Publication statistics

Pub. period:-2011
Pub. count:107
Number of co-authors:121



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Keith Cheverst:12
Mark Rouncefield:9
Geoffrey Ellis:7

 

 

Productive colleagues

Alan J. Dix's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Steve Benford:121
Gregory D. Abowd:116
Tom Rodden:106
 
 
 

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Alan J. Dix

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Has also published under the name of:
"Alan John Dix"

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http://www.alandix.com/academic/

I am a computing professor at Lancaster University and researcher at Talis Ltd. and work on most things that connect people and computers. However, I started off (years ago) as mathematician and this is still my academic first love!

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Publications by Alan J. Dix (bibliography)

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2011
 
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Dix, Alan J. (2011): Living in a world of data. In: Thirteenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2011. pp. 1-2

The web is an integral part of our daily lives, and has had profound impacts on us all, not least both positive and negative impacts on accessibility, inclusivity and social justice. However, the web is constantly changing. Web2.0 has brought the web into the heart of social life, and has had mixed impact on accessibility. More recently the rise in API access to web services and various forms of open, linked or semantic data is creating a more data/content face to the media web. As with all technology, this new data web poses fresh challenges and offers new opportunities

© All rights reserved Dix and/or ACM Press

 
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Dix, Alan J. (2011): Physical creatures in a digital world. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 11-14

We are creatures of flesh and blood, our whole cognitive nature well fitted to a physical world of solid things, and yet, within our lifetimes, learning to deal with digital devices our flint-knapping forbearers could never envisage. This paper explores some aspects of this. Inter alia, we see how Fitts' law is really a law of cybernetic extension and how this extension has been part of our being since the earliest humans and we discuss the way imagination and externalisation, two complimentary aspects of our cognitive being, fit us for physical life and yet are also essential as digital denizens.

© All rights reserved Dix and/or his/her publisher

 
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Dix, Alan J. (2011). Are five users enough? HCI Book: Online. Retrieved 31 January 2012 from http://www.hcibook.com/e3/online/are-five-users-enough/

 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
2010
 
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Dix, Alan J., Quigley, Aaron, Subramanian, Sriram and Terrenghi, Lucia (2010): Workshop on coupled display visual interfaces. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2010. pp. 408-410

Interactive displays are increasingly distributed in a broad spectrum of everyday life environments: They have very diverse form factors and portability characteristics, support a variety of interaction techniques, and can be used by a variable number of people. The coupling of multiple displays can thus create interactive "ecosystems" which mingle in the social context, and generate novel settings of communication, performance and ownership. The objective of this workshop is to focus on the range of research challenges and opportunities afforded by applications that rely on visual interfaces that can spread across multiple displays. Such displays are physically decoupled (i.e. connected to multiple computers) yet are visually coupled due to the interfaces and interactions they support. This can range from visual interfaces spread across multiple small private input displays (e.g. information exchange or game play) to small private displays coupled with larger public displays (e.g. public photo sharing).

© All rights reserved Dix et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Andr, Paul, schraefel, m.c., Dix, Alan J. and White, Ryen W. (2010): Experience in social affective applications: methodologies and case study. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2755-2764

New forms of social affective applications are emerging, bringing with them challenges in design and evaluation. We report on one such application, conveying well-being for both personal and group benefit, and consider why existing methodologies may not be suitable, before explaining and analyzing our proposed approach. We discuss our experience of using and writing about the methodology, in order to invite discussion about its suitability in particular, as well as the more general need for methodologies to examine experience and affect in social, connected situations. As these fields continue to interact, we hope that these discussions serve to aid in studying and learning from these types of application.

© All rights reserved Andr et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Hussein, Tim, Lukosch, Stephan G., Ziegler, Juergen and Dix, Alan J. (2010): 1st international workshop on semantic models for adaptive interactive systems (SEMAIS 2010). In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2010. pp. 437-438

The International Workshop on Semantic Models for Adaptive Interactive Systems (SEMAIS 2010) aims to identify emerging trends in interactive system design using semantic models.

© All rights reserved Hussein et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Dix, Alan J. (2010): Human-computer interaction: A stable discipline, a nascent science, and the growth of the long tail. In Interacting with Computers, 22 (1) pp. 13-27

This paper represents a personal view of the state of HCI as a design discipline and as a scientific discipline, and how this is changing in the face of new technological and social situations. Going back 20 years a frequent topic of discussion was whether HCI was a 'discipline'. It is unclear whether this was ever a fruitful topic, but academic disciplines are effectively about academic communities and there is ample evidence of the long-term stability of the international HCI/CHI community. However, as in computer 'science', the central scientific core of HCI is perhaps still unclear; for example, a strength of HCI is the closeness between theory and practice, but the corresponding danger is that the two are often confused. The paper focuses particularly on the challenge of methodological thinking in HCI, especially as the technological and social context of HCI rapidly changes. This is set alongside two other challenges: the development of reliable knowledge in HCI and the clear understanding of interlinked human roles within the discipline. As a case study of the need for methodological thinking, the paper considers the use of single person studies in research and design. These are likely to be particularly valuable as we move from a small number of applications used by many people to a 'long tail' where large numbers of applications are used by small numbers of people. This change calls for different practical design strategies; focusing on the peak experience of a few rather than acceptable performance for many. Moving back to the broader picture, as we see more diversity both in terms of types of systems and kinds of concerns, this may also be an opportunity to reflect on what is core across these; potential fragmentation becoming a locus to understand more clearly what defines HCI, not just for the things we see now, but for the future that we cannot see.

© All rights reserved Dix and/or Elsevier Science

2009
 
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Sas, Corina, Dix, Alan J., Hart, Jennefer and Su, Ronghui (2009): Emotional experience on facebook site. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4345-4350.

Although user behavior in the popular Facebook social network site has been intensely investigated since the site came live in 2004, we know little about users' emotions and values weaved in the fabric of their interactions. We report on a diary study for collecting daily accounts of users' most memorable experiences. Outcomes emphasize the distinction between public and private presentation together with user motivation for engaging in each of these roles. Findings also suggest that at their heart, people's most memorable experiences with Facebook are all about positive emotions, in particular those concerned with connectedness and entertainment.

© All rights reserved Sas et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sas, Corina and Dix, Alan J. (2009): Designing for reflection on experience. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4741-4744.

This paper outlines the rationale for the workshop and offers an outline of its objectives.

© All rights reserved Sas and Dix and/or ACM Press

 
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Sas, Corina, Dix, Alan J., Hart, Jennefer and Su, Ronghui (2009): Dramaturgical capitalization of positive emotions: the answer for Facebook success?. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 120-129

Although user behavior in the popular Facebook social network site has been intensely investigated since the site came live in 2004, we know little about users' emotions and values weaved in the fabric of their interactions. We report on a diary study for collecting daily accounts of users' most memorable Facebook experiences. Outcomes emphasize the distinction between public and private presentation together with user motivation for engaging in these roles. Findings outline the role of impression management in the capitalization of positive emotions: a process through which people derive associated benefits from sharing them. Outcomes also suggest that at their heart, people's most memorable experiences with Facebook are all about positive emotions, in particular those concerned with connectedness and entertainment. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for experience design and propose design tactics and guidelines integrated into a framework for designing for connectedness and entertainment.

