Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology


 
Time and place:
Orlando, Florida
November 11 - 14, 2001
Editors:
Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D.
Conf. description:
UIST is the premier forum for innovations in developing human-computer interfaces. The symposium brings together user-interface researchers and practitioners with an interest in techniques, tools, and technology for constructing high-quality, innovative user interfaces.
Help us!
Do you know when the next conference is? If yes, please add it to the calendar!
Series:
This is a preferred venue for people like Scott E. Hudson, Ravin Balakrishnan, Brad A. Myers, Steven K. Feiner, and Takeo Igarashi. Part of the UIST - Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology conference series.
Other years:
ISBN:
158113438X
Publisher:
ACM Press
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References from this conference (2001)

The following articles are from "Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology":

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Articles

p. 1-10

Klemmer, Scott R., Newman, Mark W., Farrell, Ryan, Bilezikjian, Mark and Landay, James A. (2001): The designers' outpost: a tangible interface for collaborative web site. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 1-10. Available online

In our previous studies into web design, we found that pens, paper, walls, and tables were often used for explaining, developing, and communicating ideas during the early phases of design. These wall-scale paper-based design practices inspired The Designers' Outpost, a tangible user interface that combines the affordances of paper and large physical workspaces with the advantages of electronic media to support information design. With Outpost, users collaboratively author web site information architectures on an electronic whiteboard using physical media (Post-it notes and images), structuring and annotating that information with electronic pens. This interaction is enabled by a touch-sensitive SMART Board augmented with a robust computer vision system, employing a rear-mounted video camera for capturing movement and a front-mounted high-resolution camera for capturing ink. We conducted a participatory design study with fifteen professional web designers. The study validated that Outpost supports information architecture work practice, and led to our adding support for fluid transitions to other tools.

© All rights reserved Klemmer et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 101-110

Bell, Blaine A., Feiner, Steven K. and Hollerer, Tobias (2001): View management for virtual and augmented reality. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 101-110. Available online

We describe a view-management component for interactive 3D user interfaces. By view management, we mean maintaining visual constraints on the projections of objects on the view plane, such as locating related objects near each other, or preventing objects from occluding each other. Our view-management component accomplishes this by modifying selected object properties, including position, size, and transparency, which are tagged to indicate their constraints. For example, some objects may have geometric properties that are determined entirely by a physical simulation and which cannot be modified, while other objects may be annotations whose position and size are flexible. We introduce algorithms that use upright rectangular extents to represent on the view plane a dynamic and efficient approximation of the occupied space containing the projections of visible portions of 3D objects, as well as the unoccupied space in which objects can be placed to avoid occlusion. Layout decisions from previous frames are taken into account to reduce visual discontinuities. We present augmented reality and virtual reality examples to which we have applied our approach, including a dynamically labeled and annotated environment.

© All rights reserved Bell et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 11-20

Tandler, Peter, Prante, Thorsten, Muller-Tomfelde, Christian, Streitz, Norbert A. and Steinmetz, Ralf (2001): Connectables: dynamic coupling of displays for the flexible creation of shared workspaces. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 11-20. Available online

We present the ConnecTable, a new mobile, networked and context-aware information appliance that provides affordances for pen-based individual and cooperative work as well as for the seamless transition between the two. In order to dynamically enlarge an interaction area for the purpose of shared use, a flexible coupling of displays has been realized that overcomes the restrictions of display sizes and borders. Two ConnecTable displays dynamically form a homogeneous display area when moved close to each other. The appropriate triggering signal comes from built-in sensors allowing users to temporally combine their individual displays to a larger shared one by a simple physical movement in space. Connected ConnecTables allow their users to work in parallel on an ad-hoc created shared workspace as well as exchanging information by simply shuffling objects from one display to the other. We discuss the user interface and related issues as well as the software architecture. We also present the physical realization of the ConnecTables.

