Publication statistics

Pub. period:1994-2011
Pub. count:70
Number of co-authors:117



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Allison Druin:17
James D. Hollan:8
Catherine Plaisant:6

 

 

Productive colleagues

Benjamin B. Bederson's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Ben Shneiderman:225
Steve Benford:121
Yvonne Rogers:99
 
 
 

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Benjamin B. Bederson

Picture of Benjamin B. Bederson.
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Has also published under the name of:
"Ben Bederson" and "Benjamin Bederson"

Personal Homepage:
http://www.cs.umd.edu/~bederson/

Professor, Computer Science Dept. Previous Director (2000-2006),Human-Computer Interaction Lab (HCIL) Institute of Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS), iSchool

 

Publications by Benjamin B. Bederson (bibliography)

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2011
 
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Hu, Chang, Bederson, Benjamin B., Resnik, Philip and Kronrod, Yakov (2011): MonoTrans2: a new human computation system to support monolingual translation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1133-1136. Available online

In this paper, we present MonoTrans2, a new user interface to support monolingual translation; that is, translation by people who speak only the source or target language, but not both. Compared to previous systems, MonoTrans2 supports multiple edits in parallel, and shorter tasks with less translation context. In an experiment translating children's books, we show that MonoTrans2 is able to substantially close the gap between machine translation and human bilingual translations. The percentage of sentences rated 5 out of 5 for fluency and adequacy by both bilingual evaluators in our study increased from 10% for Google Translate output to 68% for MonoTrans2.

© All rights reserved Hu et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Quinn, Alexander J. and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2011): Human computation: a survey and taxonomy of a growing field. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1403-1412. Available online

The rapid growth of human computation within research and industry has produced many novel ideas aimed at organizing web users to do great things. However, the growth is not adequately supported by a framework with which to understand each new system in the context of the old. We classify human computation systems to help identify parallels between different systems and reveal "holes" in the existing work as opportunities for new research. Since human computation is often confused with "crowdsourcing" and other terms, we explore the position of human computation with respect to these related topics.

© All rights reserved Quinn and Bederson and/or their publisher

 
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Bederson, Benjamin B. and Quinn, Alexander J. (2011): Web workers unite! addressing challenges of online laborers. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 97-106. Available online

The ongoing rise of human computation as a means of solving computational problems has created an environment where human workers are often regarded as nameless, faceless computational resources. Some people have begun to think of online tasks as a "remote person call". In this paper, we summarize ethical and practical labor issues surrounding online labor, and offer a set of guidelines for designing and using online labor in ways that support more positive relationships between workers and requesters, so that both can gain the most benefit from the interaction.

© All rights reserved Bederson and Quinn and/or their publisher

 
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Yeh, Tom, Chang, Tsung-Hsiang, Xie, Bo, Walsh, Greg, Watkins, Ivan, Wongsuphasawat, Krist, Huang, Man, Davis, Larry S. and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2011): Creating contextual help for GUIs using screenshots. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 145-154. Available online

Contextual help is effective for learning how to use GUIs by showing instructions and highlights on the actual interface rather than in a separate viewer. However, end-users and third-party tech support typically cannot create contextual help to assist other users because it requires programming skill and source code access. We present a creation tool for contextual help that allows users to apply common computer skills-taking screenshots and writing simple scripts. We perform pixel analysis on screenshots to make this tool applicable to a wide range of applications and platforms without source code access. We evaluated the tool's usability with three groups of participants: developers, instructors, and tech support. We further validated the applicability of our tool with 60 real tasks supported by the tech support of a university campus.

© All rights reserved Yeh et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Dearman, David, Karlson, Amy, Meyers, Brian and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2010): Multi-modal text entry and selection on a mobile device. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Graphics Interface 2010. pp. 19-26. Available online

Rich text tasks are increasingly common on mobile devices, requiring the user to interleave typing and selection to produce the text and formatting she desires. However, mobile devices are a rich input space where input does not need to be limited to a keyboard and touch. In this paper, we present two complementary studies evaluating four different input modalities to perform selection in support of text entry on a mobile device. The modalities are: screen touch (Touch), device tilt (Tilt), voice recognition (Speech), and foot tap (Foot). The results show that Tilt is the fastest method for making a selection, but that Touch allows for the highest overall text throughput. The Tilt and Foot methods -- although fast -- resulted in users performing and subsequently correcting a high number of text entry errors, whereas the number of errors for Touch is significantly lower. Users experienced significant difficulty when using Tilt and Foot in coordinating the format selections in parallel with the text entry. This difficulty resulted in more errors and therefore lower text throughput. Touching the screen to perform a selection is slower than tilting the device or tapping the foot, but the action of moving the fingers off the keyboard to make a selection ensured high precision when interleaving selection and text entry. Additionally, mobile devices offer a breadth of promising rich input methods that need to be careful studied in situ when deciding if each is appropriate to support a given task; it is not sufficient to study the modalities independent of a natural task.

