Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology


 
Time and place:
Snowbird, Utah, United States
October 03 - 05, 1990
Editors:
Hudson, Scott E.
Conf. description:
UIST is the premier forum for innovations in developing human-computer interfaces. The symposium brings together user-interface researchers and practitioners with an interest in techniques, tools, and technology for constructing high-quality, innovative user interfaces.
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Series:
ISBN:
0897914104
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References from this conference (1990)

The following articles are from "Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology":

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Articles

p. 1-9

Szekely, Pedro (1990): Template-Based Mapping of Application Data to Interactive Displays. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 1-9.

This paper describes a template-based method for constructing interactive displays with the building-blocks (widgets) provided in a user interface toolkit. Templates specify how to break down complex application objects into smaller pieces, specify the graphical components (widgets) to be used for displaying each piece, and specify their layout. Complex interfaces are constructed by recursively applying templates, thus constructing a tree of widgets to display a complex application object. The template-based method is more general than the interactive, WYSIWYG interface builders in that it can specify dynamic displays for application data that changes at run time. The template-based method also leas to more consistent, extendible and modifiable interfaces.

© All rights reserved Szekely and/or ACM Press

p. 10-20

Kim, Won Chul and Foley, James D. (1990): DON: User Interface Presentation Design Assistant. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 10-20.

We describe a design tool, DON, which assists user interface designers in generating menu and dialog box presentations. An integrated knowledge base model serves as the foundation for developing the set of design rules to automate various activities of the design process. Useful and reusable knowledge about the organization of menus and dialog boxes is identified and encapsulated in the form of design rules. The basic approach we take is embedding a top-down design methodology in a tool that assists designers in organizing the information, selecting appropriate interface object classes and their attributes, and placing selected interface objects in a dialog box or a menu in a meaningful, logical, and consistent manner. We let the designer specify the conceptual design of an application, maintain high-level style preference profiles, customize the appearances of interface object classes which make up an interface presentation, and control the priority of organization rules. The tool then automatically generates the user interface presentation.

© All rights reserved Kim and Foley and/or ACM Press

p. 102-107

Olsen Jr, Dan R. and Allan, Kirk (1990): Creating Interactive Techniques by Symbolically Solving Geometric Constraints. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 102-107.

The Geometric Interactive Technique Solver (GITS) is described. New interactive techniques are created by drawing them and then placing constraints on the drawing's geometry. The semantic interface is defined by parameters of the techniques which are also related to the geometry by constraints. A designer can define interactive methods for a technique, for which GITS will generate symbolic constraint solutions. Code is generated from the constraint solutions to provide an implementation of the interactive technique. The constraint solving and code generation algorithms are discussed.

© All rights reserved Olsen Jr and Allan and/or ACM Press

p. 108-111

Rosenberg, Jarrett, Asente, Paul, Linton, Mark A. and Palay, Andrew (1990): X Toolkits: the Lessons Learned. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 108-111.

p. 112-122

Henry, Tyson R., Hudson, Scott E. and Newell, Gary L. (1990): Integrating Gesture and Snapping into a User Interface Toolkit. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 112-122.

This paper describes Artkit -- the Arizona Retargetable Toolkit -- an extensible object-oriented user interface toolkit. Artkit provides an extensible input model which is designed to support a wider range of interaction techniques than conventional user interface toolkits. In particular the system supports the implementation of interaction objects using dragging, snapping (or gravity fields), and gesture (or handwriting) inputs. Because these techniques are supported directly by the toolkit it is also possible to create interactions that mix these techniques within a single interface or even a single interactor object.

© All rights reserved Henry et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 123-134

Pausch, Randy and Williams, Ronald D. (1990): Tailor: Creating Custom User Interfaces Based on Gesture. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 123-134.

Physical controls for most devices are either "one size fits all" or require custom hardware for each user. Cost often prohibits custom design, and each user must adapt to the standard device interface, typically with a loss of precision and efficiency. When user abilities vary widely, such as in the disabled community, devices often become unusable. Our goal is to create a system that will track user gestures and interpret them as control signals for devices. Existing gesture recognition research converts continuous body motion into discrete signals. Our approach is to map continuous motion into a set of analog device control signals. Our system will allow us to quickly tailor a device interface to each user's best physical range of motion. Our first application domain is a speech synthesizer for disabled users. We expect two major areas of applicability for non-disabled users: in telemanipulator interfaces, and as a design tool for creating biomechanically efficient interfaces.