© All rights reserved Tandler et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 111-120

MacKenzie, I. Scott, Kober, Hedy, Smith, Derek, Jones, Terry and Skepner, Eugene (2001): LetterWise: prefix-based disambiguation for mobile text input. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 111-120. Available online

A new technique to enter text using a mobile phone keypad is described. For text input, the traditional touchtone phone keypad is ambiguous because each key encodes three or four letters. Instead of using a stored dictionary to guess the intended word, our technique uses probabilities of letter sequences -- "prefixes" -- to guess the intended letter. Compared to dictionary-based methods, this technique, called LetterWise, takes significantly less memory and allows entry of non-dictionary words without switching to a special input mode. We conducted a longitudinal study to compare LetterWise to Multitap, the conventional text entry method for mobile phones. The experiment included 20 participants (10 LetterWise, 10 Multitap), and each entered phrases of text for 20 sessions of about 30 minutes each. Error rates were similar between the techniques; however, by the end of the experiment the mean entry speed was 36% faster with LetterWise than with Multitap.

© All rights reserved MacKenzie et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 121-130

Trevor, Jonathan, Hilbert, David M., Schilit, Bill N. and Koh, Tzu Khiau (2001): From desktop to phonetop: a UI for web interaction on very small devices. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 121-130. Available online

While it is generally accepted that new Internet terminals should leverage the installed base of Web content and services, the differences between desktop computers and very small devices makes this challenging. Indeed, the browser interaction model has evolved on desktop computers having a unique combination of user interface (large display, keyboard, pointing device), hardware, and networking capabilities. In contrast, Internet enabled cell phones, typically with 3-10 lines of text, sacrifice usability as Web terminals in favor of portability and other functions. Based on our earlier experiences building and using a Web browser for small devices we propose a new UI that splits apart the integrated activities of link following and reading into separate modes: navigating to; and acting on web content. This interaction technique for very small devices is both simpler for navigating and allows users to do more than just read. The M-Links system incorporates modal browsing interaction and addresses a number of associated problems. We have built our system with an emphasis on simplicity and user extensibility and describe the design, implementation and evolution of the user interface.

© All rights reserved Trevor et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 131-140

Olsen Jr, Dan R., Nielsen, S. Travis and Parslow, David (2001): Join and capture: a model for nomadic interaction. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 131-140. Available online

The XWeb architecture delivers interfaces to a wide variety of interactive platforms. XWeb's SUBSCRIBE mechanism allows multiple interactive clients to synchronize with each other. We define the concept of Join as the mechanism for acquiring access to a service's interface. Join also allows the formation of spontaneous collaborations with other people. We define the concept of Capture as the means for users to assemble suites of interactive resources to apply to a particular problem. These mechanisms allow users to access devices that they encounter in their environment rather than carrying all their devices with them. We describe two prototype implementations of Join and Capture. One uses a Java ring to carry a user's identification and to make connections. The other uses a set of cameras to watch where users are and what they touch. Lastly we present algorithms for resolving conflicts generated when independent interactive clients manipulate the same information.

© All rights reserved Olsen Jr et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 141-150

Fogarty, James, Forlizzi, Jodi and Hudson, Scott E. (2001): Aesthetic information collages: generating decorative displays that contain information. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 141-150. Available online

Normally, the primary purpose of an information display is to convey information. If information displays can be aesthetically interesting, that might be an added bonus. This paper considers an experiment in reversing this imperative. It describes the Kandinsky system which is designed to create displays which are first aesthetically interesting, and then as an added bonus, able to convey information. The Kandinsky system works on the basis of aesthetic properties specified by an artist (in a visual form). It then explores a space of collages composed from information bearing images, using an optimization technique to find compositions which best maintain the properties of the artist's aesthetic expression.