© All rights reserved Sas et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Asimakopoulos, Stavros, Fildes, Robert and Dix, Alan J. (2009): Forecasting software visualizations: an explorative study. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 269-277

A qualitative explorative evaluation considered the effects of six visualization interfaces of sales forecasting systems on 60 university students. The study builds on earlier research from the domain of business forecasting in supply chain industries. The evaluation generates exemplar interfaces derived from the theoretical framework and task analysis of interviews with 20 expert users and designers of forecasting systems. The implications for information visualization and interaction design are discussed.

© All rights reserved Asimakopoulos et al. and/or their publisher

 
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schraefel, m.c. and Dix, Alan J. (2009): Within bounds and between domains: Reflecting on Making Tea within the context of design elicitation methods. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67 (4) pp. 313-323

Making Tea (MT) is a design elicitation method developed in eScience specifically to deal with situations in which (1) the designers do not share domain or artifact knowledge with design-domain experts, (2) the processes in the space are semi-structured and (3) the processes to be modeled can last for periods exceeding the availability of most ethnographers. We have used the method in two distinct eScience contexts, and may offer an effective, low cost way to deal with bridging between software design teams and scientists to develop useful and usable eScience artifacts. To that end, we propose a set of criteria in order to understand why MT works. Through these criteria we also reflect upon the relation of MT to other design elicitation methods in order to propose a kind of method framework from which other designers may be assisted in choosing elicitation methods and in developing new methods both for eScience contexts and beyond.

© All rights reserved schraefel and Dix and/or Academic Press

 
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Ramduny-Ellis, Devina, Dix, Alan J., Gill, Steve and Hare, Joanna (2009): Physicality and interaction. In Interacting with Computers, 21 (1) pp. 64-65

 
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Bertini, E., Catarci, T., Dix, Alan J., Gabrielli, S., Kimani, S. and Santucci, G. (2009): Appropriating Heuristic Evaluation for Mobile Computing. In International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction, 1 (1) pp. 20-41

Heuristic evaluation has proven popular for desktop and web interfaces, both in practical design and as a research topic. Compared to full user studies, heuristic evaluation can be highly cost-effective, allowing a large proportion of usability flaws to be detected ahead of full development with limited resource investment. Mobile computing shares many usability issues with more conventional interfaces. However, it also poses particular problems for usability evaluation related to aspects such as limited screen real estate, intermittent user attention, and contextual factors. This article describes a modified collection of usability heuristics that are designed to be appropriate for evaluation in mobile computing. They have been systematically derived from extensive literature and empirically validated. They therefore offer a sound basis for heuristic-based evaluation in mobile computing. Besides introducing the reader to the practical use of heuristic evaluation, the article also closes with a description of potential future research in the area.

© All rights reserved Bertini et al. and/or their publisher

2008
 
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Sas, Corina and Dix, Alan J. (2008): Designing and evaluating mobile phone-based interaction with public displays. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3941-3944.

 
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Hart, Jennefer, Ridley, Charlene, Taher, Faisal, Sas, Corina and Dix, Alan J. (2008): Exploring the facebook experience: a new approach to usability. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 471-474.

The focus of this paper is to explore social networking sites such as Facebook in order to understand their recent success and popularity. Recent developments within Web 2.0 have provided users with more freedom to create their own unique user experiences. The conflict between traditional usability methods and user experiences are addressed through carrying out a Heuristic Evaluation to assess how well Facebook complies with usability guidelines and by conducting a user study to unveil unique user experiences. The findings of this study calls for a more holistic method of evaluation that redefines usability to encompass the user experience in line with future technology.

© All rights reserved Hart et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Dix, Alan J. (2008): Response to "Sometimes it's hard to be a robot: A call for action on the ethics of abusing artificial agents. In Interacting with Computers, 20 (3) pp. 334-337.

 
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Dix, Alan J. and Oram, Damon (2008): Query-through-drilldown: data-oriented extensional queries. In: Levialdi, Stefano (ed.) AVI 2008 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 28-30, 2008, Napoli, Italy. pp. 251-259.

 
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Lepouras, George, Papatriantafyllou, Aggelos, Katifori, Akrivi and Dix, Alan J. (2008): Time2Hide: spatial searches and clutter alleviation for the desktop. In: Levialdi, Stefano (ed.) AVI 2008 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 28-30, 2008, Napoli, Italy. pp. 355-358.

2007
 
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Cheverst, Keith, Dix, Alan J., Fitton, Daniel, Rouncefield, Mark and Graham, Connor (2007): Exploring Awareness Related Messaging Through Two Situated-Display-Based Systems. In Human Computer Interaction, 22 (1) pp. 173-220.

This article focuses on our exploration of awareness issues through the design and long-term deployment of two systems: the Hermes office door display system (which enabled staff in a university department to post awareness messages to their door displays) and SPAM (a messaging system for supporting coordination between staff at two associated residential community care facilities). In the case of both systems, a significant number of the messages sent could be classified as relating to awareness. Furthermore, with both systems, the situatedness of displays (outside office doors in the case of Hermes and in staff offices in the case of SPAM) had a significant impact on the design and subsequent use of the deployed systems. In particular, the placement of displays provided significant context for awareness messages, including, for example, the identity of the sender of the message and the intended audience of the message. Both systems highlight the need for interaction methods that fit in with both normal working practices (and unplanned events) and that enable the user to manage communication channels. The need for appropriate levels of expressiveness and user control is also apparent: We present numerous examples of users controlling the precision of awareness information and sending awareness messages that have as much to do with playfulness as supporting coordination through activity awareness.

© All rights reserved Cheverst et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum

 
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Cheverst, Keith, Dix, Alan J., Fitton, Daniel, Rouncefield, Mark and Graham, Connor (2007): Exploring Awareness Related Messaging Through Two Situated-Display-Based Systems. In Human-Computer Interaction, 22 (1) pp. 173-220.

This article focuses on our exploration of awareness issues through the design and long-term deployment of two systems: the Hermes office door display system (which enabled staff in a university department to post awareness messages to their door displays) and SPAM (a messaging system for supporting coordination between staff at two associated residential community care facilities). In the case of both systems, a significant number of the messages sent could be classified as relating to awareness. Furthermore, with both systems, the situatedness of displays (outside office doors in the case of Hermes and in staff offices in the case of SPAM) had a significant impact on the design and subsequent use of the deployed systems. In particular, the placement of displays provided significant context for awareness messages, including, for example, the identity of the sender of the message and the intended audience of the message. Both systems highlight the need for interaction methods that fit in with both normal working practices (and unplanned events) and that enable the user to manage communication channels. The need for appropriate levels of expressiveness and user control is also apparent: We present numerous examples of users controlling the precision of awareness information and sending awareness messages that have as much to do with playfulness as supporting coordination through activity awareness.

