Number of co-authors:30
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Bruce Mehler:12Joseph F. Coughlin:9Ying Wang:4
Bryan Reimer's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Ying Wang:15Bruce Mehler:12Joseph F. Coughlin:10
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Publications by Bryan Reimer (bibliography)
Reimer, Bryan, Mehler, Bruce, Donmez, Birsen, Pala, Silviu, Wang, Ying, Zaho, Nan, Olson, Kirsten, Wenzel, John and Coughlin, Joseph F. (2012): A Driving Simulator Study Examining Phone Dialing with an iPhone vs. a Button Style Flip-Phone. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 2191-2195.
A simulation study compared 36 young adult drivers' task completion time, eye behavior, and driving performance while dialing a flip-phone with tactile pushbuttons and an iPhone which provides a touch screen interface. Participants who often use a traditional manual button phone completed the dialing task faster when using the flip-phone compared to touch screen users using the iPhone. Females using the flip phone had the highest percentage of time spent with eyes on the road. Females were also less likely to exhibit glances greater than 2 seconds in duration with both phone types and particularly with the flip-phone. Some advantages may exist in a traditional tactile manual interface in terms of the percentage of time drivers kept their eyes on the road.
© All rights reserved Reimer et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Donmez, Birsen, Reimer, Bryan, Mehler, Bruce, Lavallière, Martin and Coughlin, Joseph F. (2011): A Pilot Investigation of the Impact of Cognitive Demand on Turn Signal Use during Lane Changes in Actual Highway Conditions across Multiple Age Groups. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting 2011. pp. 1874-1878.
In a field study, we examined turn signal use characteristics during highway-lane changes across three age groups (20-29, 40-49, and 60-69) and under varying levels of secondary cognitive demand. Secondary cognitive demand decreased the likelihood of turn signal use, and delayed the onset and turnoff of the turn signals. These results suggest that added cognitive load can lead to a neglect of operational tasks in face of competition over limited resources. No major effects of age or relative level of secondary cognitive demand were observed.
© All rights reserved Donmez et al. and/or HFES
Reimer, Bryan, Mehler, Bruce, Wang, Ying and Coughlin, Joseph F. (2010): The Impact of Systematic Variation of Cognitive Demand on Drivers Visual Attention across Multiple Age Groups. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 2052-2056.
Recordings of drivers' gaze under three levels of cognitive demand were captured under actual driving conditions in individuals in their 20's, 40's and 60's. Changes in the allocation of visual attention between single-task driving and the three levels of cognitive secondary tasks are summarized. Under the conditions studied here, gaze centralization varies by task difficulty and appears predominantly in the horizontal plane. The degree of horizontal gaze centralization with added cognitive workload is not related to age in the relatively healthy individuals studied.
© All rights reserved Reimer et al. and/or HFES
Mehler, Bruce, Reimer, Bryan and Coughlin, Joseph F. (2010): Physiological Reactivity to Graded Levels of Cognitive Workload across Three Age Groups: An On-Road Evaluation. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 2062-2066.
This study examined the sensitivity of two physiological measures to the demand of structured cognitive tasks representing low, moderate and relatively high levels of secondary cognitive workload during actual highway driving. In a sample of 108 relatively healthy drivers, balanced by gender, and drawn from three age groups (20-29, 40-49, and 60-69), both heart rate and skin conductance were found to increase in a statistically significant and relatively linear fashion across 4 levels of workload. Issues associated with the study of sensitivity, task engagement and age are considered.
© All rights reserved Mehler et al. and/or HFES
Son, Joonwoo, Reimer, Bryan, Mehler, Bruce, Pohlmeyer, Anna E., Godfrey, K. M., Orszulak, Jarrod, Long, J., Kim, M. H., Lee, Y. T. and Courhlin, Joseph F. (2010): Age and cross-cultural comparison of drivers' cognitive workload and performance in simulated urban driving. In International Journal of Automotive Technology, 11 (4) pp. 533-539.
