Number of co-authors:17
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Paul Cairns:5Ann Blandford:4Stephann Makri:2
Anna L. Cox's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Ann Blandford:85Harold Thimbleby:70Paul Cairns:27
Visual appearance is one of the most effective variables for quickly differentiating one application from another
-- Bob Baxley, 2003
Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess
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Anna L. Cox
Publications by Anna L. Cox (bibliography)
Jones, Stuart A., Gould, Sandy J. J. and Cox, Anna L. (2012): Snookered by an interruption?: use a cue. In: Proceedings of the HCI12 Conference on People and Computers XXVI 2012. pp. 251-256.
When routine tasks are interrupted, erroneous slips become more likely. Expertise is no defence against these kinds of errors but visual hints can alleviate such negative effects in computer interfaces. We compared previous-action cueing with next-action cueing, measuring the effects on error rate, and found that both approaches were statistically equivalent in helping to mitigate the disruptive effects of interruptions. Following an interruption, a cue should be displayed highlighting the last action performed by the user -- a trivial operation for software applications.
© All rights reserved Jones et al. and/or their publisher
Kamsin, Amirrudin, Blandford, Ann and Cox, Anna L. (2012): Personal task management: my tools fall apart when I'm very busy!. In: CHI12 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems May 5-10, 2012, Austin, USA. pp. 1369-1374.
Existing applications tend to highlight tasks that people should be doing at any given time based on the parameters of urgency (e.g. deadline), assigned priority and reminders. Our field studies demonstrate that people consider existing applications as inadequate to flexibly adapt to current changes in other essential factors, including, task size, complexity and interdependency and the unexpected situations that people face over time. Another key challenge facing busy people is that there is no mechanism that can monitor their work habits and match their tasks with their time constraints. Grounded in our data, we propose important requirements for tools that support users in managing tasks and assessing their schedules.
© All rights reserved Kamsin et al. and/or ACM Press
Back, Jonathan, Brumby, Duncan P. and Cox, Anna L. (2010): Locked-out: investigating the effectiveness of system lockouts to reduce errors in routine tasks. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 3775-3780.
While frustrating and innocuous in many settings, errors can have disastrous consequences for the use of safety critical systems and medical devices. This work-in-progress investigates the effectiveness of an enforced lockout period for reducing errors in a routine task. During the lockout period the user can look at, but not interact with the device interface for a period of 10 seconds before they resume the task after an interruption. Results show that this
© All rights reserved Back et al. and/or their publisher
Makri, Stephann, Blandford, Ann and Cox, Anna L. (2010): This is what i'm doing and why: reflections on a think-aloud study of dl users' information behaviour. In: JCDL10 Proceedings of the 2010 Joint International Conference on Digital Libraries 2010. pp. 349-352.
Many user-centred studies of digital libraries (DLs) include a think-aloud element and are usually conducted with the purpose of identifying usability issues related to the DLs used or understanding aspects of users' information behaviour. However, few of these studies present detailed accounts of how their think-aloud data was collected and analysed or reflect on this process. In this paper, we discuss and reflect on the decisions made when planning and conducting a think-aloud study of lawyers' interactive information behaviour. Our discussion is framed by Blandford et al.'s PRET A Rapporter ('ready to report') framework -- a framework that can be used to plan, conduct and describe user-centred studies of DL use from an information work perspective.
© All rights reserved Makri et al. and/or their publisher
Jennett, Charlene, Cox, Anna L. and Cairns, Paul (2009): Investigating computer game immersion and the component real world dissociation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 3407-3412.
Hassard, Stephen T., Blandford, Ann and Cox, Anna L. (2009): Analogies in design decision-making. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 140-148.