© All rights reserved Cheverst et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Cheverst, Keith, Dix, Alan J., Fitton, Daniel, Rouncefield, Mark and Graham, Connor (2007): Exploring Awareness Related Messaging Through Two Situated-Display-Based Systems. In Human-Computer Interaction, 22 (1) pp. 173-220.

This article focuses on our exploration of awareness issues through the design and long-term deployment of two systems: the Hermes office door display system (which enabled staff in a university department to post awareness messages to their door displays) and SPAM (a messaging system for supporting coordination between staff at two associated residential community care facilities). In the case of both systems, a significant number of the messages sent could be classified as relating to awareness. Furthermore, with both systems, the situatedness of displays (outside office doors in the case of Hermes and in staff offices in the case of SPAM) had a significant impact on the design and subsequent use of the deployed systems. In particular, the placement of displays provided significant context for awareness messages, including, for example, the identity of the sender of the message and the intended audience of the message. Both systems highlight the need for interaction methods that fit in with both normal working practices (and unplanned events) and that enable the user to manage communication channels. The need for appropriate levels of expressiveness and user control is also apparent: We present numerous examples of users controlling the precision of awareness information and sending awareness messages that have as much to do with playfulness as supporting coordination through activity awareness.

© All rights reserved Cheverst et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

2006
 
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Benford, Steve, Crabtree, Andy, Reeves, Stuart, Sheridan, Jennifer, Dix, Alan J., Flintham, Martin and Drozd, Adam (2006): Designing for the opportunities and risks of staging digital experiences in public settings. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 427-436.

Mobile experiences that take place in public settings such as on city streets create new opportunities for interweaving the fictional world of a performance or game with the everyday physical world. A study of a touring performance reveals how designers generated excitement and dramatic tension by implicating bystanders and encouraging the (apparent) crossing of normal boundaries of behaviour. The study also shows how designers dealt with associated risks through a process of careful orchestration. Consequently, we extend an existing framework for designing spectator interfaces with the concept of performance frames, enabling us to distinguish audience from bystanders. We conclude that using ambiguity to blur the frame can be a powerful design tactic, empowering players to willingly suspend disbelief, so long as a safety-net of orchestration ensures that they do not stray into genuine difficulty.

© All rights reserved Benford et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kano, Akiyo, Read, Janet C. and Dix, Alan J. (2006): Children's phrase set for text input method evaluations. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2006. pp. 449-452.

This paper investigates the suitability of current phrase sets available in HCI for use with children in text entry experiments. It first examines the use of phrase sets within text input method evaluation, and suggests several reasons why the currently available phrase sets may not be suitable for use with children. A new phrase set, containing 500 phrases which have been taken from children's books, is presented. A study that compared the adult focused phrase set with the new children's phrase set is described. This study concludes that the new phrase set is suitable for use with children and, given that results with the two phrase sets were similar, the study adds validity to the existing adult phrase set.

© All rights reserved Kano et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Saslis-Lagoudakis, Georgios, Cheverst, Keith, Dix, Alan J., Fitton, Dan and Rouncefield, Mark (2006): Hermes@Home: supporting awareness and intimacy between distant family members. In: Kjeldskov, Jesper and Paay, Jane (eds.) Proceedings of OZCHI06, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2006. pp. 23-30.

This paper presents the Hermes@Home system, which supports awareness (through messaging) between members of a home. Person(s) 'away' from the home can send messages via a web portal to an 'always on' 'information appliance' style display situated in the home, while people at home can scribble messages on the touch sensitive display of this unit for reception by the person(s) away from the home. The system was conceived as a technology probe and serves as a tool in investigating related issues such as awareness and intimacy between home inhabitants. It supplements existing communication methods by providing a highly expressive and always-available messaging method. We present some findings and initial results from a preliminary analysis of messages sent through the system during four deployments, identifying emerging themes in message content. In addition, we also present some of the issues that have surfaced through these deployments in a domestic environment.

© All rights reserved Saslis-Lagoudakis et al. and/or their publisher

 
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O'Donnell, R., Dix, Alan J. and Ball, L. J. (2006): Exploring the PieTree for Representing Numerical Hierarchical Data. In: Proceedings of the HCI06 Conference on People and Computers XX 2006. pp. 239-254.

 
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Ellis, Geoffrey and Dix, Alan J. (2006): The plot, the clutter, the sampling and its lens: occlusion measures for automatic clutter reduction. In: Celentano, Augusto (ed.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 266-269.

 
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Ellis, Geoffrey and Dix, Alan J. (2006): An explorative analysis of user evaluation studies in information visualisation. In: Bertini, Enrico, Plaisant, Catherine and Santucci, Giuseppe (eds.) BELIV 2006 - Proceedings of the 2006 AVI Workshop on BEyond time and errors novel evaluation methods for information visualization May 23, 2006, Venice, Italy. pp. 1-7.

 
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Dix, Alan J., Catarci, Tiziana, Habegger, Benjamin, Ioannidis, Yannis E., Kamaruddin, Azrina, Katifori, Akrivi, Lepouras, George, Poggi, Antonella and Ramduny-Ellis, Devina (2006): Intelligent context-sensitive interactions on desktop and the web. In: Mihalic, Kristijan (ed.) CAI 2006 - Proceedings of the 2006 AVI Workshop on Context in advanced interfaces May 23, 2006, Venice, Italy. pp. 23-27.

 
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Randell, Cliff, Geelhoed, Erik, Dix, Alan J. and Muller, Henk L. (2006): Exploring the Effects of Target Location Size and Position System Accuracy on Location Based Applications. In: Fishkin, Kenneth P., Schiele, Bernt, Nixon, Paddy and Quigley, Aaron J. (eds.) PERVASIVE 2006 - Pervasive Computing 4th International Conference May 7-10, 2006, Dublin, Ireland. pp. 305-320.

 
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Dix, Alan J. (2006): The brain and the web: intelligent interactions from the desktop to the world. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. p. 142

2005
 
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Ellis, Geoffrey, Bertini, Enrico and Dix, Alan J. (2005): The sampling lens: making sense of saturated visualisations. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1351-1354.

Information visualisation systems frequently have to deal with large amounts of data and this often leads to saturated areas in the display with considerable overplotting. This paper introduces the Sampling Lens, a novel tool that utilises random sampling to reduce the clutter within a moveable region, thus allowing the user to uncover any potentially interesting patterns and trends in the data while still being able to view the sample in context. We demonstrate the versatility of the tool by adding sampling lenses to scatter and parallel co-ordinate visualisations. We also consider some implementation issues and present initial user evaluation results.

