Publication statistics

Pub. period:2002-2012
Pub. count:57
Number of co-authors:63



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Mika Raento:8
Sauli Tiitta:8
Antti Salovaara:8

 

 

Productive colleagues

Antti Oulasvirta's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Stephen A. Brewste..:108
Kristina Hook:58
Michael Rohs:46
 
 
 

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Antti Oulasvirta

Picture of Antti Oulasvirta.
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Has also published under the name of:
"A. Oulasvirta"

Personal Homepage:
http://www.mpi-inf.mpg.de/~oantti/

Current place of employment:
Helsinki Institute for Information Technology HIIT

A cognitive scientist with interest in human-computer interaction.

 

Publications by Antti Oulasvirta (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Oulasvirta, Antti, Pihlajamaa, Aurora, Perkio, Jukka, Ray, Debarshi, Vhkangas, Taneli, Hasu, Tero, Vainio, Niklas and Myllymki, Petri (2012): Long-term effects of ubiquitous surveillance in the home. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2012. pp. 41-50. Available online

The Helsinki Privacy Experiment is a study of the long-term effects of ubiquitous surveillance in homes. Ten volunteering households were instrumented with video cameras with microphones, and computer, wireless network, smartphone, TV, DVD, and customer card use was logged. We report on stress, anxiety, concerns, and privacy-seeking behavior after six months. The data provide first insight into the privacy-invading character of ubiquitous surveillance in the home and explain how people can gradually become accustomed to surveillance even if they oppose it.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lehtinen, Ville, Oulasvirta, Antti, Salovaara, Antti and Nurmi, Petteri (2012): Dynamic tactile guidance for visual search tasks. In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2012. pp. 445-452. Available online

Visual search in large real-world scenes is both time consuming and frustrating, because the search becomes serial when items are visually similar. Tactile guidance techniques can facilitate search by allowing visual attention to focus on a subregion of the scene. We present a technique for dynamic tactile cueing that couples hand position with a scene position and uses tactile feedback to guide the hand actively toward the target. We demonstrate substantial improvements in task performance over a baseline of visual search only, when the scene's complexity increases. Analyzing task performance, we demonstrate that the effect of visual complexity can be practically eliminated through improved spatial precision of the guidance.

© All rights reserved Lehtinen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti (2012): Rethinking Experimental Designs for Field Evaluations. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 11 (4) pp. 60-67.

Laboratory-based usability evaluations are often inadequate for the post-desktop-computer era. Field studies challenge us to design evaluations as quasi-experiments that don't assume perfect control and randomization. Such evaluations are expensive, but there are ways to reduce costs.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta and/or IEEE Computer Society

2011
 
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Rohs, Michael, Oulasvirta, Antti and Suomalainen, Tiia (2011): Interaction with magic lenses: real-world validation of a Fitts' Law model. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2725-2728. Available online

Rohs and Oulasvirta (2008) proposed a two-component Fitts' law model for target acquisition with magic lenses in mobile augmented reality (AR) with 1) a physical pointing phase, in which the target can be directly observed on the background surface, and 2) a virtual pointing phase, in which the target can only be observed through the device display. The model provides a good fit (R{squared}=0.88) with laboratory data, but it is not known if it generalizes to real-world AR tasks. In the present outdoor study, subjects (N=12) did building-selection tasks in an urban area. The differences in task characteristics to the laboratory study are drastic: targets are three-dimensional and they vary in shape, size, z-distance, and visual context. Nevertheless, the model yielded an R{squared} of 0.80, and when using effective target width an R{squared} of 0.88 was achieved.

© All rights reserved Rohs et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti and Bergstrom-Lehtovirta, Joanna (2011): Ease of juggling: studying the effects of manual multitasking. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3103-3112. Available online

Everyday activities often involve using an interactive device while one is handling various other physical objects (wallets, bags, doors, pens, mugs, etc.). This paper presents the Manual Multitasking Test, a test with 12 conditions emulating manual demands of everyday multitasking situations. It allows experimenters to expose the effects of design on "manual flexibility": users' ability to reconfigure the sensorimotor control of arms, hands, and fingers in order to regain the high performance levels they experience when using the device on its own. The test was deployed for pointing devices on laptops and Qwerty keyboards of mobile devices. In these studies, we identified facilitative design features whose absence explains, for example, why the mouse and stylus function poorly in multi-object performance. The issue deserves more attention, because interfaces that are nominally similar (e.g., "one-handed input") can vary dramatically in terms of "ease of juggling".

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta and Bergstrom-Lehtovirta and/or their publisher

 
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Bergstrom-Lehtovirta, Joanna, Oulasvirta, Antti and Brewster, Stephen (2011): The effects of walking speed on target acquisition on a touchscreen interface. In: Proceedings of 13th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2011. pp. 143-146. Available online

Studies have reported negative effects of walking on mobile human -- computer interaction when compared to standing or sitting. However, the quantitative relationship between walking speed and user performance is unknown. In the study described here, we varied walking speed on a treadmill and measured effects on discrete aiming movements on a touchscreen interface. Their relationship was found to be non-linear with a local optimum: when walking at 40-80% of one's preferred walking speed (PWS), target acquisition performance plateaus, indicating optimal trade-off between speed and interaction. Accelerometer data showed that, despite increasing hand oscillation, users were able to maintain stable interaction performance at 74% of PWS. Interestingly, this speed coincides with the speed users spontaneously walk when interacting with a mobile device.