© All rights reserved Fogarty et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 151-152

Barrientos, Francesca and Canny, John (2001): Cursive: a novel interaction technique for controlling expressive avatar gesture. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 151-152. Available online

We are developing an interaction technique for rich nonverbal communication through an avatar. By writing a single letter on a pen tablet device, a user can express their ideas or intentions, non-verbally, using their avatar body. Our system solves the difficult problem of controlling the movements of a highly articulated, 3D avatar model using a common input device within the context of an office environment. We believe that writing is a richly expressive and natural means for controlling expressive avatar gesture.

© All rights reserved Barrientos and Canny and/or ACM Press

p. 153-154

Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2001): Novel interaction techniques for overlapping windows. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 153-154. Available online

This note presents several techniques to improve window management with overlapping windows: tabbed windows, turning and peeling back windows, and snapping and zipping windows.

© All rights reserved Beaudouin-Lafon and/or ACM Press

p. 155-156

Igarashi, Takeo and Hughes, John F. (2001): Voice as sound: using non-verbal voice input for interactive control. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 155-156. Available online

We describe the use of non-verbal features in voice for direct control of interactive applications. Traditional speech recognition interfaces are based on an indirect, conversational model. First the user gives a direction and then the system performs certain operation. Our goal is to achieve more direct, immediate interaction like using a button or joystick by using lower-level features of voice such as pitch and volume. We are developing several prototype interaction techniques based on this idea, such as "control by continuous voice", "rate-based parameter control by pitch," and "discrete parameter control by tonguing." We have implemented several prototype systems, and they suggest that voice-as-sound techniques can enhance traditional voice recognition approach.

© All rights reserved Igarashi and Hughes and/or ACM Press

p. 157-158

Kubo, Naoko, Jo, Kazuhiro and Matsunaga, Ken (2001): TSI (teething ring sound instrument): a design of the sound instrument for the baby. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 157-158. Available online

In this paper, we will describe the TSI (Teething ring Sound Instrument), a new sound instrument given to babies, which consists of a teething ring, a knob, an I-CubeX Digitizer [1] and a computer which processes MIDI messages. The TSI is designed to bring music experience to baby with the movement of the babies reflex sucking motion. We provided the TSI to a baby and observed her action to the TSI and her reaction to the generated sound. This experiment showed the high potential of the TSI.

© All rights reserved Kubo et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 159-160

Blankinship, Erik and Beckwith, Richard (2001): Tools for expressive text-to-speech markup. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 159-160. Available online

This paper describes handicapped accessible text-to-speech markup software developed for poetry and performance. Most text-to-speech software allows the user to select a voice, but provides no control over performance parameters such as rate, volume, and pitch. For users with vocal disabilities, the default "computer voice" is often dreaded since it provides no personalization. Evolving standards exist for text-to-speech markup (Sable, Java Speech Markup Language, Spoken Text Markup Language), but few tools exist for non-experts to modify documents using these prosody options [1, 5]. Furthermore, we could find fewer tools allowing for straightforward live performance using a synthesized voice [3]. Thus we created an easy to learn text-to-speech markup tool that requires little training to use.

© All rights reserved Blankinship and Beckwith and/or ACM Press

p. 161-162

Borchers, Jan O., Samminger, Wolfgang and Muhlhauser, Max (2001): Conducting a realistic electronic orchestra. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 161-162. Available online

Personal Orchestra is the first system to let users conduct an actual audio and video recording of an orchestra, using an infrared baton to control tempo, volume, and instrument sections. A gesture recognition algorithm interprets user input, and a novel high-fidelity playback algorithm renders audio and video data at variable speed without time-stretching artifacts. The system is installed as a public exhibit in the HOUSE OF MUSIC VIENNA.

© All rights reserved Borchers et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 163-172

Kovar, Lucas and Gleicher, Michael (2001): Simplicial families of drawings. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 163-172. Available online

In this paper we present a method for helping artists make artwork more accessible to casual users. We focus on the specific case of drawings, showing how a small number of drawings can be transformed into a richer object containing an entire family of similar drawings. This object is represented as a simplicial complex approximating a set of valid interpolations in configuration space. The artist does not interact directly with the simplicial complex. Instead, she guides its construction by answering a specially chosen set of yes/no questions. By combining the flexibility of a simplicial complex with direct human guidance, we are able to represent very general constraints on membership in a family. The constructed simplicial complex supports a variety of algorithms useful to an end user, including random sampling of the space of drawings, constrained interpolation between drawings, projection of another drawing into the family, and interactive exploration of the family.

