Publication statistics

Pub. period:1993-2013
Pub. count:85
Number of co-authors:93



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Paul Curzon:10
George Buchanan:7
Dominic Furniss:7

 

 

Productive colleagues

Ann Blandford's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Alistair G. Sutcli..:148
Fabio Paterno:127
Harold Thimbleby:70
 
 
 
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Ann Blandford

Picture of Ann Blandford.
Has also published under the name of:
"A. Blandford" and "A. E. Blandford"

Personal Homepage:
ucl.ac.uk/uclic/people/a_blandford/

Current place of employment:
University College London

Ann Blandford is Professor of Human-Computer Interaction in the Department of Computer Science at University College London, and served as Director of UCL Interaction Centre (UCLIC) (2004-2011). Her teaching includes User-Centred Evaluation Methods on the MSc in HCI with Ergonomics at UCL. She started her career in industry, as a software engineer, but soon moved into academia, where she developed a focus on the use and usability of computer systems. Ann leads research projects on human error and on interacting with information, with a focus on modelling situated interactions. In particular, she leads an EPSRC Platform Grant on Interactive Systems in Healthcare, and an EPSRC Programme Grant, CHI+MED, on Human-Computer Interaction for Medical Devices. She has been technical programme chair for several conferences, the most recent being NordiCHI 2010. See http://www.ucl.ac.uk/uclic/people/a_blandford/ for more detail.

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Publications by Ann Blandford (bibliography)

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2013

Blandford, Ann (2013): Semi-structured qualitative studies. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html

 
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Blandford, Ann (2013): Eliciting People's Conceptual Models of Activities and Systems. In International Journal of Conceptual Structures and Smart Applications, 1 (1)

People using computer systems are required to work with the concepts implemented by system developers. If there is a poor fit between system concepts and users’ pre-existing conceptualisation of domain and task, this places a high workload on the user as they translate between their own conceptualisation and that imposed by the system. The focus of this paper is on how to identify users’ conceptualisations of a domain – ideally, prior to system implementation. For this, it is necessary to gather verbal data from people that allows them to articulate their conceptual models in ways that are not overly constrained by existing devices but allows them to articulate taken-for-granted knowledge. Possible study types include semi-structured interviews, contextual inquiry interviews and think-aloud protocols. The authors discuss how to design a study, covering choosing between different kinds of study, detailed planning of questions and tasks, data gathering, and preliminary data analysis.

© All rights reserved Blandford and/or his/her publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Rajkomar, Atish, Blandford, Ann and Mayer, Astrid (2013): Coping with complexity in home hemodialysis: a fresh perspective on time as a medium of Distributed Cognition. In Cognition, Technology & Work,

The existing literature on Distributed Cognition (DCog) mostly presents the temporal distribution of cognition in terms of system evolution that happens over time. In this paper, we illustrate how cognition can also be distributed through time in more immediate ways, through four principles we developed while studying how renal patients cope with the complexity of home hemodialysis. These principles are temporal assignments to tasks to aid prospective remembering; temporal arrangement of tasks to help deal with anticipated problems; temporal distribution of a task plan to avoid omission of steps; and temporal re-arrangement of tasks to reduce peak complexity. Like the physical environment, the time continuum is an external medium that can support distributed cognitive processes, serving as a representation for task reminders and allowing actors to organize the order, duration, and spacing of tasks to reduce complexity in cognitive work. These principles can highlight problems and opportunities in the design of socio-technical systems, by explicitly considering time as another medium that can be used to support DCog in short-term activity.

© All rights reserved Rajkomar et al. and/or Springer

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
2012

Blandford, Ann (2012). Commentary on 'Usability Evaluation' by Gilbert Cockton

 
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Diriye, Abdigani, Tombros, Anastasios and Blandford, Ann (2012): A little interaction can go a long way: enriching the query formulation process. In: Proceedings of the 2012 BCS-IRSG European Conference on Information Retrieval 2012. pp. 531-534.

This poster argues for a need for more dialogue and richer information and interaction during query formulation between the user and the system. We present two novel methods -- query previews and categorised Interactive Query Expansions -- that seek to do just this. Our method enriches a searcher's query formulation by leveraging semantic information to help identify the topicality of the term, and the outcomes of its selection. The initial findings are largely positive and suggest user preference.

© All rights reserved Diriye et al. and/or Springer

 
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Kamsin, Amirrudin, Blandford, Ann and Cox, Anna L. (2012): Personal task management: my tools fall apart when I'm very busy!. In: CHI12 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems May 5-10, 2012, Austin, USA. pp. 1369-1374

Existing applications tend to highlight tasks that people should be doing at any given time based on the parameters of urgency (e.g. deadline), assigned priority and reminders. Our field studies demonstrate that people consider existing applications as inadequate to flexibly adapt to current changes in other essential factors, including, task size, complexity and interdependency and the unexpected situations that people face over time. Another key challenge facing busy people is that there is no mechanism that can monitor their work habits and match their tasks with their time constraints. Grounded in our data, we propose important requirements for tools that support users in managing tasks and assessing their schedules.

© All rights reserved Kamsin et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Makri, Stephann and Blandford, Ann (2012): Coming across information serendipitously – Part 1: A process model. In Journal of Documentation, 68 (5) pp. .684-705

Purpose – This research seeks to gain a detailed understanding of how researchers come across information serendipitously, grounded in real-world examples. This research was undertaken to enrich the theoretical understanding of this slippery phenomenon. Design/methodology/approach – Semi-structured critical incident interviews were conducted with 28 interdisciplinary researchers. Interviewees were asked to discuss memorable examples of coming across information serendipitously from their research or everyday life. The data collection and analysis process followed many of the core principles of grounded theory methodology. Findings – The examples provided were varied, but shared common elements (they involved a mix of unexpectedness and insight and led to a valuable, unanticipated outcome). These elements form part of an empirically grounded process model of serendipity. In this model, a new connection is made that involves a mix of unexpectedness and insight and has the potential to lead to a valuable outcome. Projections are made on the potential value of the outcome and actions are taken to exploit the connection, leading to an (unanticipated) valuable outcome. Originality/value – The model provides researchers across disciplines with a structured means of understanding and describing serendipitous experiences.

© All rights reserved Makri and Blandford and/or Emerald Group Publishing

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Rajkomar, Atish and Blandford, Ann (2012): Understanding infusion administration in the ICU through Distributed Cognition. In Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 45 (3) pp. 580-590

To understand how healthcare technologies are used in practice and evaluate them, researchers have argued for adopting the theoretical framework of Distributed Cognition (DC). This paper describes the methods and results of a study in which a DC methodology, Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT), was applied to study the use of infusion pumps by nurses in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Data was gathered through ethnographic observations and interviews. Data analysis consisted of constructing the representational models of DiCoT, focusing on information flows, physical layouts, social structures and artefacts. The findings show that there is significant distribution of cognition in the ICU: socially, among nurses; physically, through the material environment; and through technological artefacts. The DiCoT methodology facilitated the identification of potential improvements that could increase the safety and efficiency of nurses’ interactions with infusion technology.

© All rights reserved Rajkomar and Blandford and/or Elsevier

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
2011
 
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Furniss, Dominic, Blandford, Ann and Curzon, Paul (2011): Confessions from a grounded theory PhD: experiences and lessons learnt. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 113-122.