© All rights reserved Dearman et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Hu, Chang, Bederson, Benjamin B. and Resnik, Philip (2010): Translation by iterative collaboration between monolingual users. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Graphics Interface 2010. pp. 39-46. Available online

In this paper we describe a new iterative translation process designed to leverage the massive number of online users who have minimal or no bilingual skill. The iterative process is supported by combining existing machine translation methods with monolingual human speakers. We have built a Web-based prototype that is capable of yielding high quality translations at much lower cost than traditional professional translators. Preliminary evaluation results of this prototype confirm the validity of the approach.

© All rights reserved Hu et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Druin, Allison, Cavallo, David, Fabian, Christopher, Bederson, Benjamin B., Revelle, Glenda, Rogers, Yvonne and Gray, Jim (2009): Mobile technologies for the world's children. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 3297-3300. Available online

In this panel, academic, non-profit, and industry professionals will discuss their global perspectives on mobile technologies for the world's children. Panelists will explore such issues concerning children's access to mobile devices, the decreasing age that children have access to these technologies, mobile innovations for learning, and challenges/opportunities in diverse countries. This interactive session will begin with each panelist giving a short summary of their work-to-date with children and various mobile applications. Then the panelists will be asked questions by children from different countries via pre-recorded video. Audience members will be invited to offer their thoughts and comments as well as the panelists during the video question period. Audience members will also be able to ask further questions throughout the panel discussion.

© All rights reserved Druin et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Druin, Allison, Bederson, Benjamin B. and Quinn, Alex (2009): Designing intergenerational mobile storytelling. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 325-328. Available online

Informal educational experiences with grandparents and other older adults can be an important component of children's education, especially in circumstances where high quality educational services and facilities are not readily available. Mobile devices offer unique capabilities to support such interactions. We report on an ongoing participatory design project with an intergenerational design group to create mobile applications for reading and editing books, or even creating all new stories on an Apple iPhone.

© All rights reserved Druin et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bederson, Benjamin B., Quinn, Alex and Druin, Allison (2009): Designing the reading experience for scanned multi-lingual picture books on mobile phones. In: JCDL09 Proceedings of the 2009 Joint International Conference on Digital Libraries 2009. pp. 305-308. Available online

This paper reports on an adaption of the existing PopoutText and ClearText display techniques to mobile phones. It explains the design rationale for a freely available iPhone application to read books from the International Children's Digital Library. Through a combination of applied image processing, a zoomable user interface, and a process of working with children to develop the detailed design, we present an interface that supports clear reading of scanned picture books in multiple languages on a mobile phone.

© All rights reserved Bederson et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Hu, Chang, Rose, Anne and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2009): Locating text in scanned books. In: JCDL09 Proceedings of the 2009 Joint International Conference on Digital Libraries 2009. pp. 395-396. Available online

In this paper, we describe a work flow to extract and verify text locations using commercial software, along with free software products and human proofing. To help mid-sized digital libraries, we are making our solution available as open source software.

© All rights reserved Hu et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Conrad, Frederick G., Bederson, Benjamin B., Lewis, Brian, Peytcheva, Emilia, Traugott, Michael W., Hanmer, Michael J., Herrnson, Paul S. and Niemi, Richard G. (2009): Electronic voting eliminates hanging chads but introduces new usability challenges. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67 (1) pp. 111-124. Available online

The arrival of electronic voting has generated considerable controversy, mostly about its vulnerability to fraud. By comparison, virtually no attention has been given to its usability, i.e., voters' ability to vote as they intend, which was central to the controversy surrounding the 2000 US presidential election. Yet it is hard to imagine a domain of human-computer interaction where usability has more impact on how democracy works. This article reports a laboratory investigation of the usability of six electronic voting systems chosen to represent the features of systems in current use and potentially in future use. The primary question was whether e-voting systems are sufficiently hard to use that voting accuracy and satisfaction are compromised. We observed that voters often seemed quite lost taking far more than the required number of actions to cast individual votes, especially when they ultimately voted inaccurately. Their satisfaction went down as their effort went up. And accuracy with some systems was disturbingly low. While many of these problems are easy to fix, manufacturers will need to adopt usability engineering practices that have vastly improved user interfaces throughout the software industry.

© All rights reserved Conrad et al. and/or Academic Press

2008
 
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Quinn, Alexander J., Hu, Chang, Arisaka, Takeshi, Rose, Anne and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2008): Readability of scanned books in digital libraries. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 705-714. Available online

Displaying scanned book pages in a web browser is difficult, due to an array of characteristics of the common user's configuration that compound to yield text that is degraded and illegibly small. For books which contain only text, this can often be solved by using OCR or manual transcription to extract and present the text alone, or by magnifying the page and presenting it in a scrolling panel. Books with rich illustrations, especially children's picture books, present a greater challenge because their enjoyment is dependent on reading the text in the context of the full page with its illustrations. We have created two novel prototypes for solving this problem by magnifying just the text, without magnifying the entire page. We present the results of a user study of these techniques. Users found our prototypes to be more effective than the dominant interface type for reading this kind of material and, in some cases, even preferable to the physical book itself.