© All rights reserved Kovar and Gleicher and/or ACM Press

p. 173-181

Igarashi, Takeo and Hughes, John F. (2001): A suggestive interface for 3D drawing. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 173-181. Available online

This paper introduces a new type of interface for 3D drawings that improves the usability of gestural interfaces and augments typical command-based modeling systems. In our suggestive interface, the user gives hints about a desired operation to the system by highlighting related geometric components in the scene. The system then infers possible operations based on the hints and presents the results of these operations as small thumbnails. The user completes the editing operation simply by clicking on the desired thumbnail. The hinting mechanism lets the user specify geometric relations among graphical components in the scene, and the multiple thumbnail suggestions make it possible to define many operations with relatively few distinct hint patterns. The suggestive interface system is implemented as a set of suggestion engines working in parallel, and is easily extended by adding customized engines. Our prototype 3D drawing system, Chateau, shows that a suggestive interface can effectively support construction of various 3D drawings.

© All rights reserved Igarashi and Hughes and/or ACM Press

p. 183-190

Partridge, Kurt, Dahlquist, Bradley, Veiseh, Alireza, Cain, Annie, Foreman, Ann, Goldberg, Joseph and Borriello, Gaetano (2001): Empirical measurements of intrabody communication performance under varied physical configurations. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 183-190. Available online

Intrabody communication (IBC) is a wireless communications technology that uses a person's body as the transmission medium for imperceptible electrical signals. Because communication is limited to the vicinity of a person's body, ambiguities arising from communication between personal devices and environmental devices when multiple people are present can, in theory, be solved simply. Intrabody communication also potentially allows data to be transferred when a person touches an IBC-enabled device. We have designed and constructed an intrabody communication system, modeled after Zimmerman's original design, and extended it to operate up to 38.4Kbps and to calculate signal strength. In this paper, we present quantitative measurements of data error rates and signal strength while varying hand distance to transceiver plate, electrode location on the body, touch plate size and shape, and several other factors. We find that plate size and shape have only minor effects, but that the distance to plate and the coupling mechanism significantly effect signal strength. We also find that portable devices, with poor ground coupling, suffer more significant signal attenuation. Our goal is to promote design guidelines for this technology and identify the best contexts for its effective deployment.

© All rights reserved Partridge et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 191-192

Hinckley, Ken and Horvitz, Eric (2001): Toward more sensitive mobile phones. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 191-192. Available online

Although cell phones are extremely useful, they can be annoying and distracting to owners and others nearby. We describe sensing techniques intended to help make mobile phones more polite and less distracting. For example, our phone's ringing quiets as soon as the user responds to an incoming call, and the ring mutes if the user glances at the caller ID and decides not to answer. We also eliminate the need to press a TALK button to answer an incoming call by recognizing if the user picks up the phone and listens to it.

© All rights reserved Hinckley and Horvitz and/or ACM Press

p. 193-194

Dietz, Paul H. and Yerazunis, William S. (2001): Real-time audio buffering for telephone applications. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 193-194. Available online

A system that uses an ear proximity sensor to actively manage periods of distraction during telephone conversations is described. We detect when the phone is removed from the ear, record any incoming audio, and play it back when the phone is returned to the ear. By dropping silent intervals and speeding up playback with a pitch-preserving algorithm, we quickly return to real-time without the loss of information. This real-time audio buffering technique also allows us to create a user-activated, lossless instant replay function.