Grounded Theory (GT) is used within HCI research, but nuances and more modern interpretations of the method are rarely discussed. This paper has two intentions: to offer guidance on practical issues when applying GT, and to clarify the space of methodological possibilities. We describe an extended GT study on understanding why practitioners choose particular usability evaluation methods. We describe five stages in this study to highlight our experiences and choices made. We draw out seven practical and methodological considerations in applying GT in a CHI context. This challenges the more traditional inductive and objective positions on GT use; it sensitizes novices of GT to these issues; and through the extended case study it provides substance for debate on issues that affect those that use qualitative methods more broadly.

© All rights reserved Furniss et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Blandford, Ann, Pietro, Giuseppe De, Gallo, Luigi, Gimblett, Andy, Oladimeji, Patrick and Thimbleby, Harold (2011): Engineering interactive computer systems for medicine and healthcare (EICS4Med). In: ACM SIGCHI 2011 Symposium on Engineering Interactive Computing Systems 2011. pp. 341-342.

This workshop brings together and develops the community of researchers and practitioners concerned with the design and evaluation of interactive medical devices (infusion pumps, etc) and systems (electronic patient records, etc), to deliver a roadmap for future research in this area. The workshop involves researchers and practitioners designing and evaluating dependable systems in a variety of contexts, and those developing innovative interactive computer systems for healthcare. These pose particular challenges because of the inherent variability -- of patients, system configurations, and so on. Participants will represent a range of perspectives, including safety engineering and innovative design. The focus is: engineering safe and acceptable interactive healthcare systems. The aim is: develop a roadmap for future research on interactive healthcare systems.

© All rights reserved Blandford et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Vincent, Chris and Blandford, Ann (2011): Designing for Safety and Usability: User-Centered Techniques in Medical Device Design Practice. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting 2011. pp. 793-797.

The design of systems affects the likelihood and nature of errors that people might make with them, and the ease of error recovery. If developers are to design systems that are less prone to errors propagating, they need to consider the users and user contexts. There are many techniques and resources available to support developers in this. In this paper we report on an interview study involving professionals from major manufacturers of medical devices, to better understand their development practices and the external forces that shape those practices. This identified barriers to user-centered design and corresponding opportunities for support. Results are divided into four themes. These are: collaborative working practices; understanding the user and their situation; providing adequate justification for the adoption of a user-centered approach; and the provision of clear guidance and support. Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring that techniques are adequately justified, applied at the correct time, aligned with the development lifecycle and easy to adopt.

© All rights reserved Vincent and Blandford and/or HFES

 
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Attfield, Simon and Blandford, Ann (2011): Making Sense of Digital Footprints in Team-Based Legal Investigations: The Acquisition of Focus. In Human Computer Interaction, 26 (1) pp. 38-71.

Sensemaking occurs when people face the problem of forming an understanding of a situation. One scenario in which technology has a particularly significant impact on sensemaking and its success is in legal investigations. Legal investigations extend over time, are resource intensive, and require the sifting and re-representation of large collections of electronic evidence and close collaboration between multiple investigators. In this article, we present an account of sensemaking in three corporate legal investigations. We summarize information interaction processes in the form of a model which conceptualizes processes as resource transformations triggered and shaped by both bottom-up and top-down resources. The model both extends upon and validates aspects of a previous account of investigative sensemaking (Pirolli dynamically associating documents of a given type; interacting with documents in fluid ways; linking external representation elements to evidence; filtering external representations in flexible ways; and viewing external representations at different levels of scale and fidelity. Finally, we use our data to analyze the conceptual elements within a "line of inquiry." This provides a framework that can form the basis for partitioning information into hierarchically embedded inquiry 'contexts' within collaborative sensemaking systems.

© All rights reserved Attfield and Blandford and/or Lawrence Erlbaum

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Furniss, Dominic, Blandford, Ann and Mayer, Astrid (2011): Unremarkable errors: low-level disturbances in infusion pump use. In: Proceedings of the 25th BCS Conference on Human-Computer Interaction BCS-HCI 11 July 4-8, 2011, Newcastle, United Kingdom. pp. 197-204

In this paper we describe results from an exploratory study observing infusion pump use in practice. From 31 observations of pump programming we note 10 low-level disturbances, which we conceptualise in terms of unremarkable error. This data supports a view that well performing systems cope with error as part of their normal work. Users are able to recover from error and are resilient to performance deviations. However, it is not clear how we, as HCI researchers, should respond to these minor errors: should we aim to minimise them or instead aim to improve detection, recovery and control in safety-critical systems? What is clear is that without remarking on unremarkable error we cannot begin this dialogue and consider the handling of these issues. To conclude we recognise four important factors that influence remedial action, and we highlight the need for a socio-technical approach for making change that is appropriate for practice.

© All rights reserved Furniss et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
2010
 
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Makri, Stephann, Blandford, Ann and Cox, Anna L. (2010): This is what i'm doing and why: reflections on a think-aloud study of dl users' information behaviour. In: JCDL10 Proceedings of the 2010 Joint International Conference on Digital Libraries 2010. pp. 349-352.

Many user-centred studies of digital libraries (DLs) include a think-aloud element and are usually conducted with the purpose of identifying usability issues related to the DLs used or understanding aspects of users' information behaviour. However, few of these studies present detailed accounts of how their think-aloud data was collected and analysed or reflect on this process. In this paper, we discuss and reflect on the decisions made when planning and conducting a think-aloud study of lawyers' interactive information behaviour. Our discussion is framed by Blandford et al.'s PRET A Rapporter ('ready to report') framework -- a framework that can be used to plan, conduct and describe user-centred studies of DL use from an information work perspective.

© All rights reserved Makri et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Sutcliffe, Alistair G. and Blandford, Ann (2010): Guest Editors' Introduction. In Interacting with Computers, 22 (1) pp. 1-2.

 
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Sulaiman, Suziah, Blandford, Ann and Cairns, Paul (2010): Haptic experience and the design of drawing interfaces. In Interacting with Computers, 22 (3) pp. 193-205.

Haptic feedback has the potential to enhance users' sense of being engaged and creative in their artwork. Current work on providing haptic feedback in computer-based drawing applications has focused mainly on the realism of the haptic sensation rather than the users' experience of that sensation in the context of their creative work. We present a study that focuses on user experience of three haptic drawing interfaces. These interfaces were based on two different haptic metaphors, one of which mimicked familiar drawing tools (such as pen, pencil or crayon on smooth or rough paper) and the other of which drew on abstract descriptors of haptic experience (roughness, stickiness, scratchiness and smoothness). It was found that users valued having control over the haptic sensation; that each metaphor was preferred by approximately half of the participants; and that the real world metaphor interface was considered more helpful than the abstract one, whereas the abstract interface was considered to better support creativity. This suggests that future interfaces for artistic work should have user-modifiable interaction styles for controlling the haptic sensation.

© All rights reserved Sulaiman et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Hiltz, Kimberley, Back, Jonathan and Blandford, Ann (2010): The roles of conceptual device models and user goals in avoiding device initialization errors. In Interacting with Computers, 22 (5) pp. 363-374.

While mistakes, and approaches to design and training that reduce them, have been studied extensively, relatively little work in HCI studies 'slip' errors, which occur when one intends to do a certain action during a skilled task but unintentionally does another. In this article we examine approaches to training that might reduce the occurrence of a slip error referred to as a 'device initialization error'. This error occurs when skilled users of a device forget to perform some initialization action, such as positioning the cursor in a text entry box or setting the device into the correct mode, before entering data or performing some other significant activity. We report on an experiment studying the effects of two training interventions on this error, which aim to manipulate the salience of the error-prone action without making any physical changes to the device. In the first intervention participants were given a particular conceptual model of the device's operation, to evaluate whether having an improved understanding of the effect of each action would lead to fewer errors. In the second, participants were given a new device operation goal requiring them to 'test' the device, to evaluate whether attending to the outcome of initialization actions would lead to fewer errors. Only participants who were asked to 'test' the device and also given enhanced instructions to enter dummy data after completing initialization actions showed a statistically significant improvement in performance. Post-test interviews and evidence from existing literature suggest that when participants forgot the initialization step it was because they were attending to the subsequent data entry steps. This study highlights the central roles that user goals and attention play in the occurrence (or avoidance) of slip errors.