© All rights reserved Ellis et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Cheverst, Keith, Dix, Alan J., Fitton, Daniel, Kray, Chris, Rouncefield, Mark, Sas, Corina, Saslis-Lagoudakis, George and Sheridan, Jennifer G. (2005): Exploring bluetooth based mobile phone interaction with the hermes photo display. In: Proceedings of 7th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2005. pp. 47-54.

One of the most promising possibilities for supporting user interaction with public displays is the use of personal mobile phones. Furthermore, by utilising Bluetooth users should have the capability to interact with displays without incurring personal financial connectivity costs. However, despite the relative maturity of Bluetooth as a standard and its widespread adoption in today's mobile phones, little exploration seems to have taken place in this area -- despite its apparent significant potential. This paper describe the findings of an exploratory study involving our Hermes Photo Display which has been extended to enable users with a suitable phone to both send and receive pictures over Bluetooth. We present both the technical challenges of working with Bluetooth and, through our user study, we present initial insights into general user acceptability issues and the potential for such a display to facilitate notions of community.

© All rights reserved Cheverst et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Davies, Nigel, Cheverst, Keith, Dix, Alan J. and Hesse, Andre (2005): Understanding the role of image recognition in mobile tour guides. In: Proceedings of 7th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2005. pp. 191-198.

Users of mobile tour guides often express a strong desire for the system to be able to provide information on arbitrary objects they encounter during their visit -- akin to pointing to a building or attraction and saying "what's that?" to a human tour guide. This paper reports on a field study in which we investigated user reaction to the use of digital image capture and recognition to support such functionality. Our results provide an insight into usage patterns and likely user reaction to mobile tour guides that use digital photography for real-time object recognition. These results include the counter-intuitive observation that a significant class of users appear happy to use image recognition even when this is a more complex, lengthy and error-prone process than traditional solutions. Careful analysis of user behavior during the field trails also provides evidence that it may be possible to classify tourists according to the methods by which they prefer to acquire information about tourist attractions in their vicinity. If shown to be generally true these results have important implications for designers of future mobile tour guide systems.

© All rights reserved Davies et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Cheverst, Keith, Dix, Alan J., Fitton, Daniel, Kray, Christian, Rouncefield, Mark, Sas, Corina, Saslis-Lagoudakis, George and Sheridan, Jennifer G. (2005): Exploring bluetooth based mobile phone interaction with the hermes photo display. In: Tscheligi, Manfred, Bernhaupt, Regina and Mihalic, Kristijan (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2005 September 19-22, 2005, Salzburg, Austria. pp. 47-54.

 
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Davies, Nigel, Cheverst, Keith, Dix, Alan J. and Hesse, Andre (2005): Understanding the role of image recognition in mobile tour guides. In: Tscheligi, Manfred, Bernhaupt, Regina and Mihalic, Kristijan (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2005 September 19-22, 2005, Salzburg, Austria. pp. 191-198.

 
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Furniss, Dominic, Dix, Alan J., Ponsard, Christophe and Zhang, Guo-Qiang (2005): Outdated Ideas of the Design Process and the Future of Formal Models, Methods and Notations. In: Gilroy, Stephen W. and Harrison, Michael D. (eds.) DSV-IS 2005 - Interactive Systems, Design, Specification, and Verification, 12th International Workshop July 13-15, 2005, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. p. 265.

 
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Dix, Alan J., Sheridan, Jennifer G., Reeves, Stuart, Benford, Steve and O'Malley, Claire (2005): Formalising Performative Interaction. In: Gilroy, Stephen W. and Harrison, Michael D. (eds.) DSV-IS 2005 - Interactive Systems, Design, Specification, and Verification, 12th International Workshop July 13-15, 2005, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. pp. 15-25.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 
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Cheverst, Keith, Dix, Alan J., Fitton, Dan, Kray, Christian, Rouncefield, Mark, Saslis-Lagoudakis, George and Sheridan, Jennifer G. (2005): Exploring Mobile Phone Interaction with Situated Displays. In: Rukzio, Enrico, Hkkil, Jonna, Spasojevic, Mirjana, Mntyjrvi, Jani and Ravi, Nishkam (eds.) PERMID 2005 - Pervasive Mobile Interaction Devices - Mobile Devices as Pervasive User Interfaces and Interaction Devices - Workshop in conjunction with The 3rd International Conference on Pervasive Computing PERVASIVE 2005 May 11, 2005, Munich, Germany. pp. 43-47.

 
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Fitton, Daniel, Cheverst, Keith, Kray, Christian, Dix, Alan J., Rouncefield, Mark and Saslis-Lagoudakis, George (2005): Rapid prototyping and user-centered design of interactive display-based systems. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 4 (4) pp. 58-66

2004
 
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Dix, Alan J. (2004): Taking fun seriously. In Interactions, 11 (5) pp. 63-64.

 
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Sheridan, J. G., Dix, Alan J., Lock, S. and Bayliss, A. (2004): Understanding Interaction in Ubiquitous Guerrilla Performances in Playful Arenas. In: Proceedings of the HCI04 Conference on People and Computers XVIII 2004. pp. 3-18.

 
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Hudson, J. A., Dix, Alan J. and Parkes, A. (2004): User Interface Overloading: A Novel Approach for Handheld Device Text Input. In: Proceedings of the HCI04 Conference on People and Computers XVIII 2004. pp. 69-86.

 
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Gilleade, Kiel Mark and Dix, Alan J. (2004): Using frustration in the design of adaptive videogames. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology June 3-5, 2004, Singapore. pp. 228-232.

 
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Ellis, Geoffrey and Dix, Alan J. (2004): Visualising Web Visitations: A Probabilistic Approach. In: IV 2004 - 8th International Conference on Information Visualisation 14-16 July, 2004, London, UK. pp. 599-604.

 
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Ellis, Geoffrey and Dix, Alan J. (2004): Quantum web fields and molecular meanderings: visualising web visitations. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (ed.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 197-200.

 
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Dix, Alan J., Finlay, Janet E., Abowd, Gregory D. and Beale, Russell (2004): Human-Computer Interaction (3rd Edition). Prentice Hall

 Cited in the following chapters:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
2003
 
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Dix, Alan J. (2003): Upside-down A's and Algorithms - Computational Formalisms and Theory. In: Carroll, John M. (ed.). "HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks". San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman Publisherspp. 381-428

 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 
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Dix, Alan J., Howes, Andrew and Xiao, Dongbo (2003): Post-web cognition: evolving knowledge strategies for global information environments. In International Journal of Web Engineering Technology, 1 (1) pp. 112-126.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Information Foraging Theory: [/encyclopedia/information_foraging_theory.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Information Foraging Theory: [/encyclopedia/information_foraging_theory.html]


 
 
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Dix, Alan J. (2003): Being playful: learning from children. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC03: Interaction Design and Children 2003. pp. 3-9.