© All rights reserved Dietz and Yerazunis and/or ACM Press

p. 195-196

Zeleznik, Robert, Miller, Timothy and Forsberg, Andrew (2001): Pop through mouse button interactions. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 195-196. Available online

We present a range of novel interactions enabled by a simple modification in the design of a computer mouse. By converting each mouse button to pop through tactile push-buttons, similar to the focus/shutter-release buttons used in many cameras, users can feel, and the computer can sense, two distinct "clicks" corresponding to pressing lightly and pressing firmly to pop through. Despite the prototypical status of our hardware and software implementations, our current pop through mouse interactions are compelling and warrant further investigation. In particular, we demonstrate that pop through buttons not only yield an additional button activation state that is composable with, or even preferable to, techniques such as double-clicking, but also can endow a qualitatively novel user experience when meaningfully and consistently applied. We propose a number of software guidelines that may provide a consistent, systemic benefit; for example, light pressure may invoke default interaction (short menu), and firm pressure may supply more detail (long menu).

© All rights reserved Zeleznik et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 197-198

Avrahami, Daniel, Hudson, Scott E., Moran, Thomas P. and Williams, Brian D. (2001): Guided gesture support in the paper PDA. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 197-198. Available online

Ordinary paper offers properties of readability, fluidity, flexibility, cost, and portability that current electronic devices are often hard pressed to match. In fact, a lofty goal for many interactive systems is to be "as easy to use as pencil and paper". However, the static nature of paper does not support a number of capabilities, such as search and hyperlinking that an electronic device can provide. The Paper PDA project explores ways in which hybrid paper electronic interfaces can bring some of the capabilities of the electronic medium to interactions occurring on real paper. Key to this effort is the invention of on-paper interaction techniques which retain the flexibility and fluidity of normal pen and paper, but which are structured enough to allow robust interpretation and processing in the digital world. This paper considers the design of a class of simple printed templates that allow users to make common marks in a fluid fashion, and allow additional gestures to be invented by the users to meet their needs, but at the same time encourages marks that are quite easy to recognize.

© All rights reserved Avrahami et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 199-208

Snibbe, Scott S., MacLean, Karon E., Shaw, Rob, Roderick, Jayne, Verplank, William and Scheeff, Mark (2001): Haptic techniques for media control. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 199-208. Available online

We introduce a set of techniques for haptically manipulating digital media such as video, audio, voicemail and computer graphics, utilizing virtual mediating dynamic models based on intuitive physical metaphors. For example, a video sequence can be modeled by linking its motion to a heavy spinning virtual wheel: the user browses by grasping a physical force-feedback knob and engaging the virtual wheel through a simulated clutch to spin or brake it, while feeling the passage of individual frames. These systems were implemented on a collection of single axis actuated displays (knobs and sliders), equipped with orthogonal force sensing to enhance their expressive potential. We demonstrate how continuous interaction through a haptically actuated device rather than discrete button and key presses can produce simple yet powerful tools that leverage physical intuition.

© All rights reserved Snibbe et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 209-218

Greenberg, Saul and Fitchett, Chester (2001): Phidgets: easy development of physical interfaces through physical widgets. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 209-218. Available online

Physical widgets or phidgets are to physical user interfaces what widgets are to graphical user interfaces. Similar to widgets, phidgets abstract and package input and output devices: they hide implementation and construction details, they expose functionality through a well-defined API, and they have an (optional) on-screen interactive interface for displaying and controlling device state. Unlike widgets, phidgets also require: a connection manager to track how devices appear on-line; a way to link a software phidget with its physical counterpart; and a simulation mode to allow the programmer to develop, debug and test a physical interface even when no physical device is present. Our evaluation shows that everyday programmers using phidgets can rapidly develop physical interfaces.

