Number of co-authors:33
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Ann Blandford:4Paola Amaldi:3Peter C. Wright:3
Bob Fields's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Fabio Paterno:126Ann Blandford:85Harold Thimbleby:70
A designer knows he has achieved perfection not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away.
-- Antoine De Saint-Exupery
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Publications by Bob Fields (bibliography)
Rick, Jochen, Francois, Phyllis, Fields, Bob, Fleck, Rowanne, Yuill, Nicola and Carr, Amanda (2010): Lo-fi prototyping to design interactive-tabletop applications for children. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC10 Interaction Design and Children 2010. pp. 138-146.
Interactive tabletops are an exiting new platform for supporting children's collaboration. With design guidelines and standardized interaction principles still immature, there is a considerable need for iterative prototyping to define the task and interface. Lo-fi prototypes -- using cardboard, paper, etc. -- are easy to develop, flexible to adjust during design sessions, and intuitive for users to manipulate. Using them can be a valuable step in designing tabletop applications. In this paper, we detail the design process of two tabletop applications, concentrating on the role of lo-fi prototyping. TransTime is a pattern game for 5-6 year olds to engage how time progresses. OurSpace is a design tool for 7-9 year olds to arrange desks and assign seats for students in their classroom. By comparing the experiences, we arrive at a better understanding of the benefits, challenges, and limits of using lo-fi prototypes to design interactive-tabletop applications for children.
© All rights reserved Rick et al. and/or their publisher
Keith, S., Blandford, Ann, Fields, Bob and Harrison, Michael (eds.) 12th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education EPDE10 2010.
Bardill, Andy, Griffiths, Wynn, Jones, Sara and Fields, Bob (2010): Design Tribes And Information Spaces For Creative Conversations. In: Keith, S., Blandford, Ann, Fields, Bob and Harrison, Michael (eds.) 12th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education EPDE10 2010. .
This paper reports on work in progress to augment the role and practice of Creative Conversations in
product design education. We describe changes in practice designed to elevate the importance of
conversations and various pedagogical approaches used to support this elevation. These changes are
principally manifested in the formation of like-minded Communities of Interest, or ‘Design Tribes’,
the adoption of revised design process models and the associated reorganisation of assessment
philosophy and practice. We go on to describe and reflect on various technological interventions
deployed, that have been designed to weakly augment the conversation space in both situated (studio
based contact sessions) and distributed (work undertaken in between contact sessions) settings.
© All rights reserved Bardill et al. and/or The Design Society
Selvaraj, Nallini and Fields, Bob (2009): A grounded theory approach towards conceptualizing CIS for heterogeneous work communities. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 471-479.
The notion of Common Information Space (CIS) is an area that has been gaining attention in the field of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) over the last few years. This paper discusses one aspect of the investigation being undertaken to develop the conceptualization of CIS pertaining to heterogeneous work communities. This is based on empirical study of collaborative decision making involving different work communities in an airport of the air traffic control setting. The theory development is founded on the Grounded Theory approach. We present some of the findings of the ongoing analysis. In particular we discuss how the Grounded Theory methodological process has been adapted to this investigation by presenting illustrations of emergent theory development at the theoretical coding phase of the process.
© All rights reserved Selvaraj and Fields and/or their publisher
Fields, Bob, Amaldi, Paola, Wong, William and Gill, Satinder (2008): Introduction: In-Use, In-Situ: Extending Field Research Methods -- Part 2. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 24 (4) pp. 359-360.
Stelmaszewska, Hanna, Fields, Bob and Blandford, Ann (2008): The Roles of Time, Place, Value and Relationships in Collocated Photo Sharing with Camera Phones. In: Proceedings of the HCI08 Conference on People and Computers XXII 2008. pp. 141-150.
Photo sharing on camera phones is becoming a common way to maintain closeness and relationships with friends and family. How people share their photos in collocated settings using camera phones, with whom they share, and what factors influence their sharing experience were the themes explored in this study. Results showed that people exhibit different photo sharing behaviour depending on who they share photos with, where the sharing takes place and what value a picture represents to its owner. In this paper, we will explain what triggers the photo sharing activity and how the sharing takes place depending on who photos are shared with and where they are shared (e.g. restaurant, pub, home). The sharing experience is hindered by the difficulty of controlling which photographs are made available to particular people; sharing with a group of people at once; and ensuring appropriate privacy measures. These findings highlight requirements for novel mechanisms for organising, sharing, and displaying photos as well as provide a better understanding of photo sharing behaviour using camera phones in collocated settings.
© All rights reserved Stelmaszewska et al. and/or their publisher
Fields, Bob, Amaldi, Paola, Wong, William and Gill, Satinder (2007): Editorial: In Use, In Situ: Extending Field Research Methods. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 22 (1) pp. 1-6.
Blandford, Ann, Keith, Suzette, Butterworth, Richard, Fields, Bob and Furniss, Dominic (2007): Disrupting digital library development with scenario informed design. In Interacting with Computers, 19 (1) pp. 70-82.
In recent years, there has been great interest in scenario-based design and other forms of user-centred design. However, there are many design processes that, often for good reason, remain technology-centred. We present a case study of introducing scenarios into two digital library development processes. This was found to disrupt established patterns of working and to bring together conflicting value systems. In particular, the human factors approach of identifying users and anticipating what they are likely to do with a system (and what problems they might encounter) did not sit well with a development culture in which the rapid generation and informal evaluation of possible solutions (that are technically feasible and compatible with stable system components) is the norm. We found that developers tended to think in terms of two kinds of user: one who was exploring the system with no particular goal in mind and one who knew as much as the developer; scenarios typically work with richer user descriptions that challenge that thinking. In addition, the development practice of breaking down the design problem into discrete functions to make it manageable does not fit well with a scenario-based approach to thinking about user behaviour and interactions. The compromise reached was scenario-informed design, whereby scenarios were generated to support reasoning about the use of selected functions within the system. These scenarios helped create productive common ground between perspectives.