© All rights reserved Quinn et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Karlson, Amy K. and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2008): One-handed touchscreen input for legacy applications. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1399-1408. Available online

Supporting one-handed thumb operation of touchscreen-based mobile devices presents a challenging tradeoff between visual expressivity and ease of interaction. ThumbSpace and Shift -- two new application-independent, software-based interaction techniques -- address this tradeoff in significantly different ways. ThumbSpace addresses distant objects while Shift addresses small object occlusion. We present two extensive, comparative user studies. The first compares ThumbSpace and Shift to peripheral hardware (directional pad and scrollwheel) and direct touchscreen input for selecting objects while standing and walking. The data favored the Shift design overall, but suggested ThumbSpace is promising for distant objects. Our second study examines the benefits and learnability of combining Shift and ThumbSpace on a device with a larger screen (3.5"). We found their combined use offered users better overall speed and accuracy in hitting small targets (3.6 mm{sup:2}) than using either method alone.

© All rights reserved Karlson and Bederson and/or ACM Press

 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Hochheiser, Harry, Johnson, Jeff, Karat, Clare-Marie and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2008): CHI policy issues around the world. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 2277-2280. Available online

While public policy is a recognized important topic within human-computer interaction, not enough attention has been paid to public policy efforts outside of the USA. We propose a panel at CHI 2008 to focus on CHI policy issues around the world. Specifically, we plan to address at least three major topics: accessibility, privacy, and voting.

© All rights reserved Lazar et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bederson, Benjamin B. (2008): Experiencing the International Children's Digital Library. In Interactions, 15 (6) pp. 50-54. Available online

2007
 
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Druin, Allison, Weeks, Ann, Massey, Sheri and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2007): Children's interests and concerns when using the international children's digital library: a four-country case study. In: JCDL07: Proceedings of the 7th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2007. pp. 167-176. Available online

This paper presents a case study of 12 children who used the International Children's Digital Library (ICDL) over four years and live in one of four countries: Germany, Honduras, New Zealand, and the United States. By conducting interviews, along with collecting drawings and book reviews, this study describes these children's interests in books, libraries, technology and the world around them. Findings from this study include: these young people increased the variety of books they read online; still valued their physical libraries as spaces for social interaction and reading; showed increased reading motivation; and showed interest in exploring different cultures.

© All rights reserved Druin et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kang, Hyunmo, Bederson, Benjamin B. and Suh, Bongwon (2007): Capture, Annotate, Browse, Find, Share: Novel Interfaces for Personal Photo Management. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 23 (3) pp. 315-337. Available online

The vision of ubiquitous digital photos has arrived. Yet, despite their broad popularity, significant shortfalls remain in the tools used to manage them. We believe that with a bit more creativity and effort, the photo industry can solve many of these problems, offering tools which better support accurate, rapid, and safe shared annotations with comfortable and efficient browsing and search. In this article, we review a number of projects of ours and others on interfaces for photo management. We describe the problems that we see in existing tools and our vision for improving them.

© All rights reserved Kang et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Suh, Bongwon and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2007): Semi-automatic photo annotation strategies using event based clustering and clothing based person recognition. In Interacting with Computers, 19 (4) pp. 524-544. Available online

Managing a large number of digital photos is a challenging task for casual users. Personal photos often don't have rich metadata, or additional information associated with them. However, available metadata can play a crucial role in managing photos. Labeling the semantic content of photos (i.e., annotating them), can increase the amount of metadata and facilitate efficient management. However, manual annotation is tedious and labor intensive while automatic metadata extraction techniques often generate inaccurate and irrelevant results. This paper describes a semi-automatic annotation strategy that takes advantage of human and computer strengths. The semi-automatic approach enables users to efficiently update automatically obtained metadata interactively and incrementally. Even though automatically identified metadata are compromised with inaccurate recognition errors, the process of correcting inaccurate information can be faster and easier than manually adding new metadata from scratch. In this paper, we introduce two photo clustering algorithms for generating meaningful photo groups: (1) Hierarchical event clustering; and (2) Clothing based person recognition, which assumes that people who wear similar clothing and appear in photos taken in one day are very likely to be the same person. To explore our semi-automatic strategies, we designed and implemented a prototype called SAPHARI (Semi-Automatic PHoto Annotation and Recognition Interface). The prototype provides an annotation framework which focuses on making bulk annotations on automatically identified photo groups. The prototype automatically creates photo clusters based on events, people, and file metadata so that users can easily bulk annotation photos. We performed a series of user studies to investigate the effectiveness and usability of the semi-automatic annotation techniques when applied to personal photo collections. The results show that users were able to make annotations significantly faster with event clustering using SAPHARI. We also found that users clearly preferred the semi-automatic approaches.

© All rights reserved Suh and Bederson and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Hutchinson, Hilary Browne, Druin, Allison and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2007): Supporting elementary-age children's searching and browsing: Design and evaluation using the international children's digital library. In JASIST - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58 (11) pp. 1618-1630. Available online

 
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Karlson, Amy K. and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2007): ThumbSpace: Generalized One-Handed Input for Touchscreen-Based Mobile Devices. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 324-338. Available online

2006
 
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Hutchinson, Hilary Browne, Bederson, Benjamin B. and Druin, Allison (2006): The evolution of the international children's digital library searching and browsing interface. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC06: Interaction Design and Children 2006. pp. 105-112. Available online

Elementary-age children (ages 6-11) are among the largest user groups of computers and the Internet, so it is important to design searching and browsing tools to support them. However, many such tools do not consider their skills and preferences. In this paper, we present the design rationale and process for creating the searching and browsing tool for the International Children's Digital Library (ICDL), the results from a user study evaluating it, and the challenges and possibilities it presents for other children's interfaces.