© All rights reserved Hiltz et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Keith, S., Blandford, Ann, Fields, Bob and Harrison, Michael (eds.) 12th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education EPDE10 2010.

2009
 
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Hassard, Stephen T., Blandford, Ann and Cox, Anna L. (2009): Analogies in design decision-making. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 140-148.

Design is becoming the decisive factor in whether a product is a commercial success, like Windows XP, or a critical failure, like Microsoft Bob. To leverage this factor we need to have a greater understanding of the cognitive processes behind Interaction Design. While there are a wide array of disciplines that fall under the umbrella of design, there are several cognitive processes that are common to all strata of design. Decision Making has been identified as an important factor in the design process but remains woefully under-explored. This paper aims to understand Design Decision-making (DDM) in the light of more recent developments in the wider decision-making field. Two studies were conducted, consisting of an initial theoretical thematic analysis to update the outdated models of design decision-making, and a follow-up quantitative study to validate the findings of the first study. Results indicate that while the current models of DDM do well to explain elements of the decision-making process they do not account for such things as the persistence of analogies across all stages of the decision-making process.

© All rights reserved Hassard et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Diriye, Abdigani, Blandford, Ann and Tombros, Anastasios (2009): A polyrepresentational approach to interactive query expansion. In: JCDL09 Proceedings of the 2009 Joint International Conference on Digital Libraries 2009. pp. 217-220.

Interactive Query Expansion (IQE) presents suggested terms to the user during their search to enable better Information Retrieval (IR). However, IQE terms are poorly used, and tend to lack information meaningful to the user. The lack of cognitive and functional support during query refinement is a well documented problem, and despite the work carried out, it is still an under researched area. This stagnation in progress has been partly due to the long held belief that users are able to make good IQE term selections, and that the de facto way IQE terms are presented is effective. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to improve the presentation of IQE terms by providing supplementary information alongside them. We describe a user study that compared our novel polyrepresentational approach to IQE against a conventional IQE system and a baseline system. Our findings have shown that a polyrepresentational approach to IQE can address the ambiguity and uncertainty surrounding IQE, and improve the perceived usefulness of the terms.

© All rights reserved Diriye et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Smith, Penn, Blandford, Ann and Back, Jonathan (2009): Questioning, exploring, narrating and playing in the control room to maintain system safety. In Cognition Technology and Work, 11 (4) pp. 279-291

Systems whose design is primarily aimed at ensuring efficient, effective and safe working, such as control rooms, have traditionally been evaluated in terms of criteria that correspond directly to those values: functional correctness, time to complete tasks, etc. This paper reports on a study of control room working that identified other factors that contributed directly to overall system safety. These factors included the ability of staff to manage uncertainty, to learn in an exploratory way, to reflect on their actions, and to engage in problem-solving that has many of the hallmarks of playing puzzles which, in turn, supports exploratory learning. These factors, while currently difficult to measure or explicitly design for, must be recognized and valued in design.

© All rights reserved Smith et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
2008
 
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Blandford, Ann, Green, T. R. G., Furniss, Dominic and Makri, Stephann (2008): Evaluating system utility and conceptual fit using CASSM. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 20 (6) pp. 393-409.

There is a wealth of user-centred evaluation methods (UEMs) to support the analyst in assessing interactive systems. Many of these support detailed aspects of use -- for example: is the feedback helpful? Are labels appropriate? Is the task structure optimal? Few UEMs encourage the analyst to step back and consider how well a system supports users' conceptual understandings and system utility. In this paper, we present CASSM, a method, which focuses on the quality of 'fit' between users and an interactive system. We describe the methodology of conducting a CASSM analysis and illustrate the approach with three contrasting worked examples (a robotic arm, a digital library system and a drawing tool) that demonstrate different depths of analysis. We show how CASSM can help identify re-design possibilities to improve system utility. CASSM complements established evaluation methods by focusing on conceptual structures rather than procedures. Prototype tool support for completing a CASSM analysis is provided by Cassata, an open source development.

© All rights reserved Blandford et al. and/or Academic Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Attfield, Simon, Blandford, Ann, Dowell, John and Cairns, Paul (2008): Uncertainty-tolerant design: Evaluating task performance and drag-and-link information gathering for a news-writing task. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 20 (6) pp. 410-424.

Part of the challenge of designing systems to support knowledge work is to do so in a way which is sympathetic to users' uncertainty. NewsHarvester is a test-bed system designed to support news research and writing in a way that accommodates uncertainty in relation to information gathering. It does this using 'drag-and-link'; a simple feature by which text extracts copied from source locations are appended with hyperlinks to force the re-display of the source. We describe the rationale for using drag-and-link within NewHarvester based on a previous ethnographic study of journalists, describe its implementation within NewsHarvester, and report a user-evaluation which compared drag-and-link with printing and standard drag-and-drop as information gathering mechanisms. We found that users wanted to relocate information they had not previously identified as useful in order to include it in their report, to better understand the context of information already extracted, and as part of a more serendipitous search for information to add to a near-complete report. Users also considered drag-and-link an easier method for gathering information than printing, and considered that drag-and-link made it easier to relocate information. They also considered that drag-and-link promoted more flexible and dynamic working and increased user enjoyment. An assessment of the quality of their work showed a trend that favoured drag-and-link over the other two methods, although this was not statistically significant. We conclude that drag-and-link improves user-experience during research and writing tasks in the face of information gathering uncertainty.

© All rights reserved Attfield et al. and/or Academic Press

 
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Stelmaszewska, Hanna, Fields, Bob and Blandford, Ann (2008): The Roles of Time, Place, Value and Relationships in Collocated Photo Sharing with Camera Phones. In: Proceedings of the HCI08 Conference on People and Computers XXII 2008. pp. 141-150.

Photo sharing on camera phones is becoming a common way to maintain closeness and relationships with friends and family. How people share their photos in collocated settings using camera phones, with whom they share, and what factors influence their sharing experience were the themes explored in this study. Results showed that people exhibit different photo sharing behaviour depending on who they share photos with, where the sharing takes place and what value a picture represents to its owner. In this paper, we will explain what triggers the photo sharing activity and how the sharing takes place depending on who photos are shared with and where they are shared (e.g. restaurant, pub, home). The sharing experience is hindered by the difficulty of controlling which photographs are made available to particular people; sharing with a group of people at once; and ensuring appropriate privacy measures. These findings highlight requirements for novel mechanisms for organising, sharing, and displaying photos as well as provide a better understanding of photo sharing behaviour using camera phones in collocated settings.

© All rights reserved Stelmaszewska et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Blandford, Ann, Curzon, Paul, Hyde, Joanne and Papatzanis, George (2008): EMU in the Car: Evaluating Multimodal Usability of a Satellite Navigation System. In: Graham, T. C. Nicholas and Palanque, Philippe A. (eds.) DSV-IS 2008 - Interactive Systems. Design, Specification, and Verification, 15th International Workshop July 16-18, 2008, Kingston, Canada. pp. 1-14.