© All rights reserved Pausch and Williams and/or ACM Press

p. 135-142

Bleser, Teresa and Sibert, John L. (1990): Toto: A Tool for Selecting Interaction Techniques. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 135-142.

The construction and maintenance of interactive user interfaces have been simplified by the development of a generation of software tools. The tools range from window managers, toolkits, and widget sets to user interface management systems and knowledge-based assistants. However, only a small number of the tools attempt to incorporate principles of good design. They offer no help with decisions regarding the variety of input devices and methods available. In this paper we briefly describe a methodology for interaction technique selection based on natural physical analogs of the application tools. Special emphasis is given to the physical characteristics of input devices and the pragmatics of their use. The methodology is incorporated in a software environment named Toto which includes knowledge acquired from a variety of disciplines such as: semiotics, ergonomics, and industrial design. Toto also incorporates a set of interactive tools for modifying the knowledge and for supporting the selection of natural interaction techniques. A two phased design process (matching followed by sequencing) is embedded in the Toto rule base. Examples of the use of Toto tools are provided to illustrate the design process.

© All rights reserved Bleser and and/or ACM Press

p. 143-151

Kockhar, Sandeep and Friedell, Mark (1990): User Control in Cooperative Computer-Aided Design. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 143-151.

We address one of the major problems in design automation systems based on the state-space search paradigm -- that of combinatorial explosion when design rules are applied in an uncontrolled, undirected manner. Our main hypothesis is that it is both necessary and desirable for the user to control in several ways the automatic generation of designs. Cooperative computer-aided design (CCAD) is an interaction paradigm for design automation that serves as a framework for applying techniques that abate the growth in number of automatically generated design alternatives. We describe in detail specific mechanisms providing user control over the generative phases of CCAD, and we demonstrate these techniques in the context of FLATS -- a prototype CCAD system for the design of small architectural floor plans.

© All rights reserved Kockhar and Friedell and/or ACM Press

p. 152-166

Sukaviriya, Piyawadee and Foley, James D. (1990): Coupling a UI Framework with Automatic Generation of Context-Sensitive Animated Help. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 152-166.

Animated help can assist users in understanding how to use computer application interfaces. An animated help facility integrated into a runtime user interface support tool requires information pertaining to user interfaces, the applications being supported, the relationships between interface and application and precise detailed information sufficient for accurate illustrations of interface components. This paper presents a knowledge model developed to support such an animated help facility. Continuing our research efforts towards automatic generation of user interfaces from specifications, a framework has been developed to utilize one knowledge model to automatically generate animated help at runtime and to assist the management of user interfaces. Cartoonist is a system implemented based on the framework. Without the help facility, Cartoonist functions as a knowledge-driven user interface. With the help facility added to Cartoonist's user interface architecture, we demonstrate how animation of user's actions can be simulated by superimposing animation on the actual interface. The animation sequences imitate user actions and Cartoonist's user interface dialogue controller responds to animation "inputs" exactly as if they were from a user. The user interface runtime information managed by Cartoonist is shared with the help facility to furnish animation scenarios and to vary scenarios to suit the current user context. The Animator and the UI controller are modeled so that the Animator incorporates what is essential to the animation task and the UI controller assumes responsibility of the rest of the interaction -- an approach which maintains consistency between help animation and the actual user interface.

© All rights reserved Sukaviriya and and/or ACM Press

p. 167-177

Singh, Gurminder, Kok, Chun Hong and Ngan, Teng Ye (1990): Druid: A System for Demonstrational Rapid User Interface Development. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 167-177.

The Druid user interface management system aims to help user interface designers create, modify, and maintain interactive, graphical, direct-manipulation user interfaces. Druid allows the creation of the complete user interface in highly interactive and demonstrational manner. In Druid, the designer creates the layout of the interface using interactive graphical facilities and demonstrates to the UIMS how the end-user might interact with the interface. From this demonstration, the UIMS determines the details of the interface and automatically produces an implementation of it.

© All rights reserved Singh et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 21-30

Wiecha, Charles and Boies, Stephen J. (1990): Generating User Interfaces: Principles and Use of ITS Style Rules. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 21-30.

p. 31-35

Jones, William P., Williams, Peter, Robertson, George G., Joloboff, Vania and Conner, Mike (1990): In Search of the Ideal Operating System for User Interfacing. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 31-35.

p. 36-46

Pittman, Jon H. and Kitrick, Christopher J. (1990): VUIMS: A Visual User Interface Management System. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 36-46.