© All rights reserved Bergstrom-Lehtovirta et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Wahlstrom, Mikael, Salovaara, Antti, Salo, Leena and Oulasvirta, Antti (2011): Resolving Safety-Critical Incidents in a Rally Control Center. In Human Computer Interaction, 26 (1) pp. 9-37. Available online

Control centers in large-scale events entail heterogeneous combinations of off-the-shelf and proprietary systems built into ordinary rooms, and in this respect they place themselves in an interesting contrast to more permanent control rooms with custom-made systems and a large number of operational procedures. In this article we ask how it is possible for a control center that is seemingly so "ad hoc" in nature to achieve a remarkable safety level in the face of many safety-critical incidents. We present analyses of data collected in two FIA World Rally Championships events. The results highlight three aspects of the workers' practices: (a) the practice of making use of redundancy in technologically mediated representations, (b) the practice of updating the intersubjective understanding of the incident status through verbal coordination, and (c) the practice of reacting immediately to emergency messages even without a comprehensive view of the situation, and gradually iterating one's hypothesis to correct the action. This type of collaborative setting imposes special demands to support the practices of absorbing, translating, and manipulating incoming information.

© All rights reserved Wahlstrom et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum

2010
 
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Oulasvirta, Antti and Bergstrom-Lehtovirta, Joanna (2010): A simple index for multimodal flexibility. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1475-1484. Available online

Most interactive tasks engage more than one of the user's exteroceptive senses and are therefore multimodal. In real world situations with multitasking and distractions, the key aspect of multimodality is not which modalities can be allocated to the interactive task but which are free to be allocated to something else. We present the multimodal flexibility index (MFI), calculated from changes in users' performance induced by blocking of sensory modalities. A high score indicates that the highest level of performance is achievable regardless of the modalities available and, conversely, a low score that performance will be severely hampered unless all modalities are allocated to the task. Various derivatives describe unimodal and bimodal effects. Results from a case study (mobile text entry) illustrate how an interface that is superior to others in absolute terms is the worst from the multimodal flexibility perspective. We discuss the suitability of MFI for evaluation of interactive prototypes.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta and Bergstrom-Lehtovirta and/or their publisher

 
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Raita, Eeva and Oulasvirta, Antti (2010): TOO GOOD TO BE BAD: THE EFFECT OF FAVORABLE EXPECTATIONS ON USABILITY PERCEPTIONS. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 2206-2210. Available online

The most common measurements in the task-based usability evaluation paradigm include behavioral (e.g., completion times or errors) and subjective measures (e.g., ratings). Previous work has shown that success and performance in the test tasks do not dictate subjective usability perceptions, which instead are affected by appraisals of the system such as those of its aesthetic appeal. While these appraisals are an outcome of the exposure to and the interaction with the system, less is known about the effect of predispositions (expectations) formed before any exposure. To understand how expectations influence usability perceptions, we devised an experiment wherein 36 subjects read a positive or a negative product review for a novel mobile device (while a control group read nothing) before a usability test. The results demonstrate a surprisingly strong amplifying effect of the positive expectation on the post-experiment ratings, which, interestingly, held even in a condition where the users failed in all of the tasks. We briefly discuss implications of this finding.

© All rights reserved Raita and Oulasvirta and/or HFES

2009
 
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Morrison, Ann, Oulasvirta, Antti, Peltonen, Peter, Lemmela, Saija, Jacucci, Giulio, Reitmayr, Gerhard, Nsnen, Jaana and Juustila, Antti (2009): Like bees around the hive: a comparative study of a mobile augmented reality map. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1889-1898. Available online

We present findings from field trials of MapLens, a mobile augmented reality (AR) map using a magic lens over a paper map. Twenty-six participants used MapLens to play a location-based game in a city centre. Comparisons to a group of 11 users with a standard 2D mobile map uncover phenomena that arise uniquely when interacting with AR features in the wild. The main finding is that AR features facilitate place-making by creating a constant need for referencing to the physical, and in that it allows for ease of bodily configurations for the group, encourages establishment of common ground, and thereby invites discussion, negotiation and public problem-solving. The main potential of AR maps lies in their use as a collaborative tool.

© All rights reserved Morrison et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Nsnen, Jaana, Oulasvirta, Antti and Lehmuskallio, Asko (2009): Mobile media in the social fabric of a kindergarten. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 2167-2176. Available online

At first blush, mobile media may appear a promising solution to the problem arising from the fact that parents in the present-day kindergarten institution rely almost solely on teachers' retrospective reports on their child's daily activities. However, a kindergarten is a delicate social fabric that mixes professional roles (the teachers') with socio-emotional relationships (parenting and caring) and involves stakeholders who are dependent on adults in the use of technology (the children). To date, no studies have been reported that critically examine the boundary conditions for successful mobile media applications in such settings. We present a study of Meaning, a one-button capture-and-push-to-Web solution that was used by a Finnish kindergarten for a month. Interviews and the amount of media sent suggest that the intervention was a success, and we report on seven uses of media. However, all uses were critically affected by the users' social fabric, in which the teachers were the nexus. We conclude by discussing various ways in which the heterogeneity of the user group affected mobile media use.