 
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Attfield, Simon, Fegan, Sarah and Blandford, Ann (2008): Idea Generation and Material Consolidation: Tool Use and Intermediate Artefacts in Journalistic Writing. In Cognition, Technology & Work, 11 (3) pp. 227-239

We report an in-depth, longitudinal study of a freelance music journalist writing a feature article. Our analysis attends to the participantís activities from initiation to completion, and the ways in which she established structure using tools and artefacts to support cognitive effort. We observed five work stages: establishing an initial idea; preparing for an interview; interviewing; planning the article; and writing. Each resulted in the production of a working document embodying ideas and commitments which provided a key resource for the next stage. Stages began with phases of idea generation during which ideas were spontaneously triggered through intense engagement with information resources. They finished with phases of material consolidation when intermediate artifacts were configured to facilitate generation during the next stage. We examine these in detail and use our findings to motivate a discussion of working document overview representations and specific requirements related to idea generation and material consolidation.

© All rights reserved Attfield et al. and/or Springer

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Blandford, Ann, Adams, Anne, Attfield, Simon, Buchanan, George, Gow, Jeremy, Makri, Stephann, Rimmer, Jon and Warwick, Claire (2008): The PRET A Rapporter framework: Evaluating digital libraries from the perspective of information work. In Information Processing & Management, 44 (1) pp. 4-21

The strongest tradition of IR systems evaluation has focused on system effectiveness; more recently, there has been a growing interest in evaluation of Interactive IR systems, balancing system and user-oriented evaluation criteria. In this paper we shift the focus to considering how IR systems, and particularly digital libraries, can be evaluated to assess (and improve) their fit with users' broader work activities. Taking this focus, we answer a different set of evaluation questions that reveal more about the design of interfaces, user-system interactions and how systems may be deployed in the information working context. The planning and conduct of such evaluation studies share some features with the established methods for conducting IR evaluation studies, but come with a shift in emphasis; for example, a greater range of ethical considerations may be pertinent. We present the PRET A Rapporter framework for structuring user-centred evaluation studies and illustrate its application to three evaluation studies of digital library systems.

© All rights reserved Blandford et al. and/or Pergamon Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Makri, Stephann, Blandford, Ann and Cox, Anna L. (2008): Using Information Behaviors to Evaluate the Functionality and Usability of Electronic Resources: From Ellis's Model to Evaluation. In JASIST - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59 (14) pp. 2244-2267

Information behavior (IB) research involves examining how people look for and use information, often with the sole purpose of gaining insights into the behavior displayed. However, it is also possible to examine IB with the purpose of using the insights gained to design new tools or improve the design of existing tools to support information seeking and use. This approach is advocated by David Ellis who, over two decades ago, presented a model of information seeking behaviors and made suggestions for how electronic tools might be designed to support these behaviors. Ellis also recognized that IBs might be used as the basis for evaluating as well as designing electronic resources. In this article, we present the IB evaluation methods. These two novel methods, based on an extension of Ellis's model, use the empirically observed IBs of lawyers as a framework for structuring user-centered evaluations of the functionality and usability of electronic resources. In this article, we present the IB methods and illustrate their use through the discussion of two examples. We also discuss benefits and limitations, grounded in specific features of the methods.

© All rights reserved Makri et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
2007
 
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Buchanan, George, Gow, Jeremy, Blandford, Ann, Rimmer, Jon and Warwick, Claire (2007): Representing aggregate works in the digital library. In: JCDL07: Proceedings of the 7th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2007. pp. 247-256.

This paper studies the challenge of representing aggregate works such as encyclopedias, collected poems and journals in heterogenous digital library collections. Reflecting on the materials used by humanities academics, we demonstrate the varied range of aggregate types and the problems of faithfully representing this in the DL interface. Aggregates are complex and pervasive, challenge common assumptions and confuse boundaries within organisational structures. Existing DL systems can only provide imperfect representation of aggregates, and alterations to document encoding are insufficient to create a faithful reproduction of the physical library. The challenge is amplified through concrete examples, and solutions are demonstrated in a well-known DL system and related to standard DL architecture.

© All rights reserved Buchanan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Blandford, Ann, Keith, Suzette, Butterworth, Richard, Fields, Bob and Furniss, Dominic (2007): Disrupting digital library development with scenario informed design. In Interacting with Computers, 19 (1) pp. 70-82.

In recent years, there has been great interest in scenario-based design and other forms of user-centred design. However, there are many design processes that, often for good reason, remain technology-centred. We present a case study of introducing scenarios into two digital library development processes. This was found to disrupt established patterns of working and to bring together conflicting value systems. In particular, the human factors approach of identifying users and anticipating what they are likely to do with a system (and what problems they might encounter) did not sit well with a development culture in which the rapid generation and informal evaluation of possible solutions (that are technically feasible and compatible with stable system components) is the norm. We found that developers tended to think in terms of two kinds of user: one who was exploring the system with no particular goal in mind and one who knew as much as the developer; scenarios typically work with richer user descriptions that challenge that thinking. In addition, the development practice of breaking down the design problem into discrete functions to make it manageable does not fit well with a scenario-based approach to thinking about user behaviour and interactions. The compromise reached was scenario-informed design, whereby scenarios were generated to support reasoning about the use of selected functions within the system. These scenarios helped create productive common ground between perspectives.

© All rights reserved Blandford et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Makri, Stephann, Blandford, Ann, Gow, Jeremy, Rimmer, Jon, Warwick, Claire and Buchanan, George (2007): A library or just another information resource? A case study of users' mental models of traditional and digital libraries. In JASIST - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58 (3) pp. 433-445.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Faisal, Sarah, Cairns, Paul A. and Blandford, Ann (2007): Building for Users not for Experts: Designing a Visualization of the Literature Domain. In: IV 2007 - 11th International Conference on Information Visualisation 2-6 July, 2007, Zrich, Switzerland. pp. 707-712.

 
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Back, Jonathan, Blandford, Ann and Curzon, Paul (2007): Slip errors and cue salience. In: Brinkman, Willem-Paul, Ham, Dong-Han and Wong, B. L. William (eds.) ECCE 2007 - Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics August 28-31, 2007, London, UK. pp. 221-224.

 
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Furniss, Dominic, Blandford, Ann and Curzon, Paul (2007): Usability evaluation methods in practice: understanding the context in which they are embedded. In: Brinkman, Willem-Paul, Ham, Dong-Han and Wong, B. L. William (eds.) ECCE 2007 - Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics August 28-31, 2007, London, UK. pp. 253-256.

 
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Back, Jonathan, Blandford, Ann and Curzon, Paul (2007): Recognising Erroneous and Exploratory Interactions. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 127-140.

 
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Blandford, Ann, Benedyk, Rachel, Berthouze, Nadia, Cox, Anna Louise and Dowell, John (2007): The Challenges of Creating Connections and Raising Awareness: Experience from UCLIC. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 682-683.

 
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Blandford, Ann, Gow, Jeremy, Buchanan, George, Warwick, Claire and Rimmer, Jon (2007): Creators, Composers and Consumers: Experiences of Designing a Digital Library. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 239-242.

2006
 
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Blandford, Ann, Keith, Suzette and Fields, Bob (2006): Claims Analysis. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 21 (2) pp. 197-218.

One of the long-standing challenges in human-computer interaction has been the integration of usability evaluation methods within design practice. In the work reported here, the question of how to include user concerns within an unstructured, system-focused development process was investigated. The project looked into the use of Claims Analysis as a method for assessing the effects of design decisions on users' experience. Claims Analysis was found to be more difficult than expected to learn, to communicate to systems developers, and to apply effectively in practice. The work has highlighted a tension between user-centered and function-oriented design approaches and differences in values and perspectives between the human factors specialists and traditional developers involved in the study.

