scale, long-term application use is critical to understanding how an application meets the needs of its user community. However, there have been few published analyses of long-term use of desktop applications, and none that have examined applications that support creating and modifying content using direct manipulation. In this paper, we present an analysis of 2 years of usage data from an instrumented version of the GNU Image Manipulation Program, including data from over 200 users. In the course of our analysis, we show that previous findings concerning the sparseness of command use and idiosyncrasy of users' command vocabularies extend to a new domain and interaction style. These findings motivate continued research in adaptive and mixed-initiative interfaces. We also describe the novel application of a clustering technique to characterize a user community's higher-level tasks from low-level logging data.

© All rights reserved Lafreniere et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Cormack, Gordon V., Clarke, Charles L. A. and Buettcher, Stefan (2009): Reciprocal rank fusion outperforms condorcet and individual rank learning methods. In: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2009. pp. 758-759. Available online

Reciprocal Rank Fusion (RRF), a simple method for combining the document rankings from multiple IR systems, consistently yields better results than any individual system, and better results than the standard method Condorcet Fuse. This result is demonstrated by using RRF to combine the results of several TREC experiments, and to build a meta-learner that ranks the LETOR 3 dataset better than any previously reported method.

© All rights reserved Cormack et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Ashkan, Azin and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2009): Term-based commercial intent analysis. In: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2009. pp. 800-801. Available online

In this work, we investigate the contribution of query terms and their corresponding ad click rates on commercial intent of queries. A probabilistic model is proposed following the hypothesis that a query is likely to receive ad clicks based on contributions from its individual terms.

© All rights reserved Ashkan and Clarke and/or their publisher

 
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Itakura, Kelly Y. and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2009): Using dynamic markov compression to detect vandalism in the wikipedia. In: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2009. pp. 822-823. Available online

We apply the Dynamic Markov Compression model to detect spam edits in the Wikipedia. The method appears to outperform previous efforts based on compression models, providing performance comparable to methods based on manually constructed rules.

© All rights reserved Itakura and Clarke and/or their publisher

 
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Ashkan, Azin, Clarke, Charles L. A., Agichtein, Eugene and Guo, Qi (2009): Classifying and Characterizing Query Intent. In: Boughanem, Mohand, Berrut, Catherine, Mothe, Josiane and Soul-Dupuy, Chantal (eds.) Advances in Information Retrieval - 31th European Conference on IR Research - ECIR 2009 April 6-9, 2009, 2009, Toulouse, France. pp. 578-586. Available online

2008
 
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Clarke, Charles L. A., Kolla, Maheedhar, Cormack, Gordon V., Vechtomova, Olga, Ashkan, Azin, Bttcher, Stefan and MacKinnon, Ian (2008): Novelty and diversity in information retrieval evaluation. In: Proceedings of the 31st Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2008. pp. 659-666. Available online

Evaluation measures act as objective functions to be optimized by information retrieval systems. Such objective functions must accurately reflect user requirements, particularly when tuning IR systems and learning ranking functions. Ambiguity in queries and redundancy in retrieved documents are poorly reflected by current evaluation measures. In this paper, we present a framework for evaluation that systematically rewards novelty and diversity. We develop this framework into a specific evaluation measure, based on cumulative gain. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using a test collection based on the TREC question answering track.

© All rights reserved Clarke et al. and/or ACM Press

2007
 
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Bttcher, Stefan, Clarke, Charles L. A., Yeung, Peter C. K. and Soboroff, Ian (2007): Reliable information retrieval evaluation with incomplete and biased judgements. In: Proceedings of the 30th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2007. pp. 63-70. Available online

Information retrieval evaluation based on the pooling method is inherently biased against systems that did not contribute to the pool of judged documents. This may distort the results obtained about the relative quality of the systems evaluated and thus lead to incorrect conclusions about the performance of a particular ranking technique. We examine the magnitude of this effect and explore how it can be countered by automatically building an unbiased set of judgements from the original, biased judgements obtained through pooling. We compare the performance of this method with other approaches to the problem of incomplete judgements, such as bpref, and show that the proposed method leads to higher evaluation accuracy, especially if the set of manual judgements is rich in documents, but highly biased against some systems.