© All rights reserved Nsnen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lampinen, Airi, Tamminen, Sakari and Oulasvirta, Antti (2009): All My People Right Here, Right Now: management of group co-presence on a social networking site. In: GROUP09 - International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2009. pp. 281-290. Available online

A mundane but theoretically interesting and practically relevant situation presents itself on social networking sites: the co-presence of multiple groups important to an individual. This primarily qualitative study concentrates on the point of view of individual SNS users and their perspectives on multiple group affiliations. After charting the perceived multiplicity of groups on the social networking site Facebook, we investigated the relevance of multiple groups to the users and the effect of group co-presence on psychological identification processes. Users deal with group co-presence by managing the situation to prevent anticipated conflictive and identity-threatening situations. Their behavioral strategies consist of dividing the platform into separate spaces, using suitable channels of communication, and performing self-censorship. Mental strategies include both the creation of more inclusive in-group identities and the reciprocity of trusting other users and being responsible. In addition to giving further evidence of the existence of group co-presence on SNSs, the study sheds light on the management of the phenomenon. Management of group co-presence should be supported, since otherwise users may feel the urge to resort to defensive strategies of social identity protection such as ceasing to use SNSs altogether or, less dramatically, limit their use according to "the least common denominator". Hence, the phenomenon merits the attention of researchers, developers, and designers alike.

© All rights reserved Lampinen et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Jameson, Anthony, Gabrielli, Silvia and Oulasvirta, Antti (2009): Users' preferences regarding intelligent user interfaces: differences among users and changes over time. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2009. pp. 497-498. Available online

The goal of this full-day workshop is to arrive at a synthesis of knowledge that will help people who work with intelligent user interfaces to predict and explain how users' attitudes and behavior toward aspects of such systems (a) differ from one user to the next and (b) change over time.

© All rights reserved Jameson et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti, Hukkinen, Janne P. and Schwartz, Barry (2009): When more is less: the paradox of choice in search engine use. In: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2009. pp. 516-523. Available online

In numerous everyday domains, it has been demonstrated that increasing the number of options beyond a handful can lead to paralysis and poor choice and decrease satisfaction with the choice. Were this so-called paradox of choice to hold in search engine use, it would mean that increasing recall can actually work counter to user satisfaction if it implies choice from a more extensive set of result items. The existence of this effect was demonstrated in an experiment where users (N=24) were shown a search scenario and a query and were required to choose the best result item within 30 seconds. Having to choose from six results yielded both higher subjective satisfaction with the choice and greater confidence in its correctness than when there were 24 items on the results page. We discuss this finding in the wider context of "choice architecture" -- that is, how result presentation affects choice and satisfaction.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti and Nyyssonen, Tuomo (2009): Flexible Hardware Configurations for Studying Mobile Usability. In Journal of Usability Studies, 4 (2) pp. 93-105. Available online

The main challenges for mobile usability labs, as measurement instruments, lay not so much on being able to record what happens on the user interface, but capturing the interactional relationship between the user and the environment. An ideal mobile usability lab would enable recording, with sufficient accuracy and reliability, the user's deployment of gaze, the hands, the near bodyspace, proximate and distant objects of interest, as well as abrupt environmental events. An inherent complication is that the equipment will affect these events and is affected by them. We argue that a balance between coverage and obtrusiveness must be found on a per case basis. We present a modular solution to mobile usability labs, allowing both belt- and backpack-worn configurations and flexible division of equipment between the user, the moderator, and the environment. These benefits were achieved without sacrificing data quality, operational duration, or light weight. We describe system design rationale and report first experiences from a field experiment. Current work concentrates on simplifying the system to improve cost-efficiency.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta and Nyyssonen and/or Usability Professionals Association

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Oulasvirta, Antti (2009): Field Experiments in HCI: Promises and Challenges. In: Saariluoma, Pertti and Isomki, Hannakaisa (eds.). "Future Interaction Design II". London, United Kingdom: pp. 87-111

Experimental methods have been under criticism since the advent of mobile and ubiquitous technologies, due to clear limitations in their suitability for studies in the field. However, the laboratory paradigm cannot be directly transferred to field conditions because of its strict notions of experimentation. This chapter examines the theory of quasiexperimentation as an alternative conceptualization of causality, control, and validity. Several threats to experimental validity in field experiments in HCI are discussed. These concerns must be addressed at all levels of experimentation, from the design and execution of a field experiment to analysis of data. Noteworthy also are new technical solutions that have enabled high fidelity data collection and that generally support endeavors in ensuring validity. If field experimentation is to become the de facto standard of research in human-computer interaction, the methodological core and technical tools must be developed in concert.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta and/or his/her publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
2008
 
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Peltonen, Peter, Kurvinen, Esko, Salovaara, Antti, Jacucci, Giulio, Ilmonen, Tommi, Evans, John, Oulasvirta, Antti and Saarikko, Petri (2008): It's Mine, Don't Touch!: interactions at a large multi-touch display in a city centre. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1285-1294. Available online

We present data from detailed observations of CityWall, a large multi-touch display installed in a central location in Helsinki, Finland. During eight days of installation, 1199 persons interacted with the system in various social configurations. Videos of these encounters were examined qualitatively as well as quantitatively based on human coding of events. The data convey phenomena that arise uniquely in public use: crowding, massively parallel interaction, teamwork, games, negotiations of transitions and handovers, conflict management, gestures and overt remarks to co-present people, and "marking" the display for others. We analyze how public availability is achieved through social learning and negotiation, why interaction becomes performative and, finally, how the display restructures the public space. The multi-touch feature, gesture-based interaction, and the physical display size contributed differentially to these uses. Our findings on the social organization of the use of public displays can be useful for designing such systems for urban environments.