© All rights reserved Blandford et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Back, J., Cheng, W. L., Dann, R., Curzon, P. and Blandford, Ann (2006): Does Being Motivated to Avoid Procedural Errors Influence Their Systematicity?. In: Proceedings of the HCI06 Conference on People and Computers XX 2006. pp. 151-158.

 
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Doherty, Gavin and Blandford, Ann (eds.) DSV-IS 2006 - Interactive Systems. Design, Specification, and Verification, 13th International Workshop July 26-28, 2006, Dublin, Ireland.

 
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Ruksenas, Rimvydas, Curzon, Paul, Back, Jonathan and Blandford, Ann (2006): Formal Modelling of Cognitive Interpretation. In: Doherty, Gavin and Blandford, Ann (eds.) DSV-IS 2006 - Interactive Systems. Design, Specification, and Verification, 13th International Workshop July 26-28, 2006, Dublin, Ireland. pp. 123-136.

 
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Green, T. R. G., Blandford, Ann, Church, L., Roast, Chris R. and Clarke, S. (2006): Cognitive dimensions: Achievements, new directions, and open questions. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 17 (4) pp. 328-365.

 
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Furniss, Dominic and Blandford, Ann (2006): Understanding Emergency Medical Dispatch in terms of Distributed Cognition: a case study. In Ergonomics, 49 (12) pp. 1174-1203

Emergency medical dispatch (EMD) is typically a team activity, requiring fluid coordination and communication between team members. Such working situations have often been described in terms of distributed cognition (DC), a framework for understanding team working. DC takes account of factors such as shared representations and artefacts to support reasoning about team working. Although the language of DC has been developed over several years, little attention has been paid to developing a methodology or reusable representation which supports reasoning about an interactive system from a DC perspective. We present a case study in which we developed a method for constructing a DC account of team working in the domain of EMD, focusing on the use of the method for describing an existing EMD work system, identifying sources of weakness in that system, and reasoning about the likely consequences of redesign of the system. The resulting DC descriptions have yielded new insights into the design of EMD work and of tools to support that work within a large EMD centre.

© All rights reserved Furniss and Blandford and/or Taylor and Francis

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
2005
 
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Adams, Anne and Blandford, Ann (2005): Digital libraries' support for the user's 'information journey'. In: JCDL05: Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2005. pp. 160-169.

The temporal elements of users' information requirements are a continually confounding aspect of digital library design. No sooner have users' needs been identified and supported than they change. This paper evaluates the changing information requirements of users through their 'information journey' in two different domains (health and academia). In-depth analysis of findings from interviews, focus groups and observations of 150 users have identified three stages to this journey: information initiation, facilitation (or gathering) and interpretation. The study shows that, although digital libraries are supporting aspects of users' information facilitation, there are still requirements for them to better support users' overall information work in context. Users are poorly supported in the initiation phase, as they recognize their information needs, especially with regard to resource awareness; in this context, interactive press-alerts are discussed. Some users (especially clinicians and patients) also require support in the interpretation of information, both satisfying themselves that the information is trustworthy and understanding what it means for a particular individual.

© All rights reserved Adams and Blandford and/or ACM Press

 
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Warwick, Claire, Rimmer, Jon, Blandford, Ann and Buchanan, George (2005): User centred interactive search in the humanities. In: JCDL05: Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2005. p. 400.

This poster describes research on the needs and behaviours of Humanities users of both digital libraries and more traditional information environments.

© All rights reserved Warwick et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Adams, Anne and Blandford, Ann (2005): Bridging the gap between organizational and user perspectives of security in the clinical domain. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 63 (1) pp. 175-202.

An understanding of 'communities of practice' can help to make sense of existing security and privacy issues within organizations; the same understanding can be used proactively to help bridge the gap between organizational and end-user perspectives on these matters. Findings from two studies within the health domain reveal contrasting perspectives on the 'enemy within' approach to organizational security. Ethnographic evaluations involving in-depth interviews, focus groups and observations with 93 participants (clinical staff, managers, library staff and IT department members) were conducted in two hospitals. All of the data was analysed using the social science methodology 'grounded theory'. In one hospital, a community and user-centred approach to the development of an organizational privacy and security application produced a new communication medium that improved corporate awareness across the organization. User involvement in the development of this application increased the perceived importance, for the designers, of application usability, quality and aesthetics. However, other initiatives within this organization produced clashes with informal working practices and communities of practice. Within the second hospital, poor communication from IT about security mechanisms resulted in their misuse by some employees, who viewed them as a socially controlling force. Authentication mechanisms were used to socially exclude users who were formally authorized to access systems but whose access was unacceptable within some local communities of practice. The importance of users' security awareness and control are reviewed within the context of communities of practice.

© All rights reserved Adams and Blandford and/or Academic Press

 
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Blandford, Ann, Green, T. R. G. and Connell, Iain (2005): Formalising an Understanding of User-System Misfits. In: Bastide, Remi, Palanque, Philippe A. and Roth, Jrg (eds.) Engineering Human Computer Interaction and Interactive Systems, Joint Working Conferences EHCI-DSVIS 2004 July 11-13, 2005, Hamburg, Germany. pp. 253-270.

 
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Blandford, Ann and Furniss, Dominic (2005): DiCoT: A Methodology for Applying Distributed Cognition to the Design of Teamworking Systems. In: Gilroy, Stephen W. and Harrison, Michael D. (eds.) DSV-IS 2005 - Interactive Systems, Design, Specification, and Verification, 12th International Workshop July 13-15, 2005, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. pp. 26-38.

 
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Chozos, Nick, Sheridan, Jennifer G., Mehmet, zcan, Naghsh, Amir, Lee, Kwang Chun and Blandford, Ann (2005): Supporting Values Other Than Usability and Performance Within the Design Process. In: Gilroy, Stephen W. and Harrison, Michael D. (eds.) DSV-IS 2005 - Interactive Systems, Design, Specification, and Verification, 12th International Workshop July 13-15, 2005, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. pp. 262-263.

 
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Adams, Anne, Blandford, Ann and Lunt, Peter (2005): Social Empowerment and Exclusion: A case study on Digital Libraries. In ACM Transactions on CHI, pp. 174-200

This paper reports on work studying how technology can empower or exclude its users due to interactions between social context, system design and implementation. The analysis is based around the introduction and use of digital libraries in four different settings, three clinical and one academic. Across the four settings, indepth interview and focus group data was collected from 144 users, and analyzed with reference to ‘communities of practice’. The four settings represent three different approaches to digital library implementation: making digital library resources available from existing computer systems in people’s offices and the library (a traditional approach); making computer systems – and hence digital libraries – available in shared spaces (in this case, hospital wards); and employing information intermediaries to work with staff and library resources. These different approaches engendered different perceptions of the technology. The traditional approach produced perceptions of technology as being irrelevant for current needs and community practices. Making technology available within shared physical space – but with poor design, support and implementation procedures – was widely perceived as a threat to current organizational structures. In contrast, technology implemented within the community which could adapt to and change practices according to individual and group needs, supported by an information intermediary, was seen as empowering to both the community and the individual. We relate the findings to a discussion of evolutionary and revolutionary approaches to design, and to the concept of ‘communities of practice’.

© All rights reserved Adams et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
2004
 
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Blandford, Ann, Butterworth, Richard and Curzon, Paul (2004): Models of interactive systems: a case study on programmable user modelling. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 60 (2) pp. 149-200.