Driving demands significant psychomotor attention and requires even more when drivers are engaged in secondary tasks that increase cognitive workload and divert attention. It is well established that age influences driving risk. Less is known about how culture impacts changes in attention. We conducted parallel driving simulations in the US and Korea to measure the extent to which age and culture influence dual-task performance. There were 135 participants divided into two groups: a younger group aged 20∼29, and an older group aged 60∼69. Whereas some differences by culture appeared in absolute control measures, the younger participants showed similar mean velocity and compensatory patterns associated with increased cognitive load in the urban setting; however, the results from the older samples were less similar.
© All rights reserved Son et al. and/or KSAE
Reimer, Bryan, Mehler, Bruce, D'Ambrosio, Lisa A. and Fried, Ronna (2010): The impact of distractions on young adult drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42 (3) pp. 842-851.
Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk for being involved in automobile crashes. Although driving simulators have been used to identify and understand underlying behaviors, prior research has focused largely on single-task, non-distracted driving. However, in-vehicle infotainment and communications systems often vie for a driver's attention, potentially increasing the risk of collision. This paper explores the impact of secondary tasks on individuals with and without ADHD, a medical condition known to affect the regulation of attention. Data are drawn from a validated driving simulation representing periods before, during, and after participation in a secondary cognitive task. A hands-free phone task was employed in a high stimulus, urban setting and a working memory task during low stimulus, highway driving. Drivers with ADHD had more difficulty on the telephone task, yet did not show an increased decrement in driving performance greater than control participants. In contrast, participants with ADHD showed a larger decline in driving performance than controls during a secondary task in a low demand setting. The results suggest that the interaction of the nature of the driving context and the secondary task has a significant influence on how drivers with ADHD allocate attention and, in-turn, on the relative impact on driving performance. Drivers with ADHD appear particularly susceptible to distraction during periods of low stimulus driving.
© All rights reserved Reimer et al. and/or Elsevier
Wang, Ying, Mehler, Bruce, Reimer, Bryan, Lammers, Vincent, D'Ambrosio, Lisa and Coughlin, Joseph F. (2010): The validity of driving simulation for assessing differences between in-vehicle informational interfaces: A comparison with field testing. In Ergonomics, 11 (4) pp. 404-420.
Data from on-road and simulation studies were compared to assess the validity of measures generated in the simulator. In the on-road study, driver interaction with three manual address entry methods (keypad, touch screen and rotational controller) was assessed in an instrumented vehicle to evaluate relative usability and safety implications. A separate group of participants drove a similar protocol in a medium fidelity, fixed-base driving simulator to assess the extent to which simulator measures mirrored those obtained in the field. Visual attention and task measures mapped very closely between the two environments. In general, however, driving performance measures did not differentiate among devices at the level of demand employed in this study. The findings obtained for visual attention and task engagement suggest that medium fidelity simulation provides a safe and effective means to evaluate the effects of in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) designs on these categories of driver behaviour. Statement of Relevance: Realistic evaluation of the user interface of IVIS has significant implications for both user acceptance and safety. This study addresses the validity of driving simulation for accurately modelling differences between interface methodologies by comparing results from the field with those from a medium fidelity, fixed-base simulator.
© All rights reserved Wang et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Gruenstein, Alexander, Orszulak, Jarrod, Liu, Sean, Roberts, Shannon, Zabel, Jeff, Reimer, Bryan, Mehler, Bruce, Seneff, Stephanie, Glass, James and Coughlin, Joseph (2009): City browser: developing a conversational automotive HMI. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4291-4296.
This paper introduces City Browser, a prototype multimodal, conversational, spoken language interface for automotive navigational aid and information access. A study designed to evaluate the impact of age and gender on device interaction errors, perceptions and experiences with the system along with physiological indices of workload is outlined. Preliminary results, plans for further analysis and a larger scale user evaluation are presented.
© All rights reserved Gruenstein et al. and/or ACM Press
Reimer, Bryan, Mehler, Bruce, Lammers, Vincent, Wang, Ying and Coughlin, Joseph F. (2009): A comparison of three manual destination entry methods on their impact on visual attention and driving performance: an on-road evaluation. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 1757-1761.