This paper explores children's understanding as a resource and inspiration for interface design and beyond. From children we can understand innate intelligences and skills, including a sense of number and the nature of play. Play is possibly one of the origins of imagination, which in turn is essential for our own creative thought. Surprisingly few adults engage in creative play, but it is when adult-like rationality and child-like imagination meet that we can best produce effective and innovative solutions. Even writing a paper has aspects of playfulness, such as the puzzle of phrasing an abstract in exactly one hundred words... or so.

© All rights reserved Dix and/or ACM Press

 
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Dix, Alan J., Ramduny-Ellis, D., Rayson, P., Onditi, V., Sommerville, Ian and Mackenzie, A. (2003): Finding Decisions Through Artefacts. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 78-82.

 
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Dix, Alan J. and Marshall, J. (2003): At the Right Time: when to sort web history and bookmarks. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 758-762.

 
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Dix, Alan J., Chisalita, C. and Veer, Gerrit van der (2003): Moments of Significance - the meanings of event: enablement, initiation, completion. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 1519-1523.

 
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Borntrger, Christian, Cheverst, Keith, Davies, Nigel, Dix, Alan J., Friday, Adrian and Seitz, Jochen (2003): Experiments with Multi-modal Interfaces in a Context-Aware City Guide. In: Chittaro, Luca (ed.) Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - 5th International Symposium - Mobile HCI 2003 September 8-11, 2003, Udine, Italy. pp. 116-130.

 
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Cheverst, Keith, Dix, Alan J., Fitton, Dan, Friday, Adrian and Rouncefield, Mark (2003): Exploring the Utility of Remote Messaging and Situated Office Door Displays. In: Chittaro, Luca (ed.) Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - 5th International Symposium - Mobile HCI 2003 September 8-11, 2003, Udine, Italy. pp. 336-341.

 
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Rayson, Paul, Sharp, Bernadette, Alderson, Albert, Cartmell, John, Chibelushi, Caroline, Clarke, Rodney J., Dix, Alan J., Onditi, Victor, Quek, Amanda, Ramduny, Devina, Salter, Andy, Shah, Hanifa, Sommerville, Ian and Windridge, Philip C. (2003): Tracker: A Framework to Support Reducing Rework Through Decision Management. In: ICEIS 2003 2003. pp. 344-351.

2002
 
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Ramduny, D. and Dix, Alan J. (2002): Impedance Matching: When You Need to Know What. In: Faulkner, Xristine, Finlay, Janet and Détienne, Françoise (eds.) Proceedings of the HCI02 Conference on People and Computers XVI September 18-20, 2002, Pisa, Italy. pp. 121-138.

 
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Ellis, Geoffrey and Dix, Alan J. (2002): Density Control Through Random Sampling: an Architectural Perspective. In: IV 2002 2002. pp. 82-.

 
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Dix, Alan J. (2002): Towards a Ubiquitous Semantics of Interaction: Phenomenology, Scenarios, and Traces. In: Forbrig, Peter, Limbourg, Quentin, Urban, Bodo and Vanderdonckt, Jean M. (eds.) DSV-IS 2002 - Interactive Systems. Design, Specification, and Verification, 9th International Workshop June 12-14, 2002, Rostock, Germany. pp. 238-252.

2001
 
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Clarke, Dave and Dix, Alan J. (2001): Editorial: Interfaces for the Active Web. In Interacting with Computers, 13 (3) pp. 323-324.

 
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Clarke, Dave and Dix, Alan J. (2001): Editorial: Interfaces for the Active Web (Part 2). In Interacting with Computers, 13 (6) pp. 627-629.

2000
 
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Dix, Alan J., Rodden, Tom, Davies, Nigel, Trevor, Jonathan, Friday, Adrian and Palfreyman, Kevin (2000): Exploiting Space and Location as a Design Framework for Interactive Mobile Systems. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7 (3) pp. 285-321.

This article considers the importance of context in mobile systems. It considers a range of context-related issues and focus on location as a key issue for mobile systems. A design framework is described consisting of taxonomies of location, mobility, population, and device awareness. The design framework informs the construction of a semantic model of space for mobile systems. The semantic model is reflected in a computational model built on a distributed platform that allows contextual information to be shared across a number of mobile devices. The framework support the design of interactive mobile systems while the platform supports their rapid development.

© All rights reserved Dix et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapters:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Dix, Alan J., Ramduny, Devina, Rodden, Tom and Davies, Nigel (2000): Places to Stay on the Move: Software Architectures for Mobile User Interfaces. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 4 (2) .

 
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Dix, Alan J., Beale, Russell and Wood, Andy (2000): Architectures to make Simple Visualisations using Simple Systems. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 2000 2000. pp. 51-60.

1999
 
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Dix, Alan J. (1999): HCI Education -- People and Stories, Diversity and Intolerance. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 31 (4) pp. 5-6.

 
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Dix, Alan J. and Clarke, David (1999): The Active Web. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 31 (4) pp. 55-60.

 
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Fitzpatrick, Ronan and Dix, Alan J. (1999): A Process for Appraising Commercial Usability Evaluation Methods. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg (ed.) HCI International 1999 - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 22-26, 1999, Munich, Germany. pp. 1068-1072.

1998
 
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Dix, Alan J., Finlay, Janet E., Abowd, Gregory D. and Beale, Russell (1998): Human-Computer Interaction (2nd Edition). Prentice Hall

 
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Ramduny, Devina, Dix, Alan J. and Rodden, Tom (1998): Exploring the Design Space for Notification Servers. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 227-235.

Issues of notification and awareness have become increasingly important in CSCW. Notification servers provide a notable mechanism to maintain shared state information of any synchronous or asynchronous groupware system. A taxonomy of the design space for notification servers is presented, based on theoretical results from status-event analysis. This generates a framework and vocabulary to compare and discuss different notification mechanisms to improve design. The paper shows that notification servers are often ideally placed to support impedance matching to give an appropriate pace of feedthrough to the user by allowing them to see changes to shared objects in a timely manner.

© All rights reserved Ramduny et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dix, Alan J., Fabre, John and Howard, Steve (1998): Introduction to the Special Issue on Temporal Aspects of Usability. In Interacting with Computers, 11 (1) pp. 1-7.

 
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Dix, Alan J., Ramduny, Devina and Wilkinson, Julie (1998): Interaction in the Large. In Interacting with Computers, 11 (1) pp. 9-32.

Most work in HCI focuses on interaction in the small: where tasks take a few minutes or hours and individual actions receive feedback within seconds. In contrast, many collaborative activities occur over weeks or months and the turnaround of individual messages may take hours, days or even weeks. This slow pace of interaction brings its own problems, especially when expected responses do not occur. This paper analyses these problems, focusing on the triggers which initiate activities and the way processes recover when triggers are missed or misinterpreted. Furthermore, we are able to consider processes which cross organisational boundaries. We draw on theoretical analysis, an exploratory case study of conference organisation and recent application of the techniques to a student placement office. During the studies, a pattern of recurrent activities was discovered, the 4Rs (request, receipt, response and release), which we believe to be generic to this class of collaborative process.