© All rights reserved Peltonen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rohs, Michael and Oulasvirta, Antti (2008): Target acquisition with camera phones when used as magic lenses. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1409-1418. Available online

When camera phones are used as magic lenses in handheld augmented reality applications involving wall maps or posters, pointing can be divided into two phases: (1) an initial coarse physical pointing phase, in which the target can be directly observed on the background surface, and (2) a fine-control virtual pointing phase, in which the target can only be observed through the device display. In two studies, we show that performance cannot be adequately modeled with standard Fitts' law, but can be adequately modeled with a two-component modification. We chart the performance space and analyze users' target acquisition strategies in varying conditions. Moreover, we show that the standard Fitts' law model does hold for dynamic peephole pointing where there is no guiding background surface and hence the physical pointing component of the extended model is not needed. Finally, implications for the design of magic lens interfaces are considered.

© All rights reserved Rohs and Oulasvirta and/or ACM Press

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti (2008): Designing mobile awareness cues. In: Hofte, G. Henri ter, Mulder, Ingrid and Ruyter, Boris E. R. de (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2008 September 2-5, 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. pp. 43-52. Available online

 
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Raento, Mika and Oulasvirta, Antti (2008): Designing for privacy and self-presentation in social awareness. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 12 (7) pp. 527-542. Available online

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti (2008): When users "do" the Ubicomp. In Interactions, 15 (2) pp. 6-9. Available online

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti and Brewster, Stephen A. (2008): Mobile human-computer interaction. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 20 (12) pp. 833-837. Available online

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti and Blom, Jan (2008): Motivations in personalisation behaviour. In Interacting with Computers, 20 (1) pp. 1-16. Available online

A number of emerging technologies including mobile phones and services, on-line shopping and portals, and games and communities are designed to provide users with control over appearance and functioning. Understanding why users personalise could help design personalisation features so that they promote the acceptance and adoption of information and communication technology (ICT). This paper examines the psychological underpinnings of users' willingness to expend effort to personalise ICT. The important role of the basic need of self-determination [Deci, E.L., Ryan, R.M., 2000. The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behaviour. Psychological Inquiry 11, 227-268] is argued for. Personalisation features can align the psychological resources with the user's action and therefore enhance performance and enjoyment of use. First, they can promote autonomy and the sense of being an origin and therefore transform technology to 'my technology.' Second, personalisation features can support competence by increasing the effectiveness of user's actions. At its best, personalisation becomes rewarding activity in itself regardless of the achieved effects, for example when personalisable features participate in flow experiences. Third, through its appearance functions, technology can support the basic need of relatedness through expression of emotion and identity, ego-involvement, and territory marking. Several positive effects can be identified: engagement, performance, persistence, identity, social acceptance, and social status. The paper concludes by discussing implications to design.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta and Blom and/or Elsevier Science

2007
 
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Oulasvirta, Antti and Sumari, Lauri (2007): Mobile kits and laptop trays: managing multiple devices in mobile information work. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1127-1136. Available online

A study at a large IT company shows that mobile information workers frequently migrate work across devices (here: smartphones, desktop PCs, laptops). While having multiple devices provides new opportunities to work in the face of changing resource deprivations, the management of devices is often problematic. The most salient problems are posed by 1) the physical effort demanded by various management tasks, 2) anticipating what data or functionality will be needed, and 3) aligning these efforts with work, mobility, and social situations. Workers' strategies of coping with these problems center on two interwoven activities: the physical handling of devices and cross-device synchronization. These aim at balancing risk and effort in immediate and subsequent use. Workers also exhibit subtle ways to handle devices in situ, appropriating their physical and operational properties. The design implications are discussed.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta and Sumari and/or ACM Press

 
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Jacucci, Giulio, Oulasvirta, Antti, Ilmonen, Tommi, Evans, John and Salovaara, Antti (2007): Comedia: mobile group media for active spectatorship. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1273-1282. Available online

Previous attempts to support spectators at large-scale events have concentrated separately on real-time event information, awareness cues, or media-sharing applications. CoMedia combines a group media space with event information and integrates reusable awareness elements throughout. In two field trials, one at a rally and the other at a music festival, we found that CoMedia facilitated onsite reporting to offsite members, coordination of group action, keeping up to date with others, spectating remotely, and joking. In these activities, media, awareness cues, and event information were often used in concert, albeit assuming differing roles. We show that the integrated approach better supports continuous interweaving of use with the changing interests and occurrences in large-scale events.