© All rights reserved Greenberg and Fitchett and/or ACM Press

p. 21-30

Guimbretiere, Francois, Stone, Maureen C. and Winograd, Terry (2001): Fluid interaction with high-resolution wall-size displays. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 21-30. Available online

This paper describes new interaction techniques for direct pen-based interaction on the Interactive Mural, a large (6'x3.5') high resolution (64 dpi) display. They have been tested in a digital brainstorming tool that has been used by groups of professional product designers. Our "interactive wall" metaphor for interaction has been guided by several goals: to support both free-hand sketching and high-resolution materials, such as images, 3D models and GUI application windows; to present a visual appearance that does not clutter the content with control devices; and to support fluid interaction, which minimizes the amount of attention demanded and interruption due to the mechanics of the interface. We have adapted and extended techniques that were developed for electronic whiteboards and generalized the use of the FlowMenu to execute a wide variety of actions in a single pen stroke, While these techniques were designed for a brainstorming tool, they are very general and can be used in a wide variety of application domains using interactive surfaces.

© All rights reserved Guimbretiere et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 219-226

Dietz, Paul and Leigh, Darren (2001): DiamondTouch: a multi-user touch technology. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 219-226. Available online

A technique for creating a touch-sensitive input device is proposed which allows multiple, simultaneous users to interact in an intuitive fashion. Touch location information is determined independently for each user, allowing each touch on a common surface to be associated with a particular user. The surface generates location dependent, modulated electric fields which are capacitively coupled through the users to receivers installed in the work environment. We describe the design of these systems and their applications. Finally, we present results we have obtained with a small prototype device.

© All rights reserved Dietz and Leigh and/or ACM Press

p. 31-40

Baudisch, Patrick, Good, Nathaniel and Stewart, Paul (2001): Focus plus context screens: combining display technology with visualization techniques. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 31-40. Available online

Computer users working with large visual documents, such as large layouts, blueprints, or maps perform tasks that require them to simultaneously access overview information while working on details. To avoid the need for zooming, users currently have to choose between using a sufficiently large screen or applying appropriate visualization techniques. Currently available hi-res "wall-size" screens, however, are cost-intensive, space-intensive, or both. Visualization techniques allow the user to more efficiently use the given screen space, but in exchange they either require the user to switch between multiple views or they introduce distortion. In this paper, we present a novel approach to simultaneously display focus and context information. Focus plus context screens consist of a hi-res display and a larger low-res display. Image content is displayed such that the scaling of the display content is preserved, while its resolution may vary according to which display region it is displayed in. Focus plus context screens are applicable to practically all tasks that currently use overviews or fisheye views, but unlike these visualization techniques, focus plus context screens provide a single, non-distorted view. We present a prototype that seamlessly integrates an LCD with a projection screen and demonstrate four applications that we have adapted so far.

© All rights reserved Baudisch et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 41-50

MacIntyre, Blair, Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Voida, Stephen, Hansen, Klaus Marius, Tullio, Joe and Corso, Gregory M. (2001): Support for multitasking and background awareness using interactive peripheral displays. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 41-50. Available online

In this paper, we describe Kimura, an augmented office environment to support common multitasking practices. Previous systems, such as Rooms, limit users by constraining the interaction to the desktop monitor. In Kimura, we leverage interactive projected peripheral displays to support the perusal, manipulation and awareness of background activities. Furthermore, each activity is represented by a montage comprised of images from current and past interaction on the desktop. These montages help remind the user of past actions, and serve as a springboard for ambient context-aware reminders and notifications.

© All rights reserved MacIntyre et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 51-60

Wittenburg, Kent, Lanning, Tom, Heinrichs, Michael and Stanton, Michael (2001): Parallel bargrams for consumer-based information exploration and choice. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 51-60. Available online

In this paper we introduce multidimensional visualization and interaction techniques that are an extension to related work in parallel histograms and dynamic querying. Bargrams are, in effect, histograms whose bars have been tipped over and lined up end-to-end. We discuss affordances of parallel bargrams in the context of systems that support consumer-based information exploration and choice based on the attributes of the items in the choice set. Our tool called EZChooser has enabled a number of prototypes in such domains as Internet shopping, investment decisions, college choice, and so on, and a limited version has been deployed for car shopping. Evaluations of the techniques include an experiment indicating that trained users prefer EZChooser over static tables for choice tasks among sets of 50 items with 7-9 attributes.