© All rights reserved Dix et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Dix, Alan J. (1998): Time and the Web. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 30 (1) pp. 30-33.

 
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Dix, Alan J., Finlay, Janet E., Abowd, Gregory D. and Beale, Russell (1998): Human-Computer Interaction. Prentice Hall

 
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Dix, Alan J. and Ellis, Geoffrey (1998): Starting simple: adding value to static visualisation through simple interaction. In: Catarci, Tiziana, Costabile, Maria Francesca, Santucci, Giuseppe and Tarantino, Laura (eds.) AVI 1998 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 24 - 27, 1998, LAquila, Italy. pp. 124-134.

1997
 
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Dix, Alan J., Mancini, Roberta and Levialdi, Stefano (1997): Communication, Action and History. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 542-543.

At the opening Plenary of CHI 96, Herbert Clark challenged human-computer interface design to emulate some of the graceful repair found in face-to-face conversation. However, the dominant paradigm in recent user-interface design has been one of action, not communication -- direct manipulation, not commands. In day-to-day life we find the transition between the worlds of action and communication problematic, so it is not surprising that we experience similar problems in the computer world. Nowhere is this transition more marked than when using undo -- we are forced to think about what we have just done -- breakdown.

© All rights reserved Dix et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dix, Alan J. (1997): Challenges for Cooperative Work on the Web: An Analytical Approach. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 6 (2) pp. 135-156.

This paper investigates some of the issues which will determine the viability of the World Wide Web as an infrastructure for cooperative work. In fact, taking a weak definition of collaboration, the Web is already a very successful collaborative environment. In addition, it is already being used as the basis for experimental and commercial groupware. The paper takes this as a starting point and uses analytic methods developed in the field of Computer Supported Cooperative Work to investigate the reasons for the Web's present success, its strengths and weaknesses as a platform for CSCW, and prospects for future development.

© All rights reserved Dix and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Ramduny, Devina and Dix, Alan J. (1997): Why, What, Where, When: Architectures for Cooperative Work on the World Wide Web. In: Thimbleby, Harold, O'Conaill, Brid and Thomas, Peter J. (eds.) Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XII August, 1997, Bristol, England, UK. pp. 283-301.

The software architecture of a cooperative user interface determines what component is placed where. This paper examines some reasons determining why a particular placement should be chosen. Temporal interface behaviour is a key issue: when users receive feedback from their own actions and feedthrough about the actions of others. In a distributed system, data and code may be moved to achieve the desired behaviour -- in particular, Java applets can be downloaded to give rapid local semantic feedback. Thus we must choose not only the physical location for each functional component but also when that component should reside in different places.

© All rights reserved Ramduny and Dix and/or Springer Verlag

 
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Dix, Alan J. and Modugno, Francesmary (1997): The CHI 96 Basic Research Symposium. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 29 (1) pp. 28-30.

 
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Dix, Alan J., Mancini, Roberta and Levialdi, Stefano (1997): The Cube - Extending Systems for Undo. In: In Proc. of DSVIS97 1997.

When a system is extended by adding undo, the original system behaviour should be preserved within the new extended system. In this paper a formal framework is established which considers the state of the system before and after the extension and captures the relationship between the layers in a structure we call conservative encapsulation or the cube. Alternative algebraic properties of undo and examples of two specific undo policies are formalised within this framework. The framework afforded by conservative encapsulation is not just suitable for undo, but can be used to study other forms of system extension such as history mechanisms.

© All rights reserved Dix et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
1996
 
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Dix, Alan J. and Abowd, Gregory D. (1996): Delays and Temporal Incoherence Due to Mediated Status-Status Mappings. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 28 (2) pp. 47-49.

The paper describes how the identification of 'status-status mappings' early in the specification and design of an interactive system can highlight potential temporal problems in the interface. These problems arise because without infinitely fast computation and communication, any constraints between status in the interface are bound to be violated some of the time. This violation will at best be a slight lag between the source of a change and its display and at worst may lead to inconsistency between parts of the interface. We identify the ways in which status-status mappings are violated and the way in which they are mediated by events in the implementation of a system. This enables the designer to control the eventual behaviour of the system and avoid the worst pitfalls.

© All rights reserved Dix and Abowd and/or ACM Press

 
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Dix, Alan J. (1996): Closing the loop: modelling action, perception and information. In: Catarci, Tiziana, Costabile, Maria Francesca, Levialdi, Stefano and Santucci, Giuseppe (eds.) AVI 1996 - Proceedings of the workshop on Advanced visual interfaces May 27-29, 1996, Gubbio, Italy. pp. 20-28.

1995
 
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Kirby, M. A. R., Dix, Alan J. and Finlay, Janet E. (eds.) Proceedings of the Tenth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers X August, 1995, Huddersfield, UK.

 
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Dix, Alan J. (1995): Moving between Contexts. In: Palanque, Philippe A. and Bastide, Remi (eds.) DSV-IS 1995 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems 95, Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop June 7-9, 1995, Toulouse, France. pp. 149-173.

1994
 
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Dix, Alan J. (1994): Que Sera Sera -- The Problem of the Future Perfect in Open and Cooperative Systems. In: Cockton, Gilbert, Draper, Steven and Weir, George R. S. (eds.) Proceedings of the Ninth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers IX August 23-26, 1994, Glasgow, Scotland, UK. pp. 397-408.

When the pace of interaction with a task is too slow, the user's execution/evaluation loop is broken. Feedback normally says what has happened. However, when the task is slow, nothing has happened yet -- the interest shifts to what will have happened. This poses two problems for the user. Firstly, recalling the appropriate context when a response eventually arrives. Secondly, maintaining the expectation that the response will come and when, so that appropriate action can be taken if it fails to materialise. The design question is how to support these activities, of which the latter has received little emphasis to date.

© All rights reserved Dix and/or Cambridge University Press

 
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Finlay, Janet E. and Dix, Alan J. (1994): Pattern Recognition in HCI: A Viable Approach?. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 26 (4) pp. 23-27.

 
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Dix, Alan J. (1994): LADA - a logic for the Analysis of Distributed Actions. In: Paterno, Fabio (ed.) DSV-IS 1994 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems94, Proceedings of the First International Eurographics Workshop June 8-10, 1994, Bocca di Magra, Italy. pp. 317-332.

1993
 
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McCarthy, John C., Miles, Victoria C., Monk, Andrew, Harrison, Michael, Dix, Alan J. and Wright, Peter C. (1993): Text-Based On-Line Conferencing: A Conceptual and Empirical Analysis Using a Minimal Prototype. In Human-Computer Interaction, 8 (2) pp. 147-183.