© All rights reserved Hutchinson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kang, Hyunmo, Plaisant, Catherine, Lee, Bongshin and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2006): Exploring content-actor paired network data using iterative query refinement with NetLens. In: JCDL06: Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2006. p. 372. Available online

Networks have remained a challenge for information retrieval and visualization because of the rich set of tasks that users want to accomplish. This paper demonstrates a tool, NetLens, to explore a Content-Actor paired network data model. The NetLens interface was designed to allow users to pose a series of elementary queries and iteratively refine visual overviews and sorted lists. This enables the support of complex queries that are traditionally hard to specify in node-link visualizations. NetLens is general and scalable in that it applies to any dataset that can be represented with our abstract Content-Actor data model.

© All rights reserved Kang et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Plaisant, Catherine, Clamage, Aaron, Hutchinson, Hilary Browne, Bederson, Benjamin B. and Druin, Allison (2006): Shared family calendars: Promoting symmetry and accessibility. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 13 (3) pp. 313-346. Available online

We describe the design and use of a system facilitating the sharing of calendar information between remotely located, multi-generational family members. Most previous work in this area involves software enabling younger family members to monitor their parents. We have found, however, that older adults are equally if not more interested in the activities of younger family members. The major obstacle preventing them from participating in information sharing is the technology itself. Therefore, we developed a multi-layered interface approach that offers simple interaction to older users. In our system, users can choose to enter information into a computerized calendar or write it by hand on digital paper calendars. All of the information is automatically shared among everyone in the distributed family. By making the interface more accessible to older users, we promote symmetrical sharing of information among both older and younger family members. We present our participatory design process, describe the user interface, and report on an exploratory field study in three households of an extended family.

© All rights reserved Plaisant et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Parhi, Pekka, Karlson, Amy K. and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2006): Target size study for one-handed thumb use on small touchscreen devices. In: Proceedings of 8th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2006. pp. 203-210. Available online

This paper describes a two-phase study conducted to determine optimal target sizes for one-handed thumb use of mobile handheld devices equipped with a touch-sensitive screen. Similar studies have provided recommendations for target sizes when using a mobile device with two hands plus a stylus, and interacting with a desktop-sized display with an index finger, but never for thumbs when holding a small device in a single hand. The first phase explored the required target size for single-target (discrete) pointing tasks, such as activating buttons, radio buttons or checkboxes. The second phase investigated optimal sizes for widgets used for tasks that involve a sequence of taps (serial), such as text entry. Since holding a device in one hand constrains thumb movement, we varied target positions to determine if performance depended on screen location. The results showed that while speed generally improved as targets grew, there were no significant differences in error rate between target sizes =9.6 mm in discrete tasks and targets =7.7 mm in serial tasks. Along with subjective ratings and the findings on hit response variability, we found that target size of 9.2 mm for discrete tasks and targets of 9.6 mm for serial tasks should be sufficiently large for one-handed thumb use on touchscreen-based handhelds without degrading performance and preference.

© All rights reserved Parhi et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Parhi, Pekka, Karlson, Amy K. and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2006): Target size study for one-handed thumb use on small touchscreen devices. In: Nieminen, Marko and Roykkee, Mika (eds.) Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2006 September 12-15, 2006, Helsinki, Finland. pp. 203-210. Available online

 
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Shneiderman, Ben, Bederson, Benjamin B. and Drucker, Steven M. (2006): Find that photo!: interface strategies to annotate, browse, and share. In Communications of the ACM, 49 (4) pp. 69-71. Available online

 
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Teevan, Jaime, Jones, William and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2006): Introduction. In Communications of the ACM, 49 (1) pp. 40-43. Available online

2005
 
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Karlson, Amy K., Bederson, Benjamin B. and SanGiovanni, John (2005): AppLens and launchTile: two designs for one-handed thumb use on small devices. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 201-210. Available online

We present two interfaces to support one-handed thumb use for PDAs and cell phones. Both use Scalable User Interface (ScUI) techniques to support multiple devices with different resolutions and aspect ratios. The designs use variations of zooming interface techniques to provide multiple views of application data: AppLens uses tabular fisheye to access nine applications, while LaunchTile uses pure zoom to access thirty-six applications. We introduce two sets of thumb gestures, each representing different philosophies for one-handed interaction. We conducted two studies to evaluate our designs. In the first study, we explored whether users could learn and execute the AppLens gesture set with minimal training. Participants performed more accurately and efficiently using gestures for directional navigation than using gestures for object interaction. In the second study, we gathered user reactions to each interface, as well as comparative preferences. With minimal exposure to each design, most users favored AppLens's tabular fisheye interface.