© All rights reserved Jacucci et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Miettinen, Miikka and Oulasvirta, Antti (2007): Predicting time-sharing in mobile interaction.. In User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, . Available online

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti, Petit, Renaud, Raento, Mika and Tiitta, Sauli (2007): Interpreting and acting on mobile awareness cues. Human-Computer Interaction. In Human-Computer Interaction, 22 (1) pp. 97-135.

http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07370020701307799

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti, Petit, Renaud, Raento, Mika and Tiitta, Sauli (2007): Interpreting and Acting on Mobile Awareness Cues. In Human Computer Interaction, 22 (1) pp. 97-135.

Mobile awareness systems provide user-controlled and automatic, sensor-derived cues of other users' situations and in that way attempt to facilitate group practices and provide opportunities for social interaction. We are interested in investigating how users interpret these cues as a situation, action, or intention of a remote person and then act on them in everyday social interactions. Three field trials utilizing A-B intervention research methodology were conducted with three types of teenager groups (N = 15, total days = 243). Each trial had a slightly different variation of ContextContacts -- a smartphone-based multicue mobile awareness system. We report on several analyses on how the cues were accessed, viewed, monitored, inferred, and acted on.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum

 
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Jacucci, Giulio, Oulasvirta, Antti and Salovaara, Antti (2007): Active construction of experience through mobile media: a field study with implications for recording and sharing. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 11 (4) pp. 215-234. Available online

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti, Petit, Renaud, Raento, Mika and Tiitta, Sauli (2007): Interpreting and Acting on Mobile Awareness Cues. In Human-Computer Interaction, 22 (1) pp. 97-135. Available online

Mobile awareness systems provide user-controlled and automatic, sensor-derived cues of other users' situations and in that way attempt to facilitate group practices and provide opportunities for social interaction. We are interested in investigating how users interpret these cues as a situation, action, or intention of a remote person and then act on them in everyday social interactions. Three field trials utilizing A-B intervention research methodology were conducted with three types of teenager groups (N = 15, total days = 243). Each trial had a slightly different variation of ContextContacts -- a smartphone-based multicue mobile awareness system. We report on several analyses on how the cues were accessed, viewed, monitored, inferred, and acted on.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti, Petit, Renaud, Raento, Mika and Tiitta, Sauli (2007): Interpreting and Acting on Mobile Awareness Cues. In Human-Computer Interaction, 22 (1) pp. 97-135. Available online

Mobile awareness systems provide user-controlled and automatic, sensor-derived cues of other users' situations and in that way attempt to facilitate group practices and provide opportunities for social interaction. We are interested in investigating how users interpret these cues as a situation, action, or intention of a remote person and then act on them in everyday social interactions. Three field trials utilizing A-B intervention research methodology were conducted with three types of teenager groups (N = 15, total days = 243). Each trial had a slightly different variation of ContextContacts -- a smartphone-based multicue mobile awareness system. We report on several analyses on how the cues were accessed, viewed, monitored, inferred, and acted on.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

2006
 
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Salovaara, Antti, Jacucci, Giulio, Oulasvirta, Antti, Saari, Timo, Kanerva, Pekka, Kurvinen, Esko and Tiitta, Sauli (2006): Collective creation and sense-making of mobile media. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 1211-1220. Available online

Traditionally, mobile media sharing and messaging has been studied from the perspective of an individual author making media available to other users. With the aim of supporting spectator groups at large-scale events, we developed a messaging application for camera phones with the idea of collectively created albums called Media Stories. The field trial at a rally competition pointed out the collective and participative practices involved in the creation and sense-making of media, challenging the view of individual authorship. Members contributed actively to producing chains of messages in Media Stories, with more than half of the members as authors on average in each story. Observations indicate the centrality of collocated viewing and creation in the use of media. Design implications include providing a ""common space"" and possibilities of creating collective objects, adding features that enrich collocated collective use, and supporting the active construction of awareness and social presence through the created media.

© All rights reserved Salovaara et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti and Saariluoma, Pertti (2006): Surviving task interruptions: Investigating the implications of long-term working memory theory. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64 (10) pp. 941-961. Available online

Typically, we have several tasks at hand, some of which are in interrupted state while others are being carried out. Most of the time, such interruptions are not disruptive to task performance. Based on the theory of Long-Term Working Memory (LTWM; Ericsson, K.A., Kintsch, W., 1995. Long-term working memory. Psychological Review, 102, 211-245), we posit that unless there are enough mental skills and resources to encode task representations to retrieval structures in long-term memory, the resulting memory traces will not enable reinstating the information, which can lead to memory losses. However, once encoded to LTWM, they are virtually safeguarded. Implications of the theory were tested in a series of experiments in which the reading of an expository text was interrupted by a 30-s interactive task, after which the reading was continued. The results convey the remarkably robust nature of skilled memory -- when LTWM encoding speed is fast enough for the task-processing imposed by the interface, interruptions have no effect on memory, regardless of their pacing, intensity, or difficulty. In the final experiment where presentation time in the main task was notably speeded up to match the limits of encoding speed, interruptions did hamper memory. Based on the results and the theory, we argue that auditory rehearsal or time-based retrieval cues were not utilized in surviving interruptions and that they are in general weaker strategies for surviving interruptions in complex cognitive tasks. We conclude the paper by suggesting three ways to support interruption tolerance by the means of task and interface design: (1) actively facilitating the development of memory skills, (2) matching encoding speed to task processing demands, and (3) supporting encoding-retrieval symmetry.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta and Saariluoma and/or Academic Press

