Number of co-authors:20
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Roger Lew:6George J. Andersen:3Rowdy J. Hope:3
Brian P. Dyre's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Ronald L. Boring:10Ernesto A. Bustama..:10Roger Lew:6
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Brian P. Dyre
Publications by Brian P. Dyre (bibliography)
Hope, Rowdy J., Lew, Roger, Colby, Katrina A. and Dyre, Brian P. (2012): Optically-Controlled Braking Responses to Variable Deceleration Magnitudes in a Car-Following Task. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 1698-1702.
This study sought to identify which braking strategies are more often used in a car-following task when only optical cues to deceleration are available (no brake lights). Previous research identified three braking strategies for stopping to a stationary obstruction: regulation (deceleration at a near-constant magnitude), slam-on-the-brakes (increasing magnitude of deceleration), and bang-bang (initial high deceleration followed by a less deceleration). We used a car-following task with braking profiles which included variable decelerations to examine which of these strategies is most often used when drivers are not presented with brake lights warning of the deceleration of the lead vehicle. Results showed that individuals tend to use the slam-on-the-brakes approach (soft-then-hard braking) more than regulated (constant braking) or a bang-bang approach (hard-then-soft braking) when following vehicles without brake lights. These data form an important baseline of behavior for evaluating the effects of brake lights and other deceleration displays on braking behavior.
© All rights reserved Hope et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Ragsdale, Austin, Lew, Roger, Dyre, Brian P. and Boring, Ronald L. (2012): Fault Diagnosis with Multi-State Alarms in a Nuclear Power Control Simulator. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 2167-2171.
This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.
© All rights reserved Ragsdale et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Stanton, Nash, Lew, Roger, Boyle, Nolan, Hope, Rowdy J., Dyre, Brian P. and Bustamante, Ernesto A. (2011): An Implementation of a Graded Deceleration Display in Brake Light Warning Systems. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting 2011. pp. 1573-1577.
The purpose of this research is to assess the effectiveness of the Graded Deceleration Display (GDD) that is designed to replace the rear center high mounted stop lamp on automobiles. Licensed drivers were treated in simulation to both a standard brake light displays (binary) and the GDD display while the lead vehicle (LV) varied its deceleration magnitude and ramping behavior. Results entailed that the graded system produced more accurate behavioral responses during deceleration, fewer collisions, and a safer following distance than the binary system. Future research should be concerned with solidifying this framework so that it can be used to improve safety, effectiveness, and efficiency for vehicle transportation.
© All rights reserved Stanton et al. and/or HFES
Hope, Rowdy J., Lew, Roger, Boyle, Nolan, Stanton, Nash, Dyre, Brian P. and Bustamante, Ernesto A. (2011): Effects and Evaluation of the Graded Deceleration Display on Driver Braking Performance. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting 2011. pp. 1578-1582.
Driver braking performance is highly dependent on the driver's ability to estimate closing distance to the vehicle in front of them. Unfortunately, drivers often do not accurately perceive closing speed (Hoffman&Mortimer, 1996). Here, we examined whether providing graded deceleration magnitudes via an array of horizontally arranged brake lights (Graded Deceleration Display -- GDD) can improve driver braking performance over standard (Binary) displays. In simulation, participants followed a lead vehicle through a series of braking events where the maximum rates of deceleration were systematically varied. Drivers were instructed to follow the lead vehicle at a "safe and adequate" distance. The Graded Deceleration Display resulted in slightly longer reaction times although the braking responses were more accurate in relation to the deceleration of the lead vehicle. The GDD also resulted in longer following distances, which could be indicative of an increased margin of safety for following vehicles.
© All rights reserved Hope et al. and/or HFES
Lew, Roger, Dyre, Brian P., Soule, Terence, Ragsdale, Stuart A. and Werner, Steffen (2010): ASSESSING MENTAL WORKLOAD FROM SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY USING WAVELETS AND GENETIC PROGRAMMING. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 254-258.