© All rights reserved Karlson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Klein, Christian and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2005): Benefits of animated scrolling. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1965-1968. Available online

We examined the benefits of animated scrolling using four speeds and three different document types in terms of task speed, accuracy and user preference. We considered reading tasks involving unformatted and formatted text documents, as well as counting tasks involving abstract symbol documents. We found that, compared with non-animated scrolling, animated scrolling significantly improves average task time, by up to 5.3% using 300 millisecond animations for reading documents and by up to 24% at 500 milliseconds for symbol documents. Animated scrolling also significantly decreases error rates for reading tasks by up to

© All rights reserved Klein and Bederson and/or ACM Press

 
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Lee, Bongshin, Czerwinski, Mary, Robertson, George G. and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2005): Understanding research trends in conferences using paperLens. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1969-1972. Available online

PaperLens is a novel visualization that reveals trends, connections, and activity throughout a conference community. It tightly couples views across papers, authors, and references. PaperLens was developed to visualize 8 years (1995-2002) of InfoVis conference proceedings and was then extended to visualize 23 years (1982-2004) of the CHI conference proceedings. This paper describes how we analyzed the data and designed PaperLens. We also describe a user study to focus our redesign efforts along with the design changes we made to address usability issues. We summarize lessons learned in the process of design and scaling up to the larger set of CHI conference papers.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lazar, Jonathan, Bederson, Benjamin B., Hochheiser, Harry, Johnson, Jeff and Karat, Clare-Marie (2005): Making an impact in your community: HCI and US public policy. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2041-2042. Available online

 
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Shneiderman, Ben and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2005): Maintaining concentration to achieve task completion. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Designing for User Experiences DUX05 2005. p. 9. Available online

When faced with a challenging goal, knowledge workers need to concentrate on their tasks so that they move forward toward completion. Since frustrations, distractions, and interruptions can interfere with their smooth progress, design strategies should enable users to maintain concentration. This paper promotes awareness of this issue, reviews related work, and suggests three initial strategies: Reduce short-term and working memory load, provide information abundant interfaces, and increase automaticity.

© All rights reserved Shneiderman and Bederson and/or ACM Press

 
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Herrnson, Paul S., Niemi, Richard G., Bederson, Benjamin B., Conrad, Frederick G. and Traugott, Michael (2005): A project to assess voting technology and ballot design. In: Delcambre, Lois M. L. and Giuliano, Genevieve (eds.) DG.O 2005 - Proceedings of the 2005 National Conference on Digital Government Research May 15-18, 2005, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 200-201. Available online

2004
 
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Chipman, Leslie E., Bederson, Benjamin B. and Golbeck, Jennifer A. (2004): SlideBar: Analysis of a linear input device. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 23 (1) pp. 1-9. Available online

The SlideBar is a physical linear input device for absolute position control of 1{deg} of freedom, consisting of a physical slider with a graspable knob positioned near or attached to the keyboard. Its range of motion is directly mapped to a one dimensional input widget such as a scrollbar. The SlideBar provides absolute position control in one dimension, is usable in the non-dominant hand in conjunction with a pointing device, and offers constrained passive haptic feedback. These characteristics make the device appropriate for the common class of tasks characterized by one-dimensional input and constrained range of operation. An empirical study of three devices (SlideBar, mouse controlled scrollbar, and mousewheel) shows that for common scrolling tasks, the SlideBar has a significant advantage over a standard mouse controlled scrollbar in user preference. In addition, users tended to prefer it over the mousewheel (without statistical significance).

© All rights reserved Chipman et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Bederson, Benjamin B., Clamage, Aaron, Czerwinski, Mary and Robertson, George G. (2004): DateLens: a fisheye calendar interface for PDAs. In Interactions, 11 (4) pp. 9-10. Available online

 
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Bederson, Benjamin B., Clamage, Aaron, Czerwinski, Mary and Robertson, George G. (2004): DateLens: A fisheye calendar interface for PDAs. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 11 (1) pp. 90-119. Available online

Calendar applications for small handheld devices are growing in popularity. This led us to develop DateLens, a novel calendar interface for PDAs designed to support complex tasks. It uses a fisheye representation coupled with compact overviews to give the big picture in a small space. The interface also gives users control over the visible time period, as well as supporting integrated search to discover patterns and outliers. Designed with device scalability in mind, DateLens currently runs on desktop computers as well as PDAs. Two user studies were conducted to examine the viability of DateLens as a replacement for traditional calendar visualizations. In the first study, non-PDA users performed complex tasks significantly faster with DateLens than with the Microsoft Pocket PC 2002TM calendar (using a PDA emulator). In addition, they rated DateLens as being easier to use than the default calendar application for a majority of the tasks. In the second study, the participants were expert Pocket PC users and the software was run on their own devices. Again, DateLens performed significantly faster for the complex tasks, and there were satisfaction differences favoring each calendar for different kinds of tasks. From these studies, it is clear that DateLens is superior for more complex tasks such as those associated with longer time periods. For daily event tracking, users familiar with the default Pocket PC calendar strongly preferred its daily view and behaviors.