2005
 
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Jacucci, Giulio, Oulasvirta, Antti, Salovaara, Antti and Sarvas, Risto (2005): Supporting the shared experience of spectators through mobile group media. In: GROUP05: International Conference on Supporting Group Work November 6-9, 2005, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 207-216. Available online

Interesting characteristics of large-scale events are their spatial distribution, their extended duration over days, and the fact that they are set apart from daily life. The increasing pervasiveness of computational media encourages us to investigate such unexplored domains, especially when thinking of applications for spectator groups. Here we report of a field study on two groups of rally spectators who were equipped with multimedia phones, and we present a novel mobile group media application called mGroup that supports groups in creating and sharing experiences. Particularly, we look at the possibilities of and boundary conditions for computer applications posed by our findings on group identity and formation, group awareness and coordination, the meaningful construction of an event experience and its grounding in the event context, the shared context and discourses, protagonism and active spectatorship. Moreover, we aim at providing a new perspective on spectatorship at large scale events, which can make research and development more aware of the socio-cultural dimension.

© All rights reserved Jacucci et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti (2005): The fragmentation of attention in mobile interaction, and what to do with it. In Interactions, 12 (6) pp. 16-18.

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti, Tamminen, Sakari, Roto, Virpi and Kuorelahti, Jaana (2005): Interaction in 4-second bursts: the fragmented nature of attentional resources in mobile HCI. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 919-928. Available online

When on the move, cognitive resources are reserved partly for passively monitoring and reacting to contexts and events, and partly for actively constructing them. The Resource Competition Framework (RCF), building on the Multiple Resources Theory, explains how psychosocial tasks typical of mobile situations compete for cognitive resources and then suggests that this leads to the depletion of resources for task interaction and eventually results in the breakdown of fluent interaction. RCF predictions were tested in a semi-naturalistic field study measuring attention during the performance of assigned Web search tasks on mobile phone while moving through nine varied but typical urban situations. Notably, we discovered up to eightfold differentials between micro-level measurements of attentional resource fragmentation, for example from spans of over 16 seconds in a laboratory condition dropping to bursts of just a few seconds in difficult mobile situations. By calibrating perceptual sampling, reducing resources from tasks of secondary importance, and resisting the impulse to switch tasks before finalization, participants compensated for the resource depletion. The findings are compared to previous studies in office contexts. The work is valuable in many areas of HCI dealing with mobility.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti (2005): Interrupted cognition and design for non-disruptiveness: the skilled memory approach. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1124-1125. Available online

Interruptions have gained in importance as a topic in current HCI research. Through a series of experiments, we take a step toward analyzing the active role of human memory in controlling interruptions. The results of these experiments lead us to propose a novel approach, the skilled memory approach, to how UIs can support memory in skilled man-agement of and recovery from interruptions.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta and/or ACM Press

 
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Jacucci, G., Oulasvirta, Antti, Salovaara, A., Psik, T. and Wagner, Ina (2005): Augmented Reality Painting and Collage: Evaluating Tangible Interaction in a Field Study. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT05: Human-Computer Interaction 2005. pp. 43-56. Available online

Tangible computing applications are rarely evaluated with field studies in real settings, which can contribute as formative studies to understand the challenges and benefits of tangible interfaces in real world practices. We present an AR environment for painting, with a physical brush, digital textures on physical models and creating dynamic stages for the model with spatial collages providing different backgrounds. We report on an evaluation of this AR environment in an architecture school, where 8 groups of students used it as a practical assignment. The evaluation demonstrated the benefits of specific features of the environment and of its tangible interfaces: immersiveness, public availability, supporting collaboration, flexibility, dynamicism and resulting rapidity in creating mixed media representations. Several challenges surfaced from the evaluation especially in connection to the distribution of the interface. The physical, spatial, and computational separation of interface components raised issues on accountability and ergonomics. We link our observations to design guidelines.

© All rights reserved Jacucci et al. and/or Springer Verlag

 
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Sarvas, Risto, Oulasvirta, Antti and Jacucci, Giulio (2005): Building social discourse around mobile photos: a systemic perspective. In: Proceedings of 7th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2005. pp. 31-38. Available online

Camera phones have been viewed simplistically as digital cameras with poor picture quality while neglecting the utility of the two key functionalities of mobile phones: network connection and access to personal information. This is the first HCI paper to examine mobile photos from a systemic perspective: how assignment of phases of mobile photo lifecycle to different platforms affects social discourse around shared photos. We conducted a 6-week user trial of MobShare, a tripartite system with dedicated functions and task couplings for a mobile phone, a server, and a PC browser. We analyze how MobShare's couplings and distribution of functionalities affected the observed types of social discourse that formed around mobile photos: in-group post-event discourse, self-documents and reports, greetings and thanks. Several central design issues arising from the systemic view are discussed: heterogeneity of environments, integration and distribution of functionalities, couplings and decouplings of interaction tasks, notification mechanisms, and provision of necessary UI resources for different tasks.