An essential component of augmented cognition (AC) is developing robust methods of extracting reliable and meaningful information from physiological measures in real-time. To evaluate the potential of skin conductance (SC) and pupil diameter (PD) measures, we utilized a dual-axis pursuit tracking task where the control mappings repeatedly and abruptly rotated 90° throughout the trials to provide an immediate and obvious challenge to proper system control. Using these data, a model-building technique novel to these measures, genetic programming (GP) with scaled symbolic regression and Age Layered Populations (ALPS), was compared to traditional linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for predicting tracking error and control-mapping state. When compared with traditional linear modeling approaches, symbolic regression better predicted both tracking error and control mapping state. Furthermore, the estimates obtained from symbolic regression were less noisy and more robust.
© All rights reserved Lew et al. and/or HFES
Adamic, Eric J., Behre, Joseph and Dyre, Brian P. (2010): Attentional Locus and Ground Dominance in Control of Speed During Low Altitude Flight. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 1665-1669.
During simulated low-altitude flight, participants' control of speed is based on the optical flow rate projected by the ground, even when changes in altitude make this information unreliable and other sources of speed information, such as the flow rate of a cloud layer above the flight path, could help to provide more valid information (Wotring, 2008). This study examined whether this ground bias in perceiving speed could be overcome by using a secondary visual search task to manipulate the attentional focus away from the ground. A task requiring participants to visually scan for potentially-colliding planes either above or below the horizon was coupled with a speed maintenance task similar to the task used by Bennett, Flach, McEwen&Russell (2006) and Wotring, Dyre,&Behre (2008). We found that altitude disturbances induced inappropriate speed control in a similar manner independent of whether the secondary task required the attentional focus to be directed above or below the horizon. These results suggest that ground bias in speed control is robust even when attention is directed above the horizon by a secondary visual task.
© All rights reserved Adamic et al. and/or HFES
Bulkley, Nathan K., Dyre, Brian P., Lew, Roger and Caufield, Kristin (2009): A Peripherally-Located Virtual Instrument Landing Display Affords More Precise Control of Approach Path During Simulated Landings than Traditional Instrument Landing Displays. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 31-35.
We compared the precision of simulated fixed-wing aircraft landing approaches with three different head-up display (HUD) formats: a) MIL-STD-1787B Cruise Mode, b) MIL-STD-1787B Instrument Landing System (ILS) Mode, and c) a virtual ILS HUD presented to the visual periphery. Non-pilot participants used simplified controls to guide a landing simulation under both day and night visual meteorological conditions. Experiment 1 confirmed that testing non-pilots with our experimental setting could induce the black-hole illusion, in which the approach is lower than appropriate at night. Experiment 2 compared landing performance aided by the three HUD formats under the same visual conditions. We found that both ILS displays improved approach path precision as compared to the MIL-STD Cruise Mode, and that the peripherally-located virtual ILS HUD reliably afforded the greatest precision. These results suggest that ILS approaches may be better supported by presenting a virtual ILS display to the visual periphery.
© All rights reserved Bulkley et al. and/or their publisher
Merwin, David H., Dyre, Brian P., Humphrey, Darryl G., Grimes, John and Larish, John F. (1990): The Impact of Icons & Visual Effects on Learning Computer Databases. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 424-428.
Improvements in computer graphics systems have made icons and visual effects available for use in designing database interfaces. However, little research has been reported about the impact of icons and visual effects on performance measures such as item selection time and recall of the databases. The present study examined the effect of icons and visual effects on item selection time and recall of a hierarchical database structure. Information in the database was represented by either a text label or a combined icon-text label. In addition, three types of visual effects during transition between menu screens were examined: instantaneous change, zoom open from the previous screen, and dissolve into the next screen. Both the item representation and screen transition manipulations were examined between subjects. Subjects were required to reach goals by selecting items from the various menus in the database. Processing time per menu screen and recall of the database were measured for each subject. Both the type of representation (icon-text vs. text alone) and the type of transition between menus (zoom, instantaneous change or dissolve) were found to affect subjects' ability to recall the structure of the database. Furthermore, no similar effects on item selection time were found for either manipulation. These results suggest that icons and visual effects can facilitate recall of hierarchical databases without increasing traversal time. In addition, the results suggest that indiscriminate use of some visual effects (dissolve) can impair learning of computer databases.