© All rights reserved Wittenburg et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 61-70

Carpendale, M. S. T. and Montagnese, Catherine (2001): A framework for unifying presentation space. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 61-70. Available online

Making effective use of the available display space has long been a fundamental issue in user interface design. We live in a time of rapid advances in available CPU power and memory. However, the common sizes of our computational display spaces have only minimally increased or in some cases, such as hand held devices, actually decreased. In addition, the size and scope of the information spaces we wish to explore are also expanding. Representing vast amounts of information on our relatively small screens has become increasingly problematic and has been associated with problems in navigation, interpretation and recognition. User interface research has proposed several differing presentation approaches to address these problems. These methods create displays that vary considerably, visually and algorithmically. We present a unified framework that provides a way of relating seemingly distinct methods, facilitating the inclusion of more than one presentation method in a single interface. Furthermore, it supports extrapolation between the presentation methods it describes. Of particular interest are the presentation possibilities that exist in the ranges between various distortion presentations, magnified insets and detail-in-context presentations, and between detail-in-context presentations and a full-zooming environment. This unified framework offers a geometric presentation library in which presentation variations are available independently of the mode of graphic representation. The intention is to promote the ease of exploration and experimentation into the use of varied presentation combinations.

© All rights reserved Carpendale and Montagnese and/or ACM Press

p. 71-80

Bederson, Benjamin B. (2001): PhotoMesa: a zoomable image browser using quantum treemaps and bubblemaps. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 71-80. Available online

PhotoMesa is a zoomable image browser that uses a novel treemap algorithm to present large numbers of images grouped by directory, or other available metadata. It uses a new interaction technique for zoomable user interfaces designed for novices and family use that makes it straightforward to navigate through the space of images, and impossible to get lost. PhotoMesa groups images using one of two new algorithms that lay out groups of objects in a 2D space-filling manner. Quantum treemaps are designed for laying out images or other objects of indivisible (quantum) size. They are a variation on existing treemap algorithms in that they guarantee that every generated rectangle will have a width and height that are an integral multiple of an input object size. Bubblemaps also fill space with groups of quantum-sized objects, but generate non-rectangular blobs, and utilize space more efficiently.

© All rights reserved Bederson and/or ACM Press

p. 81-90

Miller, Robert C. and Myers, Brad A. (2001): Outlier finding: focusing user attention on possible errors. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 81-90. Available online

When users handle large amounts of data, errors are hard to notice. Outlier finding is a new way to reduce errors by directing the user's attention to inconsistent data which may indicate errors. We have implemented an outlier finder for text, which can detect both unusual matches and unusual mismatches to a text pattern. When integrated into the user interface of a PBD text editor and tested in a user study, outlier finding substantially reduced errors.

© All rights reserved Miller and Myers and/or ACM Press

p. 91-100

Hosobe, Hiroshi (2001): A modular geometric constraint solver for user interface applications. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 91-100. Available online

Constraints have been playing an important role in the user interface field since its infancy. A prime use of constraints in this field is to automatically maintain geometric layouts of graphical objects. To facilitate the construction of constraint-based user interface applications, researchers have proposed various constraint satisfaction methods and constraint solvers. Most previous research has focused on either local propagation or linear constraints, excluding more general nonlinear ones. However, nonlinear geometric constraints are practically useful to various user interfaces, e.g., drawing editors and information visualization systems. In this paper, we propose a novel constraint solver called Chorus, which realizes various powerful nonlinear geometric constraints such as Euclidean geometric, non-overlapping, and graph layout constraints. A key feature of Chorus is its module mechanism that allows users to define new kinds of geometric constraints. Also, Chorus supports "soft" constraints with hierarchical strengths or preferences (i.e., constraint hierarchies). We describe its framework, algorithm, implementation, and experimental results.

© All rights reserved Hosobe and/or ACM Press




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