VUIMS is an object-oriented user interface management system that was designed to support reconfigurable components. VUIMS consists of a collection of objects and a semantically rich token language. The objects implement primitive presentation and interaction functions. The token language controls interaction and visual style. High level objects can be created from primitive objects using token templates. The user interface and application are controlled by token streams that are emitted in response to user actions. VUIMS supports a variety of presentation and interaction styles through simple, robust manipulation of a hierarchy of visual panels with a rich set of relationships and constraints. VUIMS has been used to implement two commercial high performance computer graphics applications and an on-line help system. It has evolved over a three-year period and has proven to be an effective tool in commercial use.

© All rights reserved Pittman and Kitrick and/or ACM Press

p. 47-56

Douglas, Sarah A., Doerry, Eckehard and Novick, David G. (1990): QUICK: A User Interface Design Kit for Non-Programmers. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 47-56.

Interface design toolkits have proven useful, both for exploring conceptual issues in user interface design, and for constructing product quality interfaces for commercial applications. However, most such toolkits focus on a relatively low-level of abstraction, are oriented towards design of a limited set of "standard" interface types, and are intended for expert users. Our QUICK system explores the opposite pole. QUICK is a toolkit for the design of highly interactive direct manipulation interfaces oriented specifically towards non-programmers. The challenge we face in QUICK lies in maximizing the power and flexibility in an extremely simple environment. We explore the utility of direct manipulation, the object oriented paradigm and a structure editor in this context.

© All rights reserved Douglas et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 57-65

Dewan, Prasun (1990): A Tour of the Suite User Interface Software. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 57-65.

Suite offers several advanced interactive features missing from contemporary interactive systems including a generic direct manipulation user interface; a flexible input model offering benefits of both incremental and delayed feedback; customizable system-provided dialogue managers which relieve applications from managing their user interfaces; loose physical coupling between an application and its dialogue manager, that is, execution of these components in different address spaces, residing possibly on different hosts; interactive specification of customizable properties of user interfaces; and IS-A and IS-PART-OF inheritance to reduce the effort required to specify these properties. It complements recent work done in programming languages, databases, operating systems, and distributed systems. In this paper, we take the reader on a tour of the Suite user interface software, highlighting its distinguishing features.

© All rights reserved Dewan and/or ACM Press

p. 66-75

Blumenthal, Brad (1990): Strategies for Automatically Incorporating Metaphoric Attributes in Interface Designs. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 66-75.

p. 76-83

Feiner, Steven K. and Beshers, Clifford (1990): Worlds within Worlds: Metaphors for Exploring n-Dimensional Virtual Worlds. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 76-83.

n-Vision is a testbed for exploring n-dimensional worlds containing functions of an arbitrary number of variables. Although our interaction devices and display hardware are inherently 3D, we demonstrate how they can be used to support interaction with these higher-dimensional objects. We introduce a new interaction metaphor developed for the system, which we call "worlds within worlds": nested heterogeneous coordinate systems that allow the user to view and manipulate functions. Objects in our world may be explored with a set of tools. We describe an example n-Vision application in "financial visualization", where the functions are models of financial instruments.

© All rights reserved Feiner and and/or ACM Press

p. 84-91

Karrer, Anthony and Scacchi, Walt (1990): Requirements for an Extensible Object-Oriented Tree/Graph Editor. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 84-91.

Software engineers use graphs to represent many types of information. This paper describes a tool which is used to rapidly extend base classes to create graph editors as a user-interface to these information domains. This paper also presents requirements for extensible graph editors. These requirements establish a basis of comparison for extensible graph editors. An object-oriented programming language and an object-oriented user interface toolkit provide a great degree of flexibility for creating graph editors. Users create instances of a graph editor by specifying global and local functionality. Global functionality takes the form of graph layout algorithms, user interaction, and interaction with other tools. Local functionality is the description of the meaning and pictorial representation of nodes and arcs. As such, this paper describes a number of example graph editors that have been developed with these mechanisms which satisfy the requirements.

© All rights reserved Karrer and Scacchi and/or ACM Press

p. 92-101

Calder, Paul and Linton, Mark A. (1990): Glyphs: Flyweight Objects for User Interfaces. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 92-101.

Current user interface toolkits provide components that are complex and expensive. Programmers cannot use these components for many kinds of application data because the resulting implementation would be awkward and inefficient. We have defined a set of small, simple components, called glyphs, that programmers can use in large numbers to build user interfaces. To show that glyphs are simple and efficient, we have implemented a WYSIWYG document editor. The editor's performance is comparable to that of similar editors built with current tools, but its implementation is much simpler. We used the editor to create and print this paper.

© All rights reserved Calder and and/or ACM Press




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