© All rights reserved Bederson et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

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 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
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Hourcade, Juan Pablo, Bederson, Benjamin B., Druin, Allison and Guimbretiere, Francois (2004): Differences in pointing task performance between preschool children and adults using mice. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 11 (4) pp. 357-386. Available online

Several experiments by psychologists and human factors researchers have shown that when young children execute pointing tasks, they perform at levels below older children and adults. However, these experiments have not provided user interface designers with an understanding of the severity or the nature of the difficulties young children have when using input devices. To address this need, we conducted a study to gain a better understanding of 4 and 5 year-old children's use of mice. We compared the performance of thirteen 4 year-olds, thirteen 5 year-olds and thirteen young adults in point-and-click tasks. Plots of the paths taken by the participants show severe differences between adults' and preschool children's ability to control the mouse. We were not surprised then to find age had a significant effect on accuracy, target reentry, and efficiency. We also found that target size had a significant effect on accuracy and target reentry. Measuring movement time at four different times (first entering target, last entering target, pressing button, releasing button) yielded the result that Fitts' law models children well only up to the time they first enter the target. Overall, we found that the difference between the performance of children and adults was large enough to warrant user interface interactions designed specifically for preschool children. The results additionally suggest that children need the most help once they get close to targets.

© All rights reserved Hourcade et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Khella, Amir and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2004): Pocket PhotoMesa: a Zoomable image browser for PDAs. In: Doermann, David S. and Duraiswami, Ramani (eds.) MUM 2004 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia October 27-29, 2004, College Park, Maryland, USA. pp. 19-24. Available online

 
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Lee, Bongshin, Parr, Cynthia Sims, Campbell, Dana and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2004): How users interact with biodiversity information using TaxonTree. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (ed.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 320-327. Available online

 
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Herrnson, Paul S., Niemi, Richard G., Bederson, Benjamin B. and Conrad, Frederick G. (2004): A Project to Assess Voting Technology and Ballot Design. In: DG.O 2004 2004. . Available online

 
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Lee, Bongshin, Czerwinski, Mary, Robertson, George G. and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2004): Understanding Eight Years of InfoVis Conferences Using PaperLens. In: InfoVis 2004 - 10th IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 10-12 October, 2004, Austin, TX, USA. . Available online

2003
 
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Bederson, Benjamin B. and Shneiderman, Ben (2003): The Craft of Information Visualization: Readings and Reflections. Morgan Kaufman Publishers

 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Representation: [/encyclopedia/visual_representation.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Representation: [/encyclopedia/visual_representation.html]


 
 
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Bederson, Benjamin B., Lee, Bongshin, Sherman, Robert M., Herrnson, Paul S. and Niemi, Richard G. (2003): Electronic voting system usability issues. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 145-152.

 
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Hutchinson, Hilary, Mackay, Wendy E., Westerlund, Bosse, Bederson, Benjamin B., Druin, Allison, Plaisant, Catherine, Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Conversy, Stephane and Eiderback, Bjorn (2003): Technology probes: inspiring design for and with families. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 17-24.

 
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Suh, Bongwon, Ling, Haibin, Bederson, Benjamin B. and Jacobs, David W. (2003): Automatic thumbnail cropping and its effectiveness. In: Proceedings of the 16th annural ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology November, 2-5, 2003, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 95-104. Available online

Thumbnail images provide users of image retrieval and browsing systems with a method for quickly scanning large numbers of images. Recognizing the objects in an image is important in many retrieval tasks, but thumbnails generated by shrinking the original image often render objects illegible. We study the ability of computer vision systems to detect key components of images so that automated cropping, prior to shrinking, can render objects more recognizable. We evaluate automatic cropping techniques 1) based on a general method that detects salient portions of images, and 2) based on automatic face detection. Our user study shows that these methods result in small thumbnails that are substantially more recognizable and easier to find in the context of visual search.

© All rights reserved Suh et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hornbaek, Kasper, Bederson, Benjamin B. and Plaisant, Catherine (2003): Navigation patterns & usability of zoomable user interfaces: with and without an overview. In Interactions, 10 (1) pp. 11-12.

 
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Hourcade, Juan Pablo, Bederson, Benjamin B., Druin, Allison, Rose, Anne, Farber, Allison and Takayama, Yoshifumi (2003): The International Children's Digital Library: viewing digital books online. In Interacting with Computers, 15 (2) pp. 151-167.

Abstract Reading books plays an important role in children's cognitive and social development. However, many children do not have access to diverse collections of books due to the limited resources of their community libraries. We have begun to address this issue by creating a large-scale digital archive of children's books, the International Children's Digital Library (ICDL). In this paper we discuss our initial efforts in building the ICDL, concentrating on the design of innovative digital book readers.

© All rights reserved Hourcade et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Knudtzon, Kendra, Druin, Allison, Kaplan, Nancy, Summers, Kathryn, Chisik, Yoram, Kulkarni, Rahul, Moulthrop, Stuart, Weeks, Holly and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2003): Starting an intergenerational technology design team: a case study. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC03: Interaction Design and Children 2003. pp. 51-58. Available online

This paper presents a case study of the first three months of a new intergenerational design team with children ages 10-13. It discusses the research and design methods used for working with children of this age group, the challenges and opportunities of starting a new team, and the lessons learned.

© All rights reserved Knudtzon et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Baudisch, Patrick, Cutrell, Edward, Robbins, Dan, Czerwinski, Mary, Tandler, Peter, Bederson, Benjamin B. and Zierlinger, Alex (2003): Drag-and-Pop and Drag-and-Pick: Techniques for Accessing Remote Screen Content on Touch- and Pen-Operated Systems. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 65.