© All rights reserved Bttcher et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Clarke, Charles L. A., Agichtein, Eugene, Dumais, Susan and White, Ryen W. (2007): The influence of caption features on clickthrough patterns in web search. In: Proceedings of the 30th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2007. pp. 135-142. Available online

Web search engines present lists of captions, comprising title, snippet, and URL, to help users decide which search results to visit. Understanding the influence of features of these captions on Web search behavior may help validate algorithms and guidelines for their improved generation. In this paper we develop a methodology to use clickthrough logs from a commercial search engine to study user behavior when interacting with search result captions. The findings of our study suggest that relatively simple caption features such as the presence of all terms query terms, the readability of the snippet, and the length of the URL shown in the caption, can significantly influence users' Web search behavior.

© All rights reserved Clarke et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Yeung, Peter C. K., Clarke, Charles L. A. and Bttcher, Stefan (2007): Improving retrieval accuracy by weighting document types with clickthrough data. In: Proceedings of the 30th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2007. pp. 759-760. Available online

For enterprise search, there exists a relationship between work task and document type that can be used to refine search results. In this poster, we adapt the popular Okapi BM25 scoring function to weight term frequency based on the relevance of a document type to a work task. Also, we use click frequency for each task-type pair to estimate a realistic weight. Using the W3C collection from the TREC Enterprise track for evaluations, our approach leads to significant improvements on search precision.

© All rights reserved Yeung et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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White, Ryen W., Clarke, Charles L. A. and Cucerzan, Silviu (2007): Comparing query logs and pseudo-relevance feedback for web-search query refinement. In: Proceedings of the 30th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2007. pp. 831-832. Available online

Query logs and pseudo-relevance feedback (PRF) offer ways in which terms to refine Web searchers' queries can be selected, offered to searchers, and used to improve search effectiveness. In this poster we present a study of these techniques that aims to characterize the degree of similarity between them across a set of test queries, and the same set broken out by query type. The results suggest that: (i) similarity increases with the amount of evidence provided to the PRF algorithm, (ii) similarity is higher when titles/snippets are used for PRF than full-text, and (iii) similarity is higher for navigational than informational queries. The findings have implications for the combined usage of query logs and PRF in generating query refinement alternatives.

© All rights reserved White et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Yeung, Peter C. K., Freund, Luanne and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2007): X-Site: a workplace search tool for software engineers. In: Proceedings of the 30th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2007. p. 900. Available online

Professionals in the workplace need high-precision search tools capable of retrieving information that is useful and appropriate to the task at hand. One approach to identifying content, which is not only relevant but also useful, is to make use of the task context of the search. We present X-Site, an enterprise search engine for the software engineering domain that exploits relationships between user's tasks and document genres in the collection to improve retrieval precision.

© All rights reserved Yeung et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bttcher, Stefan and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2007): Index compression is good, especially for random access. In: Silva, Mario J., Laender, Alberto H. F., Baeza-Yates, Ricardo A., McGuinness, Deborah L., Olstad, Bjrn, Olsen, ystein Haug and Falco, Andr O. (eds.) Proceedings of the Sixteenth ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management - CIKM 2007 November 6-10, 2007, Lisbon, Portugal. pp. 761-770. Available online

 
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Yeung, Peter C. K., Bttcher, Stefan, Clarke, Charles L. A. and Kolla, Maheedhar (2007): A Bayesian Approach for Learning Document Type Relevance. In: Amati, Giambattista, Carpineto, Claudio and Romano, Giovanni (eds.) Advances in Information Retrieva - 29th European Conference on IR Research - ECIR 2007 April 2-5, 2007, Rome, Italy. pp. 753-756. Available online

2006
 
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Buttcher, Stefan, Clarke, Charles L. A. and Lushman, Brad (2006): Hybrid index maintenance for growing text collections. In: Proceedings of the 29th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2006. pp. 356-363. Available online

We present a new family of hybrid index maintenance strategies to be used in on-line index construction for monotonically growing text collections. These new strategies improve upon recent results for hybrid index maintenance in dynamic text retrieval systems. Like previous techniques, our new method distinguishes between short and long posting lists: While short lists are maintained using a merge strategy, long lists are kept separate and are updated in-place. This way, costly relocations of long posting lists are avoided. We discuss the shortcomings of previous hybrid methods and give an experimental evaluation of the new technique, showing that its index maintenance performance is superior to that of the earlier methods, especially when the amount of main memory available to the indexing system is small. We also present a complexity analysis which proves that, under a Zipfian term distribution, the asymptotical number of disk accesses performed by the best hybrid maintenance strategy is linear in the size of the text collection, implying the asymptotical optimality of the proposed strategy.