Design is becoming the decisive factor in whether a product is a commercial success, like Windows XP, or a critical failure, like Microsoft Bob. To leverage this factor we need to have a greater understanding of the cognitive processes behind Interaction Design. While there are a wide array of disciplines that fall under the umbrella of design, there are several cognitive processes that are common to all strata of design. Decision Making has been identified as an important factor in the design process but remains woefully under-explored. This paper aims to understand Design Decision-making (DDM) in the light of more recent developments in the wider decision-making field. Two studies were conducted, consisting of an initial theoretical thematic analysis to update the outdated models of design decision-making, and a follow-up quantitative study to validate the findings of the first study. Results indicate that while the current models of DDM do well to explain elements of the decision-making process they do not account for such things as the persistence of analogies across all stages of the decision-making process.
© All rights reserved Hassard et al. and/or their publisher
Gámez, Eduardo H. Calvillo, Cairns, Paul and Cox, Anna L. (2009): From the gaming experience to the wider user experience. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 520-523.
In this paper we discuss the different elements of the gaming experience and their relation to other concepts within HCI. The objective is to showcase how the different elements that form the gaming experience can be used to understand further issues regarding user experience. The objectives of games are, after all, to provide players with a positive experience. Understanding the elements that eventually lead players to have a positive experience should provide feedback about the wider user experience concept. Although video-games and non-game applications seem to be two different domains of study, in terms of experience, they both aim to improve the individual's experience.
© All rights reserved Gámez et al. and/or their publisher
Jennett, Charlene, Cox, Anna L., Cairns, Paul, Dhoparee, Samira, Epps, Andrew, Tijs, Tim and Walton, Alison (2008): Measuring and defining the experience of immersion in games. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 20 (9) pp. 641-661.
Despite the word's common usage by gamers and reviewers alike, it is still not clear what immersion means. This paper explores immersion further by investigating whether immersion can be defined quantitatively, describing three experiments in total. The first experiment investigated participants' abilities to switch from an immersive to a non-immersive task. The second experiment investigated whether there were changes in participants' eye movements during an immersive task. The third experiment investigated the effect of an externally imposed pace of interaction on immersion and affective measures (state anxiety, positive affect, negative affect). Overall the findings suggest that immersion can be measured subjectively (through questionnaires) as well as objectively (task completion time, eye movements). Furthermore, immersion is not only viewed as a positive experience: negative emotions and uneasiness (i.e. anxiety) also run high.
© All rights reserved Jennett et al. and/or Academic Press
Cox, Anna L., Cairns, Paul, Thimbleby, Harold and Webb, Natalie (2008): Research Methods for HCI. In: Proceedings of the HCI08 Conference on People and Computers XXII 2008. pp. 221-222.
The aim of the tutorial is to help researchers, particularly early career researchers, to develop the appropriate skills to make a useful research contribution to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). This is in recognition of the fact that HCI draws on a wide variety of disciplines which means that there is a wide variety of methods that a researcher could use and moreover new researchers may have education or experience in only a small fraction of the methods available.
© All rights reserved Cox et al. and/or their publisher
Makri, Stephann, Blandford, Ann and Cox, Anna L. (2008): Using Information Behaviors to Evaluate the Functionality and Usability of Electronic Resources: From Ellis's Model to Evaluation. In JASIST - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59 (14) pp. 2244-2267.
Information behavior (IB) research involves examining how people look for and use information, often with the sole purpose of gaining insights into the behavior displayed. However, it is also possible to examine IB with the purpose of using the insights gained to design new tools or improve the design of existing tools to support information seeking and use. This approach is advocated by David Ellis who, over two decades ago, presented a model of information seeking behaviors and made suggestions for how electronic tools might be designed to support these behaviors. Ellis also recognized that IBs might be used as the basis for evaluating as well as designing electronic resources. In this article, we present the IB evaluation methods. These two novel methods, based on an extension of Ellis's model, use the empirically observed IBs of lawyers as a framework for structuring user-centered evaluations of the functionality and usability of electronic resources. In this article, we present the IB methods and illustrate their use through the discussion of two examples. We also discuss benefits and limitations, grounded in specific features of the methods.
© All rights reserved Makri et al. and/or their publisher
Cairns, Paul and Cox, Anna L. (2008): Research Methods in Human-Computer Interaction. Cambridge University Press
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