© All rights reserved Blandford et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Selvaraj, Nallini, Fields, Bob and Amaldi-Trillo, Paola (2007): Decisions and collaborative work: a different perspective. In: Brinkman, Willem-Paul, Ham, Dong-Han and Wong, B. L. William (eds.) ECCE 2007 - Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics August 28-31, 2007, London, UK. pp. 243-246.
Blandford, Ann, Keith, Suzette and Fields, Bob (2006): Claims Analysis. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 21 (2) pp. 197-218.
One of the long-standing challenges in human-computer interaction has been the integration of usability evaluation methods within design practice. In the work reported here, the question of how to include user concerns within an unstructured, system-focused development process was investigated. The project looked into the use of Claims Analysis as a method for assessing the effects of design decisions on users' experience. Claims Analysis was found to be more difficult than expected to learn, to communicate to systems developers, and to apply effectively in practice. The work has highlighted a tension between user-centered and function-oriented design approaches and differences in values and perspectives between the human factors specialists and traditional developers involved in the study.
© All rights reserved Blandford et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Fields, Bob, Amaldi, Paola and Tassi, Antonello (2005): Representing Collaborative Work: The Airport as Common Information Space.. In Cognition, Technology and Work, 7 pp. 119-133.
Theng, Yin Leng, Mohd-Nasir, Norliza, Buchanan, George, Fields, Bob, Thimbleby, Harold, Cassidy, Noel and Cassidy, Noel (2001): Dynamic Digital Libraries for Children. In: JCDL01: Proceedings of the 1st ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2001. pp. 406-415.
The majority of current digital libraries (DLs) are not designed for children. For DLs to be popular with children, they need to be fun, easy-to-use and empower them, whether as readers or authors. This paper describes a new children's DL emphasizing its design and evaluation, working with the children (11-14 year olds) as design partners and testers. A truly participatory process was used, and observational study was used as a means of refinement to the initial design of the DL prototype. In contrast with current DLs, the children's DL provides both a static as well as a dynamic environment to encourage active engagement of children in using it. Design, implementation and security issues are also raised.
© All rights reserved Theng et al. and/or ACM Press
Wright, Peter C., Dearden, Andy and Fields, Bob (2000): Function Allocation: A Perspective from Studies of Work Practice. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 52 (2) pp. 335-355.
Function allocation is a central component of systems engineering and its main aim is to provide a rational means of determining which system-level functions should be carried out by humans and which by machines. Such allocation, it is assumed, can take place early in design life cycle. Such a rational approach to work design sits uneasily with studies of work practice reported in the ACI and CSCW literature. In this paper we present two case studies of work in practice. The first highlights the difference between functional abstractions used for function allocation decision making and what is required to make those functions work in practice. The second highlights how practice and technology can co-evolve in ways that change the meanings of functions allocated early in design. The case studies raise a number of implications for function allocation. One implication is that there is a need for richer representations of the work context in function allocation methods. Although some progress has been made in function allocation methodologies, it is suggested that the method of Contextual Design might offer useful insights. A second implication is that there is a need for better theories of work to inform function allocation decision making. Activity Theory is considered as a possible candidate since it incorporates a cultural-historical view of work evolution. Both Contextual Design and Activity Theory challenge assumptions that are deeply embedded in the human factors and systems engineering communities. In particular, that functions and tasks are an appropriate unit of analysis for function allocation.
© All rights reserved Wright et al. and/or Academic Press
Palanque, Philippe A., Paterno, Fabio and Fields, Bob (1998): Designing User Interfaces for Safety Critical Systems. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 30 (4) pp. 37-39.
Fields, Bob, Wright, Peter and Harrison, Michael (1996): Time, Tasks and Errors. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 28 (2) pp. 53-56.
An aspect of usability that has often been downplayed in previous HCI modelling research involves time. Time dependencies and temporal constraints are an important aspect of action, and failure to meet them leads to an important class of human errors; many of the errors associated with safety critical systems have a significant temporal component. An attempt is made to show how properties and behaviours that are important from this temporal perspective may be modelled using concepts from our previous work  and using real-time CSP ; some of the issues and problems with such approaches are examined.
© All rights reserved Fields et al. and/or ACM Press
Fields, Bob, Wright, Peter C. and Harrison, Michael D. (1995): A task centered approach to analysing human error tolerance requirements. In: Second IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering 1995 March 27 - 29, 1995, York, England. pp. 18-26.
Bramwell, Chris, Fields, Bob and Harrison, Michael D. (1995): Exploring Design Options Rationally. In: Palanque, Philippe A. and Bastide, Remi (eds.) DSV-IS 1995 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems 95, Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop June 7-9, 1995, Toulouse, France. pp. 134-148.
Fields, Bob, Harrison, Michael D. and Wright, Peter C. (1994): Modelling Interactive Systems and Providing Task Relevant Information. In: Paterno, Fabio (ed.) DSV-IS 1994 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems94, Proceedings of the First International Eurographics Workshop June 8-10, 1994, Bocca di Magra, Italy. pp. 253-266.
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