© All rights reserved Buttcher et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Buttcher, Stefan, Clarke, Charles L. A. and Lushman, Brad (2006): Term proximity scoring for ad-hoc retrieval on very large text collections. In: Proceedings of the 29th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2006. pp. 621-622. Available online

We propose an integration of term proximity scoring into Okapi BM25. The relative retrieval effectiveness of our retrieval method, compared to pure BM25, varies from collection to collection. We present an experimental evaluation of our method and show that the gains achieved over BM25 as the size of the underlying text collection increases. We also show that for stemmed queries the impact of term proximity scoring is larger than for unstemmed queries.

© All rights reserved Buttcher et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bttcher, Stefan and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2006): A document-centric approach to static index pruning in text retrieval systems. In: Yu, Philip S., Tsotras, Vassilis J., Fox, Edward A. and Liu, Bing (eds.) Proceedings of the 2006 ACM CIKM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management November 6-11, 2006, Arlington, Virginia, USA. pp. 182-189. Available online

 
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Bttcher, Stefan and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2006): A Hybrid Approach to Index Maintenance in Dynamic Text Retrieval Systems. In: Lalmas, Mounia, MacFarlane, Andy, Rger, Stefan M., Tombros, Anastasios, Tsikrika, Theodora and Yavlinsky, Alexei (eds.) Advances in Information Retrieval - 28th European Conference on IR Research - ECIR 2006 April 10-12, 2006, London, UK. pp. 229-240. Available online

2005
 
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Latulipe, Celine, Kaplan, Craig S. and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2005): Bimanual and unimanual image alignment: an evaluation of mouse-based techniques. In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2005. pp. 123-131. Available online

We present an evaluation of three mouse-based techniques for aligning digital images. We investigate the physical image alignment task and discuss the implications for interacting with virtual images. In a formal evaluation we show that a symmetric bimanual technique outperforms an asymmetric bimanual technique which in turn outperforms a unimanual technique. We show that even after mode switching times are removed, the symmetric technique outperforms the single mouse technique. Subjects also exhibited more parallel interaction using the symmetric technique than when using the asymmetric technique.

© All rights reserved Latulipe et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Clarke, Charles L. A. (2005): Controlling overlap in content-oriented XML retrieval. In: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2005. pp. 314-321. Available online

The direct application of standard ranking techniques to retrieve individual elements from a collection of XML documents often produces a result set in which the top ranks are dominated by a large number of elements taken from a small number of highly relevant documents. This paper presents and evaluates an algorithm that re-ranks this result set, with the aim of minimizing redundant content while preserving the benefits of element retrieval, including the benefit of identifying topic-focused components contained within relevant documents. The test collection developed by the INitiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval (INEX) forms the basis for the evaluation.

© All rights reserved Clarke and/or ACM Press

 
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Freund, Luanne, Toms, Elaine G. and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2005): Modeling task-genre relationships for IR in the workplace. In: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2005. pp. 441-448. Available online

Context influences the search process, but to date research has not definitively identified which aspects of context are the most influential for information retrieval, and thus are worthy of integration in today's retrieval systems. In this research, we isolated for examination two aspects of context: task and document genre and examined the relationship between them within a software engineering work domain. In this domain, the nature of the task has an impact on decisions of relevance and usefulness, and the document collection contains a distinctive set of genre. Our data set was a document repository created and used by our target population. The document surrogates were meta-tagged by purpose and document type. Correspondence analysis of this categorical data identified some specific relationships between genres and tasks, as well as four broad dimensions of variability underlying these relationships. These results have the potential to inform the design of a contextual retrieval system by refining search results for this domain.