Models of interactive systems can be used to answer focused questions about those systems. Making the appropriate choice of modelling technique depends on what questions are being asked. We present two styles of interactive system model and associated verification method. We show how they contrast in terms of tractability, inspectability of assumptions, level of abstraction and reusability of model fragments. These trade-offs are discussed. We discuss how they can be used as part of an integrated formal approach to the analysis of interactive systems where the different formal techniques focus on specific problems raised by empirical investigations. Explanations resulting from the formal analyses can be validated with respect to the empirical data. The first modelling style, which we term 'operational', is derived directly from principles of rationality that constrain which user behaviours are modelled. Modelling involves laying out user knowledge of the system and task, and their goals, then applying the principles to reason about the space of rational behaviours. This style supports reasoning about user knowledge and the consequences of particular knowledge in terms of likely behaviours. It is well suited to reasoning about interactions where user knowledge is a key to successful interaction. Such models can readily be implemented as computer programs; one such implementation is presented here. Models of the second style, 'abstract', are derived from the operational models and thus retain important aspects of rationality. As a result of the simplification, mathematical proof about selected properties of the interactive system, such as safety properties, can be tractably applied to these models. This style is well suited to cases where the user adopts particular strategies that can be represented succinctly within the model. We demonstrate the application of the two styles for understanding a reported phenomenon, using a case study on electronic diaries.

© All rights reserved Blandford et al. and/or Academic Press

 
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Connell, Iain, Blandford, Ann and Green, T. R. G. (2004): CASSM and cognitive walkthrough: usability issues with ticket vending machines. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 23 (5) pp. 307-320.

We focus on the ability of two analytical usability evaluation methods (UEMs), namely CASSM (Concept-based Analysis for Surface and Structural Misfits) and Cognitive Walkthrough, to identify usability issues underlying the use made of two London Underground ticket vending machines. By setting both sets of issues against the observed interactions with the machines, we assess the similarities and differences between the issues depicted by the two methods. In so doing we de-emphasise the mainly quantitative approach which is typical of the comparative UEM literature. However, by accounting for the likely consequences of the issues in behavioural terms, we reduced the proportion of issues which were anticipated but not observed (the false positives), compared with that achieved by other UEM studies. We assess these results in terms of the limitations of problem count as a measure of UEM effectiveness. We also discuss the likely trade-offs between field studies and laboratory testing.

© All rights reserved Connell et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Buchanan, George, Blandford, Ann, Thimbleby, Harold and Jones, Matt (2004): Integrating information seeking and structuring: exploring the role of spatial hypertext in a digital library. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext 2004. pp. 225-234.

This paper presents Garnet, a novel spatial hypertext interface to a digital library. Garnet supports both information structuring - via spatial hypertext - and traditional information seeking - via a digital library. A user study of Garnet is reported, together with an analysis of how the organizing work done by users in a spatial hypertext workspace could support later information seeking. The use of Garnet during the study is related to both digital library and spatial hypertext research. Spatial hypertexts support the detection of implicit document groups in a user's workspace. The study also investigates the degree of similarity found in the full text of documents within such document groups.

© All rights reserved Buchanan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Blandford, Ann, Keith, Suzette, Connell, Iain and Edwards, Helen (2004): Analytical usability evaluation for digital libraries: a case study. In: JCDL04: Proceedings of the 4th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2004. pp. 27-36.

There are two main kinds of approach to considering usability of any system: empirical and analytical. Empirical techniques involve testing systems with users, whereas analytical techniques involve usability personnel assessing systems using established theories and methods. We report here on a set of studies in which four different techniques were applied to various digital libraries, focusing on the strengths, limitations and scope of each approach. Two of the techniques, Heuristic Evaluation and Cognitive Walkthrough, were applied in text-book fashion, because there was no obvious way to contextualize them to the Digital Libraries (DL) domain. For the third, Claims Analysis, it was possible to develop a set of re-usable scenarios and personas that relate the approach specifically to DL development. The fourth technique, CASSM, relates explicitly to the DL domain by combining empirical data with an analytical approach. We have found that Heuristic Evaluation and Cognitive Walkthrough only address superficial aspects of interface design (but are good for that), whereas Claims Analysis and CASSM can help identify deeper conceptual difficulties (but demand greater skill of the analyst). However, none fit seamlessly with existing digital library development practices, highlighting an important area for further work to support improved usability.

© All rights reserved Blandford et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Blandford, Ann and Wong, B. L. William (2004): Situation awareness in emergency medical dispatch. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 61 (4) pp. 421-452.

Situation awareness, and how systems can be designed to support it appropriately, have been a focus of study in dynamic, safety critical contexts such as aviation. The work reported here extends the study of situation awareness into the domain of emergency medical dispatch (EMD). The study was conducted in one of the largest ambulance services in the world. In this study, we encountered development and exploitation of situation awareness, particularly among the more senior EMD operators called allocators. In this paper we describe the notion of a 'mental picture' as an outcome of situation awareness, how an awareness of the situation is developed and maintained, the cues allocators attend to, and the difficulties they face in doing so. One of the key characteristics of ambulance control is that relatively routine behaviour is periodically interspersed with incidents that demand much higher levels of attention, but that the routine work must still be completed; operators exhibit contrasting levels of situation awareness for the different kinds of incidents. Our findings on situation awareness are related to those of others, particularly Endsley and Wickens. The observations and interviews enable us to propose high-level requirements for systems to support appropriate situation awareness, to enable EMD staff to complete their work effectively.

© All rights reserved Blandford and Wong and/or Academic Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Fields, B., Keith, S. and Blandford, Ann (2004): Designing for Expert Information Finding Strategies. In: Proceedings of the HCI04 Conference on People and Computers XVIII 2004. pp. 89-102.

 
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Attfield, Simon, Blandford, Ann and Craft, Brock (2004): Task Embedded Visualisation: The Design for an Interactive IR Results Display for Journalists. In: IV 2004 - 8th International Conference on Information Visualisation 14-16 July, 2004, London, UK. pp. 650-655.

2003
 
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Blandford, Ann and Connell, Iain (2003): Ontological Sketch Modelling (OSM): Concept-based Usability Analysis. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 1021.

 
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Connell, I., Green, T. and Blandford, Ann (2003): Ontological Sketch Models: Highlighting User-System Misfits. In: Proceedings of the HCI03 Conference on People and Computers XVII 2003. pp. 163-178.

2002
 
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Blandford, Ann and Rugg, Gordon (2002): A case study on integrating contextual information with analytical usability evaluation. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 57 (1) pp. 75-99.

The work reported here integrates an analytical evaluation technique, Programmable User Modelling, with established knowledge elicitation techniques; the choice of techniques is guided by a selection framework, ACRE. The study was conducted in conjunction with an ongoing industrial design project. Techniques were selected to obtain domain knowledge in a systematic way; the rationale behind each choice is discussed. The use of "negative scenarios" as a means of assessing the severity of usability findings is introduced.

© All rights reserved Blandford and Rugg and/or Academic Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Blandford, Ann and Buchanan, George (2002): Usability for digital libraries. In: JCDL02: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2002. p. 424.

As digital libraries are becoming increasingly available to, and used by, diverse user communities who do not have background or training in information sciences, the need to ensure that such libraries are usable and useful is becoming increasingly urgent. Usability issues can be tackled from various directions -- technical, cognitive, social, design-oriented -- and it is important to bring these different perspectives together, to share views, experiences and insights.

© All rights reserved Blandford and Buchanan and/or ACM Press

 
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Blandford, Ann, Wong, B. L. W., Connell, I. and Green, T. (2002): Multiple Viewpoints On Computer Supported Team Work: A Case Study On Ambulance Dispatch. In: Faulkner, Xristine, Finlay, Janet and Détienne, Françoise (eds.) Proceedings of the HCI02 Conference on People and Computers XVI September 18-20, 2002, Pisa, Italy. pp. 139-156.