 
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Druin, Allison, Bederson, Benjamin B., Weeks, Ann, Farber, Allison, Grosjean, Jesse, Guha, Mona Leigh, Hourcade, Juan Pablo, Lee, Juhyun, Liao, Sabrina, Reuter, Kara, Rose, Anne, Takayama, Yoshifumi and Zhang, Lingling (2003): The International Children's Digital Library: Description and analysis of first use. In First Monday, 8 (5) . Available online

 
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Druin, Allison, Revelle, Glenda, Bederson, Benjamin B., Hourcade, Juan Pablo, Farber, Allison, Lee, Juhyun and Campbell, Dana (2003): A collaborative digital library for children. In J. Comp. Assisted Learning, 19 (2) pp. 239-248. Available online

2002
 
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Hornbaek, Kasper, Bederson, Benjamin B. and Plaisant, Catherine (2002): Navigation patterns and usability of zoomable user interfaces with and without an overview. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 9 (4) pp. 362-389. Available online

The literature on information visualization establishes the usability of interfaces with an overview of the information space, but for zoomable user interfaces, results are mixed. We compare zoomable user interfaces with and without an overview to understand the navigation patterns and usability of these interfaces. Thirty-two subjects solved navigation and browsing tasks on two maps. We found no difference between interfaces in subjects' ability to solve tasks correctly. Eighty percent of the subjects preferred the interface with an overview, stating that it supported navigation and helped keep track of their position on the map. However, subjects were faster with the interface without an overview when using one of the two maps. We conjecture that this difference was due to the organization of that map in multiple levels, which rendered the overview unnecessary by providing richer navigation cues through semantic zooming. The combination of that map and the interface without an overview also improved subjects' recall of objects on the map. Subjects who switched between the overview and the detail windows used more time, suggesting that integration of overview and detail windows adds complexity and requires additional mental and motor effort.

© All rights reserved Hornbaek et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Plaisant, Catherine, Grosjean, Jesse and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2002): SpaceTree: Supporting Exploration in Large Node Link Tree, Design Evolution and Empirical Evaluation. In: InfoVis 2002 - 2002 IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 27 October - 1 November, 2002, Boston, MA, USA. pp. 57-. Available online

2001
 
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Bederson, Benjamin B. (2001): PhotoMesa: a zoomable image browser using quantum treemaps and bubblemaps. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 71-80. Available online

PhotoMesa is a zoomable image browser that uses a novel treemap algorithm to present large numbers of images grouped by directory, or other available metadata. It uses a new interaction technique for zoomable user interfaces designed for novices and family use that makes it straightforward to navigate through the space of images, and impossible to get lost. PhotoMesa groups images using one of two new algorithms that lay out groups of objects in a 2D space-filling manner. Quantum treemaps are designed for laying out images or other objects of indivisible (quantum) size. They are a variation on existing treemap algorithms in that they guarantee that every generated rectangle will have a width and height that are an integral multiple of an input object size. Bubblemaps also fill space with groups of quantum-sized objects, but generate non-rectangular blobs, and utilize space more efficiently.

© All rights reserved Bederson and/or ACM Press

2000
 
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Benford, Steve, Bederson, Benjamin B., Akesson, Karl-Petter, Bayon, Victor, Druin, Allison, Hansson, Par, Hourcade, Juan Pablo, Ingram, Rob and Neale, Helen (2000): Designing Storytelling Technologies to Encouraging Collaboration between Young Children. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 556-563. Available online

We describe the iterative design of two collaborative storytelling technologies for young children, KidPad and the Klump. We focus on the idea of designing interfaces to subtly encourage collaboration so that children are invited to discover the added benefits of working together. This idea has been motivated by our experiences of using early versions of our technologies in schools in Sweden and the UK. We compare the approach of encouraging collaboration with other approaches to synchronizing shared interfaces. We describe how we have revised the technologies to encourage collaboration and to reflect design suggestions made by the children themselves.

© All rights reserved Benford et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bederson, Benjamin B., Meyer, Jon and Good, Lance (2000): Jazz: An Extensible Zoomable User Interface Graphics Toolkit in Java. In: Ackerman, Mark S. and Edwards, Keith (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 2000, San Diego, California, United States. pp. 171-180. Available online

 
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Bederson, Benjamin B. (2000): Fisheye Menus. In: Ackerman, Mark S. and Edwards, Keith (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 2000, San Diego, California, United States. pp. 217-225. Available online

1999
 
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Stewart, Jason, Bederson, Benjamin B. and Druin, Allison (1999): Single Display Groupware: A Model for Co-Present Collaboration. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 286-293. Available online

We introduce a model for supporting collaborative work between people that are physically close to each other. We call this model Single Display Groupware (SDG). In this paper, we describe the model, comparing it to more traditional remote collaboration. We describe the requirements that SDG places on computer technology, and our understanding of the benefits and costs of SDG systems. Finally, we describe a prototype SDG system that we built and the results of a usability test we ran with 60 elementary school children.