© All rights reserved Merwin et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Dyre, Brian P. and Andersen, George J. (1990): The Impact of Visual Noise on Spatial Orientation. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 1577-1581.
In aviation, effective execution of some flight maneuvers, such as rescue operations at sea, requires that pilots form a veridical perception of their position and motion with respect to the environment. Previous research has shown that human observers can determine their own motion or spatial orientation from displays simulating observers motion through a rigid three-dimensional environment (Stoffregen, 1985; Andersen&Dyre; 1987; Dyre&Andersen, 1988; Andersen&Dyre, 1989;), however, the sensitivity of spatial orientation to noise in the visual field has not been examined. The present study examined the sensitivity of spatial orientation to noise in the global optic flow field. Displays simulating observer motion along the line of sight through a volume of randomly positioned points were observed monocularly through a circular window that limited the field of view to 30 degrees. The velocity of each display varied according to a function that was the sum of four sine functions of prime frequencies (between 0.15 and 1.0 Hz). Noise was produced by randomly shifting the phase lag of the three-dimensional motion function for each individual point within the display. Two levels of lag were examined: no lag and 10 second lag. Change in posture was used as an objective measure of spatial orientation and was recorded by a Kistler force platform. When no lag was present, increased postural sway was found to occur at all the frequencies of motion simulated in the display. However, for a lag of 10 seconds subjects exhibited no increase in postural sway at the display frequencies. These results suggest that if global optic flow patterns are obscured by noise then the information important for determining spatial orientation is greatly reduced. The importance of these results for flight of maneuvers will be discussed.
© All rights reserved Dyre and Andersen and/or Human Factors Society
Dyre, Brian P. and Andersen, George J. (1988): Perceived Change in Orientation from Optic Flow in the Central Visual Field. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. pp. 1434-1438.
An important consideration for some types of flight simulation is that sufficient information be provided for a vertical perception of a pilot's motion and/or change in orientation. Previous research (Andersen&Braunstein, 1985) has suggested that induced self-motion from stimulation of the central visual field may be related to internal depth within the display. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of internal depth within the display on perceived changes in orientation. Subjects monocularly viewed displays simulating observer motion within a volume of randomly positioned points through a window which limited the field of view to 15 degrees. The velocity of the displays varied according to a sum of four frequencies. Change in posture was used to measure changes in perceived spatial orientation. Three variables were examined: 1) the extent of internal depth within the display, 2) the presence of absence of visual information specifying change in orientation, and 3) the frequency of motion simulated by the display. A frequency analysis of postural sway indicated that increased sway occurred at frequencies of .375 Hz and lower when motion at these frequencies was present in the display. However, the extent of internal depth in the display had no consistent effect on the perception of changing orientation. The implication of this research for flight simulation will be discussed.
© All rights reserved Dyre and Andersen and/or Human Factors Society
Andersen, George J. and Dyre, Brian P. (1987): Induced Roll Vection from Stimulation of the Central Visual Field. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 31st Annual Meeting 1987. pp. 263-265.
An important consideration for some types of flight simulation is that sufficient visual information be provided for a perception of self-motion. A general conclusion of earlier research is that peripheral stimulation (outside a 30 deg. diameter area of the central visual field) is necessary for perceived self-motion to occur. More recently Andersen and Braunstein (1985) demonstrated that induced self-motion could occur when visual information simulating forward motion of the observer was presented to a limited area of the central visual field. In the present study, the perception of induced roll vection (rotation about the line of sight) from visual stimulation of the central visual field was examined. Subjects viewed computer generated displays that simulated observer motion relative to a volume of randomly positioned points. Two variables were examined: 1) the presence or absence of a simulated forward motion, and 2) the presence of a 15 deg. or 30 deg. sinusoidal roll motion. It was found that: 1) induced roll vection occurred with stimulation restricted to a 10 deg. diameter area of the central visual field; 2) greater postural instability occurred for displays with a 30 deg. roll as compared to a 15 deg. roll; and 3) significantly greater postural instability occurred along the X-axis (left/right) as compared to the Y-axis (front/back). The implications of this research for flight simulation will be discussed.
© All rights reserved Andersen and Dyre and/or Human Factors Society
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