© All rights reserved Sarvas et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti, Raento, Mika and Tiitta, Sauli (2005): ContextContacts: re-designing SmartPhone's contact book to support mobile awareness and collaboration. In: Proceedings of 7th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2005. pp. 167-174. Available online

Acontextuality of the mobile phone often leads to a caller's uncertainty over a callee's current state, which in turn often hampers mobile collaboration. We are interested in re-designing a Smartphone's contact book to provide cues of the current situations of others. ContextContacts presents several meaningful, automatically communicated situation cues of trusted others. Its interaction design follows social psychological findings on how people make social attributions based on impoverished cues, on how self-disclosure of cues is progressively and interactionally managed, and on how mobility affects interaction through cues. We argue how our design choices support mobile communication decisions and group coordinations by promoting awareness. As a result, the design is very minimal and integrated, in an "unremarkable" manner, to previously learned usage patterns with the phone. First laboratory and field evaluations indicate important boundary conditions for and promising avenues toward more useful and enjoyable mobile awareness applications.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti, Raento, Mika and Tiitta, Sauli (2005): ContextContacts: re-designing SmartPhone's contact book to support mobile awareness and collaboration. In: Tscheligi, Manfred, Bernhaupt, Regina and Mihalic, Kristijan (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2005 September 19-22, 2005, Salzburg, Austria. pp. 167-174. Available online

 
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Sarvas, Risto, Oulasvirta, Antti and Jacucci, Giulio (2005): Building social discourse around mobile photos: a systemic perspective. In: Tscheligi, Manfred, Bernhaupt, Regina and Mihalic, Kristijan (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2005 September 19-22, 2005, Salzburg, Austria. pp. 31-38. Available online

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti, Tamminen, Sakari and Hook, Kristina (2005): Comparing two approaches to context: realism and constructivism. In: Bertelsen, Olav W., Bouvin, Niels Olof, Krogh, Peter Gall and Kyng, Morten (eds.) Proceedings of the 4th Decennial Conference on Critical Computing 2005 August 20-24, 2005, Aarhus, Denmark. pp. 195-198. Available online

 
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Roto, Virpi and Oulasvirta, Antti (2005): Need for non-visual feedback with long response times in mobile HCI. In: Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2005. pp. 775-781. Available online

When browsing Web pages with a mobile device, the system response times are variable and much longer than on a PC. Users must repeatedly glance at the display to see when the page finally arrives, although mobility demands a Minimal Attention User Interface. We conducted a user study with 27 participants to discover the point at which visual feedback stops reaching the user in mobile context. In the study, we examined the deployment of attention during page loading to the phone vs. the environment in several different everyday mobility contexts, and compared these to the laboratory context. The first part of the page appeared on the screen typically in 11 seconds, but we found that the user's visual attention shifted away from the mobile browser usually between 4 and 8 seconds in the mobile context. In contrast, the continuous span of attention to the browser was more than 14 seconds in the laboratory condition. Based on our study results, we recommend mobile applications provide multimodal feedback for delays of more than four seconds.

© All rights reserved Roto and Oulasvirta and/or ACM Press

 
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Raento, Mika, Oulasvirta, Antti, Petit, R. and Toivonen, Hannu (2005): ContextPhone: a prototyping platform for context-aware mobile applications. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 4 (2) pp. 51-59. Available online

2004
 
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Oulasvirta, Antti (2004): Finding meaningful uses for context-aware technologies: the humanistic research strategy. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 247-254. Available online

Human-computer interaction (HCI) is undergoing a paradigm change towards interaction that is contextually adapted to rich use situations taking place "beyond the desktop". Currently, however, there are only few successful applications of context-adapted HCI, arguably because use scenarios have not been based on holistic understanding of the society, users, and use situations. A humanistic research strategy, utilized at the Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, aims to structure the innovation and evaluation of scenarios for future technologies. Population trends and motivational needs are analyzed to recognize psycho-socially relevant design opportunities. Ethnography, ethnomethodology, bodystorming, and computer simulations of use situations are conducted to understand use situations. The goal of design is to empower users by supporting their autonomy and control. Three design cases illustrate the approach. The paper showcases an emerging framework for informed innovation of use potentials.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta and/or ACM Press

 
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Salovaara, Antti and Oulasvirta, Antti (2004): Six modes of proactive resource management: a user-centric typology for proactive behaviors. In: Proceedings of the Third Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction October 23-27, 2004, Tampere, Finland. pp. 57-60. Available online

Proactivity has recently arisen as one of the focus areas within HCI. Proactive systems adhere to two premises: 1) working on behalf of, or pro, the user, and 2) acting on their own initiative. To extend researchers' views on how proactive systems can support the user, we clarify the concept of proactivity and suggest a typology that distinguishes between 6 modes of proactive resource management: preparation, optimization, advising, manipulation, inhibition, and finalization of user's resources. A scenario of mobile imaging is presented to illustrate how the typology can support the innovation of new use purposes. We argue that conceptual developments like the one proposed here are crucial for the advancement of the emerging field.