© All rights reserved Stewart et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Combs, Tammara T. A. and Bederson, Benjamin B. (1999): Does Zooming Improve Image Browsing?. In: DL99: Proceedings of the 4th ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries 1999. pp. 130-137. Available online

 
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Bederson, Benjamin B. and Boltman, Angela (1999): Does Animation Help Users Build Mental Maps of Spatial Information?. In: InfoVis 1999 1999. pp. 28-35. Available online

1998
 
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Hightower, Ron R., Ring, Laura T., Helfman, J. I., Bederson, Benjamin B. and Hollan, James D. (1998): PadPrints: Graphical Multiscale Web Histories. In: Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 01 - 04, 1998, San Francisco, California, United States. pp. 121-122. Available online

We have implemented a browser companion called PadPrints that dynamically builds a graphical history-map of visited web pages. PadPrints relies on Pad++, a zooming user interface (ZUI) development substrate, to display the history-map. PadPrints functions in conjunction with a traditional web browser but without requiring any browser modifications.

© All rights reserved Hightower et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hightower, Ron R., Ring, Laura T., Helfman, J. I., Bederson, Benjamin B. and Hollan, James D. (1998): Graphical Multiscale Web Histories: A Study of PadPrints. In: Hypertext 98 - Proceedings of the Ninth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia June 20-24, 1998, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pp. 58-65. Available online

We have implemented a browser companion called PadPrints that dynamically builds a graphical history-map of visited web pages. PadPrints relies on Pad++, a zooming user interface (ZUI) development substrate, to display the history-map using minimal screen space. PadPrints functions in conjunction with a traditional web browser but without requiring any browser modifications. We performed two usability studies of PadPrints. The first addressed general navigation effectiveness. The second focused on history-related aspects of navigation. In tasks requiring returns to prior pages, users of PadPrints completed tasks in 61.2% of the time required by users of the same browser without PadPrints. We also observed significant decreases in the number of pages accessed when using PadPrints. Users found browsing with PadPrints more satisfying than using Netscape alone.

© All rights reserved Hightower et al. and/or ACM Press

1997
 
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Druin, Allison, Stewart, Jason, Proft, David, Bederson, Benjamin B. and Hollan, James D. (1997): KidPad: A Design Collaboration Between Children, Technologists, and Educators. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 463-470. Available online

We established an interdisciplinary, intergenerational collaboration in the fall of 1995, between the University of New Mexico's Computer Science Department, the College of Education, and local Albuquerque elementary school children. The goal of this research was to develop an expressive digital medium with an intuitive zooming interface, to support a learning environment for children. In the process of this collaboration, design methodologies that support a child's role in the development of new technologies were explored. What follows is a summary of our iterative design experience, collaboration, and the results of the research to date.

© All rights reserved Druin et al. and/or ACM Press

1996
 
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Bederson, Benjamin B., Hollan, James D., Druin, Allison, Stewart, Jason, Rogers, David and Proft, David (1996): Local Tools: An Alternative to Tool Palettes. In: Kurlander, David, Brown, Marc and Rao, Ramana (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 1996, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 169-170. Available online

We describe local tools, a general interaction technique that replaces traditional tool palettes. A collection of tools sit on the worksurface along with the data. Each tool can be picked up (where it replaces the cursor), used, and then put down anywhere on the worksurface. There is a toolbox for organizing the tools. These local tools were implemented in Pad++ as part of KidPad, an application for children.

© All rights reserved Bederson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bederson, Benjamin B., Hollan, James D., Perlin, Ken, Meyer, Jonathan, Bacon, David and Furnas, George W. (1996): Pad++: A Zoomable Graphical Sketchpad For Exploring Alternate Interface Physics. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 7 (1) pp. 3-32.

1995
 
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Furnas, George W. and Bederson, Benjamin B. (1995): Space-Scale Diagrams: Understanding Multiscale Interfaces. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 234-241. Available online

Big information worlds cause big problems for interfaces. There is too much to see. They are hard to navigate. An armada of techniques has been proposed to present the many scales of information needed. Space-scale diagrams provide an analytic framework for much of this work. By representing both a spatial world and its different magnifications explicitly, the diagrams allow the direct visualization and analysis of important scale related issues for interfaces.

© All rights reserved Furnas and Bederson and/or ACM Press

1994
 
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Bederson, Benjamin B. and Hollan, James D. (1994): Pad++: A Zooming Graphical Interface for Exploring Alternate Interface Physics. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. pp. 17-26.

 
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Bederson, Benjamin B. and Hollan, James D. (1994): Pad++: A Zooming Graphical Interface for Exploring Alternate Interface Physics. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. pp. 17-26. Available online

We describe the current status of Pad++, a zooming graphical interface that we are exploring as an alternative to traditional window and icon-based approaches to interface design. We discuss the motivation for Pad++, describe the implementation, and present prototype applications. In addition, we introduce an informational physics strategy for interface design and briefly compare it with metaphor-based design strategies.

© All rights reserved Bederson and Hollan and/or ACM Press

 
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Bederson, Benjamin B., Stead, Larry and Hollan, James D. (1994): Pad++: Advances in Multiscale Interfaces. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. pp. --.

 
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Stone, Linda M., Erickson, Thomas, Bederson, Benjamin B., Rothman, Peter and Muzzy, Raymond (1994): Visualizing Data: Is Virtual Reality the Key? (Panel). In: Bergeron, R. Daniel and Kaufman, Arie E. (eds.) VIS 1994 - Proceedings IEEE Visualization 1994 October 17-21, 1994, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 410-413.

 
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