This article is concerned with an analysis of the requirements for text-based on-line conferencing. From a system perspective, text-based on-line conferencing can be viewed as either message passing or data sharing. These complementary views give rise to different design dimensions. For example, the message-passing view is concerned with granularity, channels, message labels, and so on. The data-sharing view is concerned with the access different individuals have to the text: read only, appending, editing, pointing, and so on. A deliberately sparse prototype was built and placed in this design space. This minimal prototype has limited functionality so that the real problems experienced by users can show through. Relevant literature from disciplines such as social psychology, conversational analysis, and linguistics is briefly reviewed in terms of three generic communication tasks: synchronizing communication, maintaining structural coherence, and maintaining referents. An empirical analysis of subjects' use of the sparse prototype was analyzed to establish the relevance of the generic communication tasks to text-based on-line conferencing. Possible forms that support for these tasks might take are discussed.

© All rights reserved McCarthy et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Dix, Alan J., Finlay, Janet E., Abowd, Gregory D. and Beale, Russell (1993): Human-Computer Interaction. Prentice Hall

1992
 
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Dix, Alan J. (1992): Pace and Interaction. In: Monk, Andrew, Diaper, Dan and Harrison, Michael D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VII August 15-18, 1992, University of York, UK. pp. 193-207.

Channels of communication are presented as an emergent property of cooperative work. During actual interaction channels of communication are typically used in an intermittent fashion. Thus bandwidth is not an appropriate measure. Instead pace, the measure of the rate at which individual communications occur through a channel, is proposed as a primary property. We can relate this to the pace of interaction between participants, and to the pace of the common task. Any mismatch of pace will result either in the participants being forced to adopt coping strategies or in the worst case a complete breakdown in the cooperative work.

© All rights reserved Dix and/or Cambridge University Press

 
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Dix, Alan J., Finlay, Janet E. and Beale, Russell (1992): Analysis of User Behaviour as Time Series. In: Monk, Andrew, Diaper, Dan and Harrison, Michael D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VII August 15-18, 1992, University of York, UK. pp. 429-444.

The trace of user interactions with a system is the primary source of data for on-line user modelling and for many design and research experiments. This trace should really be analysed as a time series, but standard time series techniques do not deal well with discrete data and fuzzy matching. Techniques from machine learning (neural nets and inductive learning) have been applied to this analysis but these are limited to fixed size patterns and fail to deal properly with the trace as a time series. Many of the notations used to describe the system dialogue (e.g. CSP, production systems) and the user's behaviour (e.g. GOMS, grammars) can be regarded as describing non-deterministic finite state machines. Such a representation forms a key to using machine learning techniques, focussed on the state transitions.

© All rights reserved Dix et al. and/or Cambridge University Press

 
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Abowd, Gregory D. and Dix, Alan J. (1992): Giving Undo Attention. In Interacting with Computers, 4 (3) pp. 317-342.

The problems associated with the provision of an undo support facility in the context of a synchronous shared or group editor are investigated. Previous work on the development of formal models of 'undo' has been restricted to single user systems and has focused on the functionality of undo, as opposed to discussing the support that users require from any error recovery facility. Motivated by new issues that arise in the context of computer supported co-operative work, the authors aim to integrate formal modelling of undo with an analysis of how users understand undo facilities. Together, these combined perspectives of the system and user lead to concrete design advice for implementing an undo facility. The special issues that arise in the context of shared undo also shed light on the emphasis that should be placed on single user undo. In particular, the authors regard undo not as a system command to be implemented, but as a user intention to be supported by the system.

© All rights reserved Abowd and Dix and/or Elsevier Science

 Cited in the following chapter:

Interaction Design Patterns: [/encyclopedia/interaction_design_patterns.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Interaction Design Patterns: [/encyclopedia/interaction_design_patterns.html]


 
1991
 
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McCarthy, John C., Miles, Victoria C., Monk, Andrew, Harrison, Michael D., Dix, Alan J. and Wright, Peter C. (1991): Four Generic Communication Tasks which Must be Supported in Electronic Conferencing. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (1) pp. 41-43.

In this paper we describe and discuss the design implications of four Generic Communication Tasks which must be supported in electronic conferencing.

© All rights reserved McCarthy et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dix, Alan J. (1991): Formal Methods For Interactive Systems. Academic Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
1990
 
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Dix, Alan J. (1990): Information Processing, Context and Privacy. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 15-20.

This paper is about an old concept, data processing, but one that has taken on new meaning with the increasing complexity and interconnection of systems and the burgeoning of expert systems and connectionism. Classical information theory has been found to be inadequate even in the relatively formal context of security, but this inadequacy is intensified when we consider more human issues like privacy. Further, writers like Suchman and Winograd&Flores emphasise context in understanding communication and information. Relating these issues to a simple information life-cycle, this paper questions how we can retain an understanding of human issues when interacting with such complex systems.

© All rights reserved Dix and/or North-Holland

 
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Dix, Alan J. (1990): Non-determinism as a paradigm for understanding the user interface. In: Harrison, Michael D. and Thimbleby, Harold (eds.). "Formal Methods in Human-Computer Interaction (Cambridge Series on Human-Computer Interaction)". Cambridge University Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
1989
 
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Dix, Alan J. and Harrison, Michael D. (1989): Interactive systems design and formal development are incompatible?. In: McDermid, John A. (ed.). "The Theory and Practice of Refinement: Approaches to the Formal Development of Large-Scale Software Systems". Butterworth-Heinemannpp. 12-26

 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
1988
 
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Dix, Alan J. (1988): Abstract, Generic Models of Interactive Systems. In: Jones, Dylan M. and Winder, R. (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers IV August 5-9, 1988, University of Manchester, UK. pp. 63-77.

For several years at York, we have been investigating the use of abstract models in the design of interactive systems. I will describe why we originally pursued this line and the benefits that have ensued. I will only briefly describe specific models as examples where appropriate. There is an underlying assumption that formal methods are being used during the software design process, but the analysis proves useful even when this is not the case.

© All rights reserved Dix and/or Cambridge University Press

 
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Monk, Andrew, Walsh, Paul and Dix, Alan J. (1988): A Comparison of Hypertext, Scrolling and Folding as Mechanisms for Program Browsing. In: Jones, Dylan M. and Winder, R. (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers IV August 5-9, 1988, University of Manchester, UK. pp. 421-435.

Hypertext removes some of the constraints of conventional linear text by providing mechanisms for physically realizing the conceptual links between related sections of material. This research examines the use of a hypertext browser with a literate program. A literate program has a sequential structure, in that it is divided into sections presented in a particular order, and a hierarchical structure, in that some sections 'use' other sections. Two experiments are described which compare the performance of users browsing the same program presented either as a linear or hypertext structure. In Experiment 1 one group used a hypertext browser the other two scrolling and folding browsers. The hypertext browser is shown to be inferior to the scrolling browser under these particular circumstances. In a second experiment two further groups of users were tested, one of which was provided with an overview of the hypertext structure. This manipulation removed the disadvantage demonstrated in Experiment 1. It is concluded that while hypertext presents many new opportunities to the interface designer, it also raises new problems. In particular, the importance of providing an overview or map of the hypertext structure is demonstrated.