© All rights reserved Salovaara and Oulasvirta and/or ACM Press

 
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Rantanen, Matti, Oulasvirta, Antti, Blom, Jan, Tiitta, Sauli and Mantyla, Martti (2004): InfoRadar: group and public messaging in the mobile context. In: Proceedings of the Third Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction October 23-27, 2004, Tampere, Finland. pp. 131-140. Available online

Previous research has sought to utilize everyday messaging metaphors, such as the notice board, in location-based messaging systems. Unfortunately, many of the restrictions associated with the metaphors have been unnecessarily reintroduced to interaction, and results from the previous field trials have been disheartening. InfoRadar builds on experiences with these systems by presenting improvements in user interface functionality and services. By providing a novel radar interface for accessing messages, desktop-like temporal storage for messages, location-independent message threading, filtering functionality, contextual audience addressing, multimedia messaging, social activity indicator, and voting, InfoRadar attempts to combine both public and in-group messaging into one system. A preliminary field trial indicates that location-based aspects may have a role in facilitating mobile communication, particularly when it comes to engaging in social interaction with unknown people.

© All rights reserved Rantanen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rantanen, Matti, Nurminen, Antti, Oulasvirta, Antti and Blom, Jan (2004): InfoRadar: demonstrating how context helps mobile people interact. In: Proceedings of the Third Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction October 23-27, 2004, Tampere, Finland. pp. 461-462. Available online

InfoRadar is a personal, context-aware mobile device. It enables people to share opinions and discuss topics related to places. In addition to messaging, InfoRadar supports voting on user-defined subjects. The UI is based on a radar representation providing an isomorphic representation of the digital content with the physical world. The radar UI can be used to explore the current location by zooming in, or remote locations by zooming out. The radar also shows traces of user movement, useful when interpreting activity taking place in remote locations. When creating content the user defines when and where it is accessible to others, enabling the expression of the context within which the content is relevant. These features and their use are elaborated using two scenarios inspired by observations from a field trial.

© All rights reserved Rantanen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti and Saariluoma, Pertti (2004): Long-term working memory and interrupting messages in human?-?computer interaction. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 23 (1) pp. 53-64. Available online

The extent to which memory for information content is reliable, trustworthy, and accurate is crucial in the information age. Being forced to divert attention to interrupting messages is common, however, and can cause memory loss. The memory effects of interrupting messages were investigated in three experiments. In Experiment 1, attending to an interrupting message decreased memory accuracy. Experiment 2, where four interrupting messages were used, replicated this result. In Experiment 3, an interrupting message was shown to be most disturbing when it was semantically very close to the main message. Drawing from a theory of long-term working memory it is argued that interrupting messages can both disrupt the active semantic elaboration of content during encoding and cause semantic interference upon retrieval. Properties of the interrupting message affect the extent and type of errors in remembering. Design implications are discussed.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta and Saariluoma and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti (2004): Task demands and memory in web interaction: a levels of processing approach. In Interacting with Computers, 16 (2) pp. 217-241. Available online

The Levels of Processing principle holds that the strength of the encoded memory trace depends on the mental operations carried out during goal-pursuit. Therefore, memory should be better for web elements that are more deeply processed. Participants (N=24) accomplished several information finding tasks with printed web pages in two conditions: navigation-orientation and content-orientation. The results support the prediction and show marked differences between the two tasks in how the locations and features of task-relevant and -irrelevant elements are remembered. In explaining the results, the levels of processing principle is bound to a wider model of perception, attention, and memory in web interaction. It is argued that the memory test tapped explicit memories that are not recruited in the rapid on-line control of attention but rather in higher-level operations such as planning and error recovery in interaction. Implications are proposed for the design of memorable user interfaces, adaptive hypertext, and notifications.

© All rights reserved Oulasvirta and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Tamminen, Sakari, Oulasvirta, Antti, Toiskallio, Kalle and Kankainen, Anu (2004): Understanding mobile contexts. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 8 (2) pp. 135-143. Available online

 
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Kurvinen, Esko and Oulasvirta, Antti (2004): Towards Socially Aware Pervasive Computing: A Turntaking Approach. In: PerCom 2004 - Proceedings of the Second IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications 14-17 March, 2004, Orlando, FL, USA. pp. 346-350. Available online

2003
 
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Oulasvirta, Antti and Kuoppala, H. (2003): Reducing Interaction Style Errors in Task-Switching. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 537-541.

 
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Tamminen, Sakari, Oulasvirta, Antti, Toiskallio, Kalle and Kankainen, Anu (2003): Understanding Mobile Contexts. In: Chittaro, Luca (ed.) Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - 5th International Symposium - Mobile HCI 2003 September 8-11, 2003, Udine, Italy. pp. 17-31. Available online

 
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Oulasvirta, Antti, Kurvinen, Esko and Kankainen, Tomi (2003): Understanding contexts by being there: case studies in bodystorming. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 7 (2) pp. 125-134. Available online

2002
 
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Kankainen, Anu and Oulasvirta, Antti (2002): Design Ideas for Everyday Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Based on Qualitative User Data. In: Carbonell, Noelle and Stephanidis, Constantine (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th ERCIM Workshop on User Interfaces for All October 23-25, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 458-464.

Academic research in mobile and ubiquitous computing has been mainly technology-driven. There is not enough understanding on what everyday needs are related to future mobile and ubiqitous computing. In this paper we will demonstrate that qualitative user data can be successfully utilized in designing for everyday activities of largely neglected user groups like the elderly. We will show how ethnographically based research can benefit the innovation of product concepts.

© All rights reserved Kankainen and Oulasvirta and/or Springer Verlag

 
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