 
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Thimbleby, Harold, Blandford, Ann, Cairns, P., Curzon, P. and Jones, M. (2002): User Interface Design as Systems Design. In: Faulkner, Xristine, Finlay, Janet and Détienne, Françoise (eds.) Proceedings of the HCI02 Conference on People and Computers XVI September 18-20, 2002, Pisa, Italy. pp. 281-302.

 
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Curzon, Paul and Blandford, Ann (2002): From a Formal User Model to Design Rules. In: Forbrig, Peter, Limbourg, Quentin, Urban, Bodo and Vanderdonckt, Jean M. (eds.) DSV-IS 2002 - Interactive Systems. Design, Specification, and Verification, 9th International Workshop June 12-14, 2002, Rostock, Germany. pp. 1-15.

 
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Blandford, Ann, Wong, William B. L., Connell, Iain and Green, Thomas (2002): Multiple Viewpoints On Computer Supported Team Work: A Case Study On Ambulance Dispatch. In: Faulkner, Xristine, Finlay, Janet and Détienne, Françoise (eds.) Proceedings of the HCI02 Conference on People and Computers XVI September 18-20, 2002, Pisa, Italy. pp. 139-156

A novel usability evaluation technique, Ontological Sketch Modelling (OSM), was applied to the analysis of systems used within a complex work setting, namely emergency medical dispatch. OSM focuses on the structure of the domain in question and the devices which are applied to that domain, in order to reason about the quality of fit between the two. This analysis shows how OSM can be used to identify misfits between domain (here incidents, ambulance calls and real-time call processing by ambulance service staff) and device (the computer aided dispatch system) in real work settings. We show how OSM can aid additional reasoning about the way in which a new or proposed computer system can both support and enhance existing work structures. The analysis presented here also yields important insights into both the still-developing OSM and the structure of emergency medical dispatch systems.

© All rights reserved Blandford et al. and/or Springer

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Curzon, Paul, Blandford, Ann, Butterworth, Richard and Bhogal, Ravinder (2002): Interaction design issues for car navigation systems. In: Sharp, Helen, Chalk, Pete, LePeuple, Jenny and Rosbottom, John (eds.) Proceeding of HCI 2002 September 2-6, 2002, London, United Kingdom. pp. 38-41

We describe a study on the interaction design of in-car navigation systems. It focused on a commercial product. Critical incident analysis was performed based on natural use of the system by a usability analyst. A cognitive walkthrough was then performed based on actual scenarios from the natural use. This is a non-classic application of cognitive walkthrough. It allowed anecdotal critical incidents to be theoretically grounded. We draw conclusions about the interaction design of car navigation systems.

© All rights reserved Curzon et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Wong, William B. L. and Blandford, Ann (2002): Analysing Ambulance Dispatcher Decision Making: Trialling Emergent Themes Analysis. In: Proceedings of the HF2002 Human Factors Conference November 25-27, 2002, Melbourne, Australia.

Understanding how people make decisions in actual, real-time operational environments can provide software developers with useful insights into how systems should be designed to support them. However, part of the difficulty is developing that understanding. In this paper we describe a case study of how Critical Decision Method interview data was analysed using the Emergent Themes Analysis Approach we trialed to identify themes and subsequently decision strategies for extracting design insights.

© All rights reserved Wong and Blandford and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
2001
 
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Blandford, Ann, Stelmaszewska, Hanna and Bryan-Kinns, Nick (2001): Use of Multiple Digital Libraries: A Case Study. In: JCDL01: Proceedings of the 1st ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2001. pp. 179-188.

The aim of the work reported here was to better understand the usability issues raised when digital libraries are used in a natural setting. The method used was a protocol analysis of users working on a task of their own choosing to retrieve documents from publicly available digital libraries. Various classes of usability difficulties were found. Here, we focus on use in context - that is, usability concerns that arise from the fact that libraries are accessed in particular ways, under technically and organisationally imposed constraints, and that use of any particular resource is discretionary. The concepts from an Interaction Framework, which provides support for reasoning about patterns of interaction between users and systems, are applied to understand interaction issues.

© All rights reserved Blandford et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Blandford, Ann, Butterworth, R. and Curzon, P. (2001): PUMA Footprints: Linking Theory and Craft Skill in Usability Evaluation. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 577-584.

 
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Blandford, Ann, Gray, Philip D. and Vanderdonckt,, Jean (2001): People and Computers XV - Interaction without Frontiers: Joint Proceedings of HCI 2001 and IHM 2001. Berlin, Germany, Springer Verlag

 
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Blandford, Ann and Green, T. R. G. (2001): Group and Individual Time Management Tools: What You Get is Not What You Need. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 5 (4) pp. 213-230.

 
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Curzon, Paul and Blandford, Ann (2001): Detecting Multiple Classes of User Errors. In: Little, Murray Reed and Nigay, Laurence (eds.) EHCI 2001 - Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction, 8th IFIP International Conference May 11-13, 2001, Toronto, Canada. pp. 57-72.

1999
 
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Butterworth, Richard, Blandford, Ann and Duke, David J. (1999): Using Formal Models to Explore Display-Based Usability Issues. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 10 (4) pp. 455-479.

1998
 
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Blandford, Ann, Shum, Simon Buckingham and Young, Richard M. (1998): Training Software Engineers in a Novel Usability Evaluation Technique. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 49 (3) pp. 245-279.

Novel approaches to designing or analysing systems only become useful when they are usable by practitioners in the field, and not just by their originators. Design techniques often fail to make the transition from research to practice because insufficient attention is paid to understanding and communicating the skills required to use them. This paper reports on work to train software engineering students to use a user-centred language for describing and analysing interface designs called the "Programmable User Model Instruction Language", or IL. Various types of data, including video, students' IL descriptions and brief usability reports were collected during training, and subsequently analysed. These show that after 6 h of training, students have a good grasp of the syntax of the notation, and start using notational affordances to support their reasoning, but that their reasoning is still limited by a poor grasp of the underlying cognitive theory. A comparison of the analyses of trainees with those of experts provides a means of developing a better understanding of the nature of expertise in this area-as comprising an understanding of the syntax and the surface semantics of the notation, the underlying cognitive theory, the method of conducting an analysis and the implications of the analysis for design.

© All rights reserved Blandford et al. and/or Academic Press

 
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Butterworth, Richard and Blandford, Ann (1998): The Role of Formal Proof in Modelling Interactive Behaviour. In: Markopoulos, Panos and Johnson, Peter (eds.) DSV-IS 1998 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems98, Proceedings of the Fifth International Eurographics Workshop June 3-5, 1998, Abingdon, United Kingdom. pp. 87-101.

1997
 
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Blandford, Ann and Duke, David (1997): Integrating User and Computer System Concerns in the Design of Interactive Systems. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 46 (5) pp. 653-679.

In any design process, there are different perspectives that need to be accommodated. For the design of interactive systems, two of these are that of the computer system designer and that of the end user. The focus of this paper is on tools or notations to support the integration of these different perspectives -- in particular, system modelling and theory-based user modelling. There are few established techniques for doing such integration; those that there are generally involve a loose coupling between the description of the system and that of the user, or are skewed towards one or other of these viewpoints. Recently, techniques that deal with the system and user more symmetrically have emerged. We focus, in particular, on techniques that have been developed and investigated within a large European project, Amodeus. These allow the analyst to explore properties of the conjoint system, and to investigate how the properties of the interaction relate to those of the individual agents. However, there is a trade-off, which can be characterized as increased power to critique a design being offset against reduced generality in the design perspectives that can be considered using the technique. We argue that while such techniques require a high initial investment, technological advances make the need for such integrated approaches urgent. We consider what resources each class of technique demands and what kinds of results each yields.