© All rights reserved Freund et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bttcher, Stefan and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2005): Indexing time vs. query time: trade-offs in dynamic information retrieval systems. In: Herzog, Otthein, Schek, Hans-Jorg and Fuhr, Norbert (eds.) Proceedings of the 2005 ACM CIKM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management October 31 - November 5, 2005, Bremen, Germany. pp. 317-318. Available online

2004
 
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Collins-Thompson, Kevyn, Callan, Jamie, Terra, Egidio and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2004): The effect of document retrieval quality on factoid question answering performance. In: Proceedings of the 27th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2004. pp. 574-575. Available online

 
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Clarke, Charles L. A. and Terra, Egidio L. (2004): Approximating the top-m passages in a parallel question answering system. In: Grossman, David A., Gravano, Luis, Zhai, Chengxiang, Herzog, Otthein and Evans, David A. (eds.) Proceedings of the 2004 ACM CIKM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management November 8-13, 2004, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 454-462. Available online

 
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Lynam, Thomas R., Buckley, Chris, Clarke, Charles L. A. and Cormack, Gordon V. (2004): A multi-system analysis of document and term selection for blind feedback. In: Grossman, David A., Gravano, Luis, Zhai, Chengxiang, Herzog, Otthein and Evans, David A. (eds.) Proceedings of the 2004 ACM CIKM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management November 8-13, 2004, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 261-269. Available online

 
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Terra, Egidio and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2004): Scoring missing terms in information retrieval tasks. In: Grossman, David A., Gravano, Luis, Zhai, Chengxiang, Herzog, Otthein and Evans, David A. (eds.) Proceedings of the 2004 ACM CIKM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management November 8-13, 2004, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 50-58. Available online

2003
 
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Clarke, Charles L. A. and Terra, Egidio L. (2003): Passage retrieval vs. document retrieval for factoid question answering. In: Proceedings of the 26th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2003. pp. 427-428. Available online

 
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Clarke, Charles L. A., Tilker, Philip L., Tran, Allen Quoc-Luan, Harris, Kevin and Cheng, Antonio S. (2003): A reliable storage management layer for distributed information retrieval systems. In: Proceedings of the 2003 ACM CIKM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management November 2-8, 2003, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. pp. 207-215. Available online

2002
 
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Chung, Chiasen and Clarke, Charles L. A. (2002): Topic-oriented collaborative crawling. In: Proceedings of the 2002 ACM CIKM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management November 4-9, 2002, McLean, VA, USA. pp. 34-42. Available online

2000
 
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Clarke, Charles L. A. and Cormack, Gordon V. (2000): Shortest-substring retrieval and ranking. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 18 (1) pp. 44-78. Available online

We present a model for arbitrary passage retrieval using Boolean queries. The model is applied to the task of ranking documents, or other structural elements, in the order of their expected relevance. Features such as phrase matching, truncation, and stemming integrate naturally into the model. Properties of Boolean algebra are obeyed, and the exact-match semantics of Boolean retrieval are preserved. Simple inverted-list file structures provide an efficient implementation. Retrieval effectiveness is comparable to that of standard ranking techniques. Since global statistics are not used, the method is of particular value in distributed environments. Since ranking is based on arbitrary passages, the structural elements to be ranked may be specified at query time and do not need to be restricted to predefined elements.

© All rights reserved Clarke and Cormack and/or ACM Press

1999
 
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Cormack, Gordon V., Clarke, Charles L. A., Palmer, Christopher R. and Good, Robert C. (1999): The MultiText Retrieval System. In: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 1999. p. 334. Available online

1998
 
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Cormack, Gordon V., Palmer, Christopher R. and Clarke, Charles L. A. (1998): Efficient Construction of Large Test Collections. In: Proceedings of the 21st Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 1998. pp. 282-289. Available online

Test collections with a million or more documents are needed for the evaluation of modern information retrieval systems. Yet their construction requires a great deal of effort. Judgements must be rendered as to whether or not documents are relevant to each of a set of queries. Exhaustive judging, in which every document is examined and a judgement rendered, is infeasible for collections of this size. Current practice is represented by the "pooling method", as used in the TREC conference series, in which only the first k documents from each of a number of sources are judged. We propose two methods, Interactive Searching and Judging and Move-to-Front Pooling, that yield effective test collections while requiring many fewer judgements. Interactive Searching and Judging selects documents to be judged using an interactive search system, and may be used by a small research team to develop an effective test collection using minimal resources. Move-to-Front Pooling directly improves on the standard pooling method by using a variable number of documents from each source depending on its retrieval performance. Move-to-Front Pooling would be an appropriate replacement for the standard pooling method in future collection development efforts involving many independent groups.

© All rights reserved Cormack et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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