A comparison under actual driving conditions of 3 manual destination entry techniques (keypad, touch screen, and rotational controller) indicates that visual behavior measures are sensitive for detecting differences that are not apparent in standard driving performance measures when drivers are under low to moderate levels of load.
© All rights reserved Reimer et al. and/or their publisher
Mehler, Bruce, Reimer, Bryan and Coughlin, Joseph F. (2009): The impact of incremental increases in cognitive workload on physiological arousal and performance in young adult drivers. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2138 pp. 6-12.
This study examined the sensitivity of heart rate, skin conductance, and respiration rate as measures of mental workload in a simulated driving environment. Workload was systematically manipulated by using increasingly difficult levels of a secondary cognitive task. In a sample of 121 young adults, heart rate increased incrementally with increasing task demand. Significant elevations in skin conductance and respiration rate were also observed. At the lower levels of added workload, secondary task performance was nearly perfect and changes in indices of driving performance were negligible. At the highest level of workload, all three physiological measures appeared to plateau, and a subtle drop in simulated driving performance became detectable. Taken together, the pattern of results indicates that physiological measures can be sensitive to changes in workload before the appearance of clear decrements in driving performance. These findings further highlight a role for physiological monitoring as a means to measure mental workload in product design and functionality research. They also support work exploring the potential for incorporating physiological measures of driver workload and attentional state in future safety systems.
© All rights reserved Mehler et al. and/or Transportation Research Board of the National Academies
Reimer, Bryan, Mehler, Bruce, Coughlin, Joseph F., Godfrey, Kathryn M. and Tan, Chuanzhong (2009): An on-road assessment of the impact of cognitive workload on physiological arousal in young adult drivers. In: Schmidt, Albrecht, Dey, Anind K., Seder, Thomas and Juhlin, Oskar (eds.) Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications - AutomotiveUI 2009 21-22 September , 2009, Essen, Germany. pp. 115-118.
Mehler, Bruce, Reimer, Bryan, Pohlmeyer, Anna E. and Coughlin, Joseph F. (2008): The association between heart rate reactivity and driving performance under dual task demand in late middle age drivers. In Advances in Transportation Studies an International Journal. Special Issue, pp. 53-70.
Physiological indices of arousal generally increase when heightened demands are placed on an individual’s cognitive resources. As a consequence, measures such as heart rate are frequently used as one method of assessing changes in workload. In a simulation study with young adult (19-23 yrs.) and late middle age (51-66 yrs.) drivers, heart rate responses were compared during a variety of dual task conditions along with driving and task performance data. During two of the tasks in which younger participants showed significant heart rate acceleration, older drivers, as a group, showed little or no change in heart rate. In this paper we present data on a more detailed analysis of the relationship between heart rate change and performance during one of the dual load conditions, a continuous performance task (CPT). The sample was subdivided into individuals who showed a substantive heart rate acceleration response during the task vs. those who showed little change or heart rate deceleration. Of the 18 younger and 15 older adults in the analysis, 56% of the younger and 27% of the older individuals fell into the heart rate acceleration category. Heart rate response did not correlate with performance on the CPT in the younger subjects. In the older subjects, however, the heart rate acceleration group scored significantly higher on the CPT than those who did not exhibit a pattern of heart rate acceleration. In addition to lower performance on the CPT task, older adults in the non-acceleration group showed a significant drop in driving speed, which is generally interpreted as a compensatory response employed to manage total workload. Overall, the late middle aged drivers who showed a heart rate accelerative response during the CPT task performed better on both the primary and secondary tasks than those that did not. The increase in heart rate in the late middle age drivers in this instance could serve as marker for a variety of important performance mediating variables including relative engagement in the task, availability of resources to invest in the dual tasks, attentional style, or overall flexibility of response. The results suggest the potential value of looking at differences in individual patterns of response in driving behavior studies in addition to overall group behavior. The presence of subtypes of heart rate responders, and the observed performance differences between subtypes in this paradigm, illustrate the importance of these considerations. Other heart rate patterning data from the literature is considered and suggestions for future investigation offered.
© All rights reserved Mehler et al. and/or their publisher
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