© All rights reserved Blandford and and/or Academic Press

 
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Blandford, Ann, Butterworth, Richard and Good, Jason (1997): Users as rational interacting agents: formalising assumptions about cognition and interaction. In: Harrison, Michael D. and Torres, Juan Carlos (eds.) DSV-IS 1997 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems97, Proceedings of the Fourth International Eurographics Workshop June 4-6, 1997, Granada, Spain. pp. 45-60.

1996
 
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Bellotti, Victoria, Blandford, Ann, Duke, David, MacLean, Allan, May, Jon and Nigay, Laurence (1996): Interpersonal Access Control in Computer-Mediated Communications: A Systematic Analysis of the Design Space. In Human-Computer Interaction, 11 (4) pp. 357-432.

Certain design projects raise difficult user-interface problems that are not easily amenable to designers' intuition or rapid prototyping due to their novelty, conceptual complexity, and the difficulty of conducting appropriate user studies. Interpersonal access control in computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems is just such a problem. We describe a collection of systematic theory-based analyses of a system prototype that inherited its control mechanism from two preexisting systems. We demonstrate that the collective use of system and user modeling techniques provides insight into this complex design problem and enables us to examine the implications of design decisions for users and implementation. The analyses identify a number of weaknesses in the prototype and are used to propose ways of making substantive refinements to improve its simplicity and appropriateness for two tasks: altering one's accessibility and distinguishing between who can make what kinds of connections. We conclude with a discussion of some critical issues that are relevant for CMC systems, and reflect on the process of applying formal human-computer interaction (HCI) techniques in informal, exploratory design contexts.

© All rights reserved Bellotti et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Shum, Simon Buckingham, Blandford, Ann, Duke, David, Good, Jason, May, Jon, Paterno, Fabio and Young, Richard (1996): Multidisciplinary Modelling for User-Centred System Design: An Air-Traffic Control Case Study. In: Sasse, Martina Angela, Cunningham, R. J. and Winder, R. L. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XI August, 1996, London, UK. pp. 201-219.

This paper reports work investigating how user and system modelling techniques can be integrated to support the design of advanced interactive systems, and how such modelling can be effectively communicated to design practitioners in order to evaluate their potential. We describe a large scale modelling exercise concerning a flight sequencing tool for air-traffic controllers. We outline the kinds of system and user analysis possible with the different modelling techniques, and the approach used to integrate and communicate the modelling analyses to the system's designers. We then discuss the value of these techniques against several key criteria. The designers evaluated the modelling positively in many respects, including a commitment to explore further how user modelling can be integrated with their formal methods. We conclude that the scenario of HCI modellers working in collaboration with designers is feasible, and has analytic power.

© All rights reserved Shum et al. and/or Springer Verlag

1995
 
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Blandford, Ann, Harrison, Michael and Barnard, Philip J. (1995): Using Interaction Framework to Guide the Design of Interactive Systems. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 43 (1) pp. 101-130.

Understanding the properties of interactions is essential to the design of effective interactive systems involving two or more agents, and to the evaluation of existing systems. This understanding can inform the design of multi-agent systems by helping the designer identify properties that a system should conform to. In addition, a focus on the properties of interactions can lead to a better understanding of the space of possibilities, by recognizing features of multi-agent systems which are often simply incidental outcomes of design, not explicitly considered in the design specification. We present an Interaction Framework, in which abstract interactional requirements and properties can be expressed in a way which is not biased towards the perspective of any one agent to the interaction. These can be used to derive requirements on the design of computer systems, to highlight those aspects of users which influence the properties of the interaction, and hence to guide the design of the interactive system.

© All rights reserved Blandford et al. and/or Academic Press

 
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Nigay, Laurence, Coutaz, Jolle, Salber, Daniel, Blandford, Ann, May, Jon and Young, Richard M. (1995): Four Easy Pieces for Assessing the Usability of Multimodal Interaction: the CARE Properties. In: Nordby, Knut (ed.) Proceedings of INTERACT 95 - IFIP TC13 Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 25-29, 1995, Lillehammer, Norway. pp. 115-120

We propose the CARE properties as a simple way of characterising and assessing aspects of multimodal interaction: the Complementarity, Assignment, Redundancy, and Equivalence that may occur between the interaction techniques available in a multimodal user interface. We provide a formal definition of these properties and use the notion of compatibility to show how the system CARE properties interact with user CARE-like properties in the design of a system. The discussion is illustrated with MATIS, a Multimodal Air Travel Information System.

© All rights reserved Nigay et al. and/or Chapman and Hall

 Cited in the following chapter:

User Interface Design Adaptation: [/encyclopedia/user_interface_design_adaptation.html]


 
1994
 
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Harrison, Michael D., Blandford, Ann and Barnard, Philip J. (1994): Modelling Interactive Systems and Providing Task Relevant Information. In: Paterno, Fabio (ed.) DSV-IS 1994 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems94, Proceedings of the First International Eurographics Workshop June 8-10, 1994, Bocca di Magra, Italy. pp. 267-277.

1993
 
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Blandford, Ann (1993): An Agent-Theoretic Approach to Computer Participation in Dialogue. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 39 (6) pp. 965-998.

There is a range of situations -- for example, in the context of advice-giving or tutoring -- in which a computer system might be required to take an active role in the interaction (rather than simply responding unquestioningly to the user's input). In such situations, the system must be able to decide how to respond to the user -- sometimes taking the initiative and sometimes responding to the user's initiative. At any time, selecting the most appropriate response will depend on the context, and on what both system and user are aiming to achieve through the interaction. This paper presents the design and implementation of a computer-based agent that can engage a user in a mixed-initiative dialogue. In this work, the generation of language is viewed as opportunistic rational action. The computer-based agent constructs utterances in the context of the preceding dialogue, deciding what to say in the light of its own beliefs, goals and values. The prototype system has been tested with users. From the small-scale evaluation study that was conducted, it was concluded that the system is capable of engaging in extended dialogue that remains largely coherent and reasonable (at a semantic level), and that it provides a reasonable base for further work in this direction.

© All rights reserved Blandford and/or Academic Press

 
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Blandford, Ann (1993): "Knowledge Negotiation," edited by R. Moyse and M. T. Elsom-Cook. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 39 (6) pp. 1051-1057.

 
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Blandford, Ann and Young, Richard M. (1993): Developing Runnable User Models: Separating the Problem Solving Techniques from the Domain Knowledge. In: Alty, James L., Diaper, Dan and Guest, D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eighth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VIII August 7-10, 1993, Loughborough University, UK. pp. 111-121.

Runnable models of computer users can serve as the basis for predictions about the usability of interfaces. Both the construction and the running of a user model can provide useful information to interface designers. To define such a model, the designer must specify what users know about the interface (relevant to the tasks they are to perform with it), how they will use that knowledge in their operation of the device, and what background knowledge they can be assumed to have. In this paper we report on work which allows these different components of the user model to be specified independently, and automatically integrated to generate a set of Soar productions which constitute a runnable model.

© All rights reserved Blandford and Young and/or Cambridge University Press

 
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Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/ann_blandford.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1993-2013
Pub. count:85
Number of co-authors:93



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Paul Curzon:10
George Buchanan:7
Dominic Furniss:7

 

 

Productive colleagues

Ann Blandford's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Alistair G. Sutcli..:148
Fabio Paterno:127
Harold Thimbleby:70
 
 
 
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