© All rights reserved Monk et al. and/or Cambridge University Press

1987
 
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Monk, Andrew and Dix, Alan J. (1987): Refining Early Design Decisions with a Black-Box Model. In: Carroll, John M. and Tanner, Peter P. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 87 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Canada. pp. 147-158.

A procedure is described by which the potential usability of a user interface may be evaluated at the earliest stages of product design. It allows the designer to find points in the interface where the principles of "predictability", "simplicity", "consistency" and "reversibility" are violated. The procedure uses a semi-formal notation based on Dix and Runciman's (1985) PIE model. This is used to generate a black-box model of the device in terms of action-effect rules which could be communicated to a user. The approach is illustrated by applying it to an existing editor where it shows up a variety of potential problems for users and how they might be avoided. The relationship between action-effect rules and task-action rules is also discussed.

© All rights reserved Monk and and/or ACM Press

 
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Dix, Alan J. (1987): The Myth of the Infinitely Fast Machine. In: Carroll, John M. and Tanner, Peter P. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 87 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Canada. pp. 215-228.

Frequently only steady state functionality is considered when specifying and documenting interactive systems, the lag between user's commands and the system's response is ignored. Various compromises are used when implementing these systems in order to approximate the ideal of an infinitely fast machine in the real situation. Unfortunately, in this process, properties such as "what you see is what you have got" may be lost. Such problems are especially bad when applications are embedded in surrounding systems. This paper addresses these problems with the aid of a simple formal model which clarifies typical system behaviour and describes what information is required by the user. The appearance of such information is discussed, critically analysing existing techniques (e.g. wait cursors) and proposing novel ones (e.g. munchman buffers), and the demands that such techniques put on the surrounding systems are examined.

© All rights reserved Dix and/or ACM Press

 
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Dix, Alan J. (1987): Giving Control Back to the User. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 377-382.

Interactive systems inevitably reflect the structures of the language in which they are written. Imperative programs gave a pre-determined thread of control and the resulting dialogues are often over-determined, in the sense that they do not allow users to structure the dialogue in ways natural to them. Functional languages potentially have a freer choice of control flow. Techniques are proposed whereby these choices are reflected in the resulting dialogues. This will lead to interfaces where the user exercises more control over the dialogue. The aim is to make the user's choices in the dialogue correspond to the choice of evaluation order of the functional program, leading to a structural correspondence between the two. To achieve this various additions and constraints are needed, input-output primitives are treated as non-deterministic functions and the choice of a lazy evaluation strategy means that the only sequencing between these primitives arises from the essential data dependencies. Where additional sequencing is required, it must be added explicitly using special results returned from each primitive called completion events. These are also used to provide real time support for waits, time-outs etc. These techniques are demonstrated using various examples from information systems. By making designers explicitly introduce any non-essential sequencing, they are encouraged to produce systems that more faithfully reflect the freedom of sequence offered by such techniques as forms-oriented input-output and multi-windowing, thus giving control back to the user.

© All rights reserved Dix and/or North-Holland

 
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Dix, Alan J. and Harrison, Michael D. (1987): Formalising Models of Interaction in the Design of a Display Editor. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 409-414.

Many of the conceptual properties often suggested to be valuable of text editors are either device specific or vague and ill-defined. This paper describes how formal interaction models may be used to increase the precision of these concepts with less dependence on implementation. An interaction model simply distinguishing display and state is introduced as a basis for the description of display editors. This model is then refined, first to incorporate notions of direct manipulation and then to model properties of pointers and boundaries (for use in cut and paste for example). In each case principles are formulated and related to previous work in the area.

© All rights reserved Dix and Harrison and/or North-Holland

 
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Monk, Andrew and Dix, Alan J. (1987): Refining Early Design Decisions with a Black-Box Model.. In: Diaper, Dan and Winder, Russel (eds.) Proceedings of the Third Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers III August 7-11, 1987, University of Exeter, UK. pp. 147-158.

A procedure is described by which the potential usability of a user interface may be evaluated at the earliest stages of product design. It allows the designer to find points in the interface where the principles of "predictability", "simplicity", "consistency" and "reversibility" are violated. The procedure uses a semi-formal notation based on Dix and Runciman's (1985) PIE model. This is used to generate a black-box model of the device in terms of action-effect rules which could be communicated to a user. The approach is illustrated by applying it to an existing editor where it shows up a variety of potential problems for users and how they might be avoided. The relationship between action-effect rules and task-action rules is also discussed.

© All rights reserved Monk and Dix and/or Cambridge University Press

 
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Dix, Alan J. (1987): The Myth of the Infinitely Fast Machine.. In: Diaper, Dan and Winder, Russel (eds.) Proceedings of the Third Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers III August 7-11, 1987, University of Exeter, UK. pp. 215-228.

Frequently only steady state functionality is considered when specifying and documenting interactive systems, the lag between user's commands and the system's response is ignored. Various compromises are used when implementing these systems in order to approximate the ideal of an infinitely fast machine in the real situation. Unfortunately, in this process, properties such as "what you see is what you have got" may be lost. Such problems are especially bad when applications are embedded in surrounding systems. This paper addresses these problems with the aid of a simple formal model which clarifies typical system behaviour and describes what information is required by the user. The appearance of such information is discussed, critically analysing existing techniques (e.g. wait cursors) and proposing novel ones (e.g. munchman buffers), and the demands that such techniques put on the surrounding systems are examined.

© All rights reserved Dix and/or Cambridge University Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
1986
 
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Dix, Alan J. and Harrison, Michael D. (1986): Principles and Interaction Models for Window Managers. In: Harrison, Michael D. and Monk, Andrew (eds.) Proceedings of the Second Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers II August 23-26, 1986, University of York, UK. pp. 352-366.

Formal methods have been used to develop a prototype interactive editing system, in which different edits are viewed through separate windows. Designing the prototype has involved the development of a simple window management system. The design of the window manager was achieved with the assistance of an initial description using an abstract model of interaction. We argue that abstract interaction models clarify certain design issues. We discuss more complex properties of windowing systems including separability, sharing and interference. We formulate some simple generative user-engineering principles to support these properties.

© All rights reserved Dix and Harrison and/or Cambridge University Press

1985
 
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Dix, Alan J. and Runciman, Colin (1985): Abstract Models of Interactive Systems. In: Johnson, Peter and Cook, Stephen (eds.) Proceedings of the Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers I August 17-20, 1985, University of East Anglia. pp. 13-22.

We propose an abstract model for a large class of interactive systems. In these systems the user provides a sequence of commands that determines both a corresponding sequence of displays and a net effect or result. Editors, for example, usually fit this model. We show how our model can be used to address issues such as display laws, error correction, exception handling and command types. We give some formal statements of design principles, and also discover ways in which these interact or even conflict. Such results are of value whether or not a formal development method is used.

© All rights reserved Dix and Runciman and/or Cambridge University Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 

Dix, Alan J. (2013): Formal